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 Trio of Infant Planets, the sextant et Gérard de Nerval.

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yanis la chouette



Nombre de messages : 9032
Localisation : http://yanis.tignard.free.fr/
Date d'inscription : 09/11/2005

MessageSujet: Trio of Infant Planets, the sextant et Gérard de Nerval.   Mer 20 Juin à 3:15

Navigating Space by the Stars...

A sextant is a tool for measuring the angular altitude of a star above the horizon and has helped guide sailors across oceans for centuries. It is now being tested aboard the International Space Station as a potential emergency navigation tool for guiding future spacecraft across the cosmos. The Sextant Navigation investigation will test the use of a hand-held sextant that utilizes star sighting in microgravity.

Read more about how we’re testing this tool in space!

Make sure to follow us on Tumblr for your regular dose of space: http://nasa.tumblr.com
NASA space science research technology sextant navigation stars neutron star pulsar exploration navigate space station microgravity star sighting international space station
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Jun 19th, 2018
More you might like
13 Reasons to Have an Out-of-This-World Friday (the 13th)

1. Not all of humanity is bound to the ground
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Since 2000, the International Space Station has been continuously occupied by humans. There, crew members live and work while conducting important research that benefits life on Earth and will even help us eventually travel to deep space destinations, like Mars.

2. We’re working to develop quieter supersonic aircraft that would allow you to travel from New York to Los Angeles in 2 hours
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We are working hard to make flight greener, safer and quieter – all while developing aircraft that travel faster, and building an aviation system that operates more efficiently. Seventy years after Chuck Yeager broke the sound barrier in the Bell X-1 aircraft, we’re continuing that supersonic X-plane legacy by working to create a quieter supersonic jet with an aim toward passenger flight.

3. The spacecraft, rockets and systems developed to send astronauts to low-Earth orbit as part of our Commercial Crew Program is also helping us get to Mars

Changes to the human body during long-duration spaceflight are significant challenges to solve ahead of a mission to Mars and back. The space station allows us to perform long duration missions without leaving Earth’s orbit.
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Although they are orbiting Earth, space station astronauts spend months at a time in near-zero gravity, which allows scientists to study several physiological changes and test potential solutions. The more time they spend in space, the more helpful the station crew members can be to those on Earth assembling the plans to go to Mars.

4. We’re launching a spacecraft in 2018 that will go “touch the Sun”
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In the summer of 2018, we’re launching Parker Solar Probe, a spacecraft that will get closer to the Sun than any other in human history. Parker Solar Probe will fly directly through the Sun’s atmosphere, called the corona. Getting better measurements of this region is key to understanding our Sun.

For instance, the Sun releases a constant outflow of solar material, called the solar wind. We think the corona is where this solar wind is accelerated out into the solar system, and Parker Solar Probe’s measurements should help us pinpoint how that happens.

5. You can digitally fly along with spacecraft…that are actually in space…in real-time!
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NASA’s Eyes are immersive, 3D simulations of real events, spacecraft locations and trajectories. Through this interactive app, you can experience Earth and our solar system, the universe and the spacecraft exploring them. Want to watch as our Juno spacecraft makes its next orbit around Juno? You can! Or relive all of the Voyager mission highlights in real-time? You can do that too! Download the free app HERE to start exploring.

6. When you feel far away from home, you can think of the New Horizons spacecraft as it heads toward the Kuiper Belt, and the Voyager spacecraft are beyond the influence of our sun…billions of miles away
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Our New Horizons spacecraft completed its Pluto flyby in July 2015 and has continued on its way toward the Kuiper Belt. The spacecraft continues to send back important data as it travels toward deeper space at more than 32,000 miles per hour, and is ~3.2 billion miles from Earth.
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In addition to New Horizons, our twin Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft are exploring where nothing from Earth has flown before. Continuing on their more-than-37-year journey since their 1977 launches, they are each much farther away from Earth and the sun than Pluto. In August 2012, Voyager 1 made the historic entry into interstellar space, the region between the stars, filled with material ejected by the death of nearby stars millions of years ago.

7. There are humans brave enough to not only travel in space, but venture outside space station to perform important repairs and updates during spacewalks
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Just this month (October 2017) we’ve already had two spacewalks on the International Space Station…with another scheduled on Oct. 20.

Spacewalks are important events where crew members repair, maintain and upgrade parts of the International Space Station. These activities can also be referred to as EVAs – Extravehicular Activities. Not only do spacewalks require an enormous amount of work to prepare for, but they are physically demanding on the astronauts. They are working in the vacuum of space in only their spacewalking suit.

8. Smart people are up all night working in control rooms all over NASA to ensure that data keeps flowing from our satellites and spacecraft
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Our satellites and spacecraft help scientists study Earth and space. Missions looking toward Earth provide information about clouds, oceans, land and ice. They also measure gases in the atmosphere, such as ozone and carbon dioxide and the amount of energy that Earth absorbs and emits. And satellites monitor wildfires, volcanoes and their smoke.

9. A lot of NASA-developed tech has been transferred for use to the public

Our Technology Transfer Program highlights technologies that were originally designed for our mission needs, but have since been introduced to the public market. HERE are a few spinoff technologies that you might not know about.

10. We have a spacecraft currently traveling to an asteroid to collect a sample and bring it back to Earth
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OSIRIS-REx is our first-ever mission that will travel to an asteroid and bring a sample of it back to Earth. Currently, the spacecraft is on its way to asteroid Bennu where it will survey and map the object before it “high-fives” the asteroid with its robotic arm to collect a sample, which it will send to Earth.

If everything goes according to plan, on Sept. 24, 2023, the capsule containing the asteroid sample will make a soft landing in the Utah desert.

11. There are Earth-sized planets outside our solar system that may be habitable

To date, we have confirmed 3,000+ exoplanets, which are planets outside our solar system that orbit a Sun-like star. Of these 3,000, some are in the habitable zone – where the temperature is just right for liquid water to exist on the surface.
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Recently, our Spitzer Space Telescope revealed the first known system of SEVEN Earth-size planets around a single star. Three of these plants are firmly in the habitable zone, and could have liquid water on the surface, which is key to life as we know it.

12. Earth looks like art from space
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In 1960, the United States put its first Earth-observing environmental satellite into orbit around the planet. Over the decades, these satellites have provided invaluable information, and the vantage point of space has provided new perspectives on Earth.
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The beauty of Earth is clear, and the artistry ranges from the surreal to the sublime.

13. We’re building a telescope that will be able to see the first stars ever formed in the universe
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Wouldn’t it be neat to see a period of the universe’s history that we’ve never seen before? That’s exactly what the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will be able to do…plus more!

Specifically, Webb will see the first objects that formed as the universe cooled down after the Big Bang. We don’t know exactly when the universe made the first stars and galaxies – or how for that matter. That is what we are building Webb to help answer.
Happy Friday the 13th! We hope it’s out-of-this-world!

Make sure to follow us on Tumblr for your regular dose of space: http://nasa.tumblr.com.
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SpaceX Sends Super Science to Space Station!

SpaceX is scheduled to launch its Dragon spacecraft PACKED with super cool research and technology to the International Space Station June 1 from Kennedy Space Center in Florida. New solar panels, investigations that study neutron stars and even fruit flies are on the cargo list. Let’s take a look at what other bits of science are making their way to the orbiting laboratory 250 miles above the Earth…
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New solar panels to test concept for more efficient power source

Solar panels generate power well, but they can be delicate and large when used to power a spacecraft or satellites. This technology demonstration is a solar panel concept that is lighter and stores more compactly for launch than the solar panels currently in use.
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Roll-Out Solar Array (ROSA) has solar cells on a flexible blanket and a framework that rolls out like a tape measure and snap into place, and could be used to power future space vehicles.

Investigation to Study Composition of Neutron Stars

Neutron stars, the glowing cinders left behind when massive stars explode as supernovas, contain exotic states of matter that are impossible to replicate in any lab. NICER studies the makeup of these stars, and could provide new insight into their nature and super weird behavior.
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Neutron stars emit X-ray radiation, enabling the NICER technology to observe and record information about its structure, dynamics and energetics.

Experiment to Study Effect of New Drug on Bone Loss

When people and animals spend lots of space, they experience bone density loss. In-flight exercise can prevent it from getting worse, but there isn’t a therapy on Earth or in space that can restore bone that is already lost.
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The Systemic Therapy of NELL-1 for osteoporosis (Rodent Research-5) investigation tests a new drug that can both rebuild bone and block further bone loss, improving health for crew members.

Research to Understand Cardiovascular Changes

Exposure to reduced gravity environments can result in cardiovascular changes such as fluid shifts, changes in total blood volume, heartbeat and heart rhythm irregularities, and diminished aerobic capacity.
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The Fruit Fly Lab-02 study will use the fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) to better understand the underlying mechanisms responsible for the adverse effects of prolonged exposure to microgravity on the heart. Fruit flies are effective model organisms, and we don’t mean on the fashion runway. Want to see how 1,000 bottles of fruit flies were prepared to go to space? Check THIS out.

Space Life-Support Investigation

Currently, the life-support systems aboard the space station require special equipment to separate liquids and gases. This technology utilizes rotating and moving parts that, if broken or otherwise compromised, could cause contamination aboard the station.
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The Capillary Structures investigation studies a new method of water recycling and carbon dioxide removal using structures designed in specific shapes to manage fluid and gas mixtures.

Earth-Observation Tools

Orbiting approximately 250 miles above the Earth’s surface, the space station provides pretty amazing views of the Earth. The Multiple User System for Earth Sensing (MUSES) facility hosts Earth-viewing instruments such as high-resolution digital cameras, hyperspectral imagers, and provides precision pointing and other accommodations.
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This investigation can produce data that could be used for maritime domain awareness, agricultural awareness, food security, disaster response, air quality, oil and gas exploration and fire detection.

Watch the launch live HERE! For all things space station science, follow @ISS_Research on Twitter.

Make sure to follow us on Tumblr for your regular dose of space: http://nasa.tumblr.com
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5 Out-of-This World Technologies Developed for Our Webb Space Telescope

Our James Webb Space Telescope is the most ambitious and complex space science observatory ever built. It will study every phase in the history of our universe, ranging from the first luminous glows after the Big Bang, to the formation of solar systems capable of supporting life on planets like Earth, to the evolution of our own Solar System.
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In order to carry out such a daring mission, many innovative and powerful new technologies were developed specifically to enable Webb to achieve its primary mission.

Here are 5 technologies that were developed to help Webb push the boundaries of space exploration and discovery:
1. Microshutters
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Microshutters are basically tiny windows with shutters that each measure 100 by 200 microns, or about the size of a bundle of only a few human hairs.

The microshutter device will record the spectra of light from distant objects (spectroscopy is simply the science of measuring the intensity of light at different wavelengths. The graphical representations of these measurements are called spectra.)
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Other spectroscopic instruments have flown in space before but none have had the capability to enable high-resolution observation of up to 100 objects simultaneously, which means much more scientific investigating can get done in less time.

Read more about how the microshutters work HERE.
2. The Backplane
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Webb’s backplane is the large structure that holds and supports the big hexagonal mirrors of the telescope, you can think of it as the telescope’s “spine”. The backplane has an important job as it must carry not only the 6.5 m (over 21 foot) diameter primary mirror plus other telescope optics, but also the entire module of scientific instruments. It also needs to be essentially motionless while the mirrors move to see far into deep space. All told, the backplane carries more than 2400kg (2.5 tons) of hardware.
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This structure is also designed to provide unprecedented thermal stability performance at temperatures colder than -400°F (-240°C). At these temperatures, the backplane was engineered to be steady down to 32 nanometers, which is 1/10,000 the diameter of a human hair!

Read more about the backplane HERE.
3. The Mirrors
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One of the Webb Space Telescope’s science goals is to look back through time to when galaxies were first forming. Webb will do this by observing galaxies that are very distant, at over 13 billion light years away from us. To see such far-off and faint objects, Webb needs a large mirror.

Webb’s scientists and engineers determined that a primary mirror 6.5 meters across is what was needed to measure the light from these distant galaxies. Building a mirror this large is challenging, even for use on the ground. Plus, a mirror this large has never been launched into space before!
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If the Hubble Space Telescope’s 2.4-meter mirror were scaled to be large enough for Webb, it would be too heavy to launch into orbit. The Webb team had to find new ways to build the mirror so that it would be light enough - only 1/10 of the mass of Hubble’s mirror per unit area - yet very strong.

Read more about how we designed and created Webb’s unique mirrors HERE.
4. Wavefront Sensing and Control
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Wavefront sensing and control is a technical term used to describe the subsystem that was required to sense and correct any errors in the telescope’s optics. This is especially necessary because all 18 segments have to work together as a single giant mirror.

The work performed on the telescope optics resulted in a NASA tech spinoff for diagnosing eye conditions and accurate mapping of the eye. This spinoff supports research in cataracts, keratoconus (an eye condition that causes reduced vision), and eye movement – and improvements in the LASIK procedure.

Read more about the tech spinoff HERE.
5. Sunshield and Sunshield Coating
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Webb’s primary science comes from infrared light, which is essentially heat energy. To detect the extremely faint heat signals of astronomical objects that are incredibly far away, the telescope itself has to be very cold and stable. This means we not only have to protect Webb from external sources of light and heat (like the Sun and the Earth), but we also have to make all the telescope elements very cold so they don’t emit their own heat energy that could swamp the sensitive instruments. The temperature also must be kept constant so that materials aren’t shrinking and expanding, which would throw off the precise alignment of the optics.
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Each of the five layers of the sunshield is incredibly thin. Despite the thin layers, they will keep the cold side of the telescope at around -400°F (-240°C), while the Sun-facing side will be 185°F (85°C). This means you could actually freeze nitrogen on the cold side (not just liquify it), and almost boil water on the hot side. The sunshield gives the telescope the equivalent protection of a sunscreen with SPF 1 million!

Read more about Webb’s incredible sunshield HERE.

Learn more about the Webb Space Telescope and other complex technologies that have been created for the first time by visiting THIS page.

For the latest updates and news on the Webb Space Telescope, follow the mission on Twitter, Facebook and Instagram.

Make sure to follow us on Tumblr for your regular dose of space: http://nasa.tumblr.com.
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Exploring an Asteroid Without Leaving Earth

This 45 day mission – which began May 5, 2018 and ends today, June 18 – will help our researchers learn how isolation and close quarters affect individual and group behavior. This study at our Johnson Space Center prepares us for long duration space missions, like a trip to an asteroid or even to Mars.
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The Human Research Exploration Analog (HERA) that the crew members will be living in is one compact, science-making house. But unlike in a normal house, these inhabitants won’t go outside for 45 days. Their communication with the rest of planet Earth will also be very limited, and they won’t have any access to internet. So no checking social media, kids!

The only people they will talk with regularly are mission control and each other.
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The HERA XVII crew is made up of 2 men and 2 women, selected from the Johnson Space Center Test Subject Screening (TSS) pool. The crew member selection process is based on a number of criteria, including criteria similar to what is used for astronaut selection. The four would-be astronauts are:

William Daniels
Chiemi Heil
Eleanor Morgan
Michael Pecaut

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What will they be doing?

The crew are going on a simulated journey to an asteroid, a 715-day journey that we compress into 45 days. They will fly their simulated exploration vehicle around the asteroid once they arrive, conducting several site surveys before 2 of the crew members will participate in a series of virtual reality spacewalks.
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They will also be participating in a suite of research investigations and will also engage in a wide range of operational and science activities, such as growing and analyzing plants and brine shrimp, maintaining and “operating” an important life support system, exercising on a stationary bicycle or using free weights, and sharpening their skills with a robotic arm simulation.
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During the whole mission, they will consume food produced by the Johnson Space Center Food Lab – the same food that the astronauts enjoy on the International Space Station – which means that it needs to be rehydrated or warmed in a warming oven.

This simulation means that even when communicating with mission control, there will be a delay on all communications ranging from 1 to 5 minutes each way.

A few other details:

The crew follows a timeline that is similar to one used for the space station crew.
They work 16 hours a day, Monday through Friday. This includes time for daily planning, conferences, meals and exercise.
Mission: May 5 - June 18, 2018

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But beware! While we do all we can to avoid crises during missions, crews need to be able to respond in the event of an emergency. The HERA crew will conduct a couple of emergency scenario simulations, including one that will require them to respond to a decrease in cabin pressure, potentially finding and repairing a leak in their spacecraft.

Throughout the mission, researchers will gather information about living in confinement, teamwork, team cohesion, mood, performance and overall well-being. The crew members will be tracked by numerous devices that each capture different types of data.

Learn more about the HERA mission HERE.

Explore the HERA habitat via 360-degree videos HERE.

Make sure to follow us on Tumblr for your regular dose of space: http://nasa.tumblr.com
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Webb 101: 10 Facts about the James Webb Space Telescope
Did you know…?
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1. Our upcoming James Webb Space Telescope will act like a powerful time machine – because it will capture light that’s been traveling across space for as long as 13.5 billion years, when the first stars and galaxies were formed out of the darkness of the early universe.
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2. Webb will be able to see infrared light. This is light that is just outside the visible spectrum, and just outside of what we can see with our human eyes.
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3. Webb’s unprecedented sensitivity to infrared light will help astronomers to compare the faintest, earliest galaxies to today’s grand spirals and ellipticals, helping us to understand how galaxies assemble over billions of years.
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Hubble’s infrared look at the Horsehead Nebula. Credit: NASA/ESA/Hubble Heritage Team

4. Webb will be able to see right through and into massive clouds of dust that are opaque to visible-light observatories like the Hubble Space Telescope. Inside those clouds are where stars and planetary systems are born.
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5. In addition to seeing things inside our own solar system, Webb will tell us more about the atmospheres of planets orbiting other stars, and perhaps even find the building blocks of life elsewhere in the universe.
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Credit: Northrop Grumman

6. Webb will orbit the Sun a million miles away from Earth, at the place called the second Lagrange point. (L2 is four times further away than the moon!)
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7. To preserve Webb’s heat sensitive vision, it has a ‘sunshield’ that’s the size of a tennis court; it gives the telescope the equivalent of SPF protection of 1 million! The sunshield also reduces the temperature between the hot and cold side of the spacecraft by almost 600 degrees Fahrenheit.
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8. Webb’s 18-segment primary mirror is over 6 times bigger in area than Hubble’s and will be ~100x more powerful. (How big is it? 6.5 meters in diameter.)
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9. Webb’s 18 primary mirror segments can each be individually adjusted to work as one massive mirror. They’re covered with a golf ball’s worth of gold, which optimizes them for reflecting infrared light (the coating is so thin that a human hair is 1,000 times thicker!).
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10. Webb will be so sensitive, it could detect the heat signature of a bumblebee at the distance of the moon, and can see details the size of a US penny at the distance of about 40 km.
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BONUS! Over 1,200 scientists, engineers and technicians from 14 countries (and more than 27 U.S. states) have taken part in designing and building Webb. The entire project is a joint mission between NASA and the European and Canadian Space Agencies. The telescope part of the observatory was assembled in the world’s largest cleanroom at our Goddard Space Flight Center in Maryland.

Webb is currently at Northrop Grumman where the telescope will be mated with the spacecraft and undergo final testing. Once complete, Webb will be packed up and be transported via boat to its launch site in French Guiana, where a European Space Agency Ariane 5 rocket will take it into space.

Afterwards, the telescope will travel to Northrop Grumman to be mated with the spacecraft and undergo final testing. Once complete, Webb will be packed up and be transported via boat to its launch site in French Guiana, where a European Space Agency Ariane 5 rocket will take it into space.
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Learn more about the James Webb Space Telescope HERE, or follow the mission on Facebook, Twitter and Instagram.

Make sure to follow us on Tumblr for your regular dose of space: http://nasa.tumblr.com.
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New Research Heading to Earth’s Orbiting Laboratory

It’s a bird! It’s a plane! It’s a…dragon? A SpaceX Dragon spacecraft is set to launch into orbit atop the Falcon 9 rocket toward the International Space Station for its 12th commercial resupply (CRS-12) mission August 14 from our Kennedy Space Center in Florida.
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It won’t breathe fire, but it will carry science that studies cosmic rays, protein crystal growth, bioengineered lung tissue.
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Here are some highlights of research that will be delivered:

I scream, you scream, we all scream for ISS-CREAM!

Cosmic Rays, Energetics and Mass, that is! Cosmic rays reach Earth from far outside the solar system with energies well beyond what man-made accelerators can achieve. The Cosmic Ray Energetics and Mass (ISS-CREAM) instrument measures the charges of cosmic rays ranging from hydrogen to iron nuclei. Cosmic rays are pieces of atoms that move through space at nearly the speed of light
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The data collected from the instrument will help address fundamental science questions such as:

Do supernovae supply the bulk of cosmic rays?
What is the history of cosmic rays in the galaxy?
Can the energy spectra of cosmic rays result from a single mechanism?

ISS-CREAM’s three-year mission will help the scientific community to build a stronger understanding of the fundamental structure of the universe.

Space-grown crystals aid in understanding of Parkinson’s disease

The microgravity environment of the space station allows protein crystals to grow larger and in more perfect shapes than earth-grown crystals, allowing them to be better analyzed on Earth.
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Developed by the Michael J. Fox Foundation, Anatrace and Com-Pac International, the Crystallization of Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) under Microgravity Conditions (CASIS PCG 7) investigation will utilize the orbiting laboratory’s microgravity environment to grow larger versions of this important protein, implicated in Parkinson’s disease.
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Defining the exact shape and morphology of LRRK2 would help scientists to better understand the pathology of Parkinson’s and could aid in the development of therapies against this target.

Mice Help Us Keep an Eye on Long-term Health Impacts of Spaceflight

Our eyes have a whole network of blood vessels, like the ones in the image below, in the retina—the back part of the eye that transforms light into information for your brain. We are sending mice to the space station (RR-9) to study how the fluids that move through these vessels shift their flow in microgravity, which can lead to impaired vision in astronauts.
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By looking at how spaceflight affects not only the eyes, but other parts of the body such as joints, like hips and knees, in mice over a short period of time, we can develop countermeasures to protect astronauts over longer periods of space exploration, and help humans with visual impairments or arthritis on Earth.

Telescope-hosting nanosatellite tests new concept

The Kestrel Eye (NanoRacks-KE IIM) investigation is a microsatellite carrying an optical imaging system payload, including an off-the-shelf telescope. This investigation validates the concept of using microsatellites in low-Earth orbit to support critical operations, such as providing lower-cost Earth imagery in time-sensitive situations, such as tracking severe weather and detecting natural disasters.
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Sponsored by the ISS National Laboratory, the overall mission goal for this investigation is to demonstrate that small satellites are viable platforms for providing critical path support to operations and hosting advanced payloads.

Growth of lung tissue in space could provide information about diseases

The Effect of Microgravity on Stem Cell Mediated Recellularization (Lung Tissue) uses the microgravity environment of space to test strategies for growing new lung tissue. The cells are grown in a specialized framework that supplies them with critical growth factors so that scientists can observe how gravity affects growth and specialization as cells become new lung tissue.
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The goal of this investigation is to produce bioengineered human lung tissue that can be used as a predictive model of human responses allowing for the study of lung development, lung physiology or disease pathology.

These crazy-cool investigations and others launching aboard the next SpaceX #Dragon cargo spacecraft on August 14. They will join many other investigations currently happening aboard the space station. Follow @ISS_Research on Twitter for more information about the science happening on 250 miles above Earth on the space station.

Watch the launch live HERE starting at 12:20 p.m. EDT on Monday, Aug. 14!

Make sure to follow us on Tumblr for your regular dose of space: http://nasa.tumblr.com
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Solar System 10 Things to Know This Week: Humans of NASA
Meet some of the amazing humans behind our exploring machines.
1—Small Town to Small Satellites
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“I grew up in a small town where working at NASA was unheard of. I worked hard, persevered, and eventually made it to where I am despite many obstacles along the way. Through that process, never forget to enjoy what you are doing. It is my passion for space exploration that has helped me keep motivated and that brings me happiness every day that I come to work.”
—Farah Alibay, Engineer
2—Scientist. Mountain Unicyclist
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“I do a rather unusual sport for fun—mountain unicycling. I love it because it’s incredibly challenging, requiring strength, stamina and focus. I also enjoy surfing, caving, flying and teaching a space camp in South Korea each summer.”

—Morgan Cable, Research Scientist
3—"Eat. Breathe. Do Science. Sleep later.“
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“I do SCIENCE! No, seriously, I travel and explore for fun. It’s a fascinating world and I can’t get enough of it. But I’m always doing "science” of some kind no matter where I am. I love it —— can’t escape it and wouldn’t want to. Eat. Breathe. Do Science. Sleep later.”

—Derek Pitts, Solar System Ambassador
4—In the Room Where It Happened
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“It was the summer of 2013, when I was the media rep for the Voyager mission. I was with Ed Stone, the mission’s project scientist, when he came to the conclusion that Voyager 1 had crossed the threshold into interstellar space. For the first time, a human—made object flew beyond the plasma bubble our sun blows around itself. Voyager 1 is now bathed in the remnants of the explosions of other stars. I really appreciated seeing the scientific process—and Ed’s mind—at work.”

—Jia-Rui Cook, Supervisor of News Events and Projects at JPL
5—All About the Math. And Determination.
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“From an academic point of view, it’s all about doing well in math and science. However, there is absolutely no substitute for being determined. Being determined to be successful is at least half the game.”

— James Green, Director of NASA’s Planetary Science Division
6—Problem Solver
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“Opportunity [rover] was designed to live for 90 days in the harsh Martian environment but she is still exploring now 11 years later! Because of her age, software and hardware components are degrading on the vehicle and more recently, the flash memory. I had the incredible opportunity to lead the team to figure out how to solve these flash problems and get Opportunity back into an operational state.”

—Bekah Sosland Siegfriedt, Engineer
7—Never Give Up
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“When you encounter difficulties or failures, do not take no for an answer. If you truly want to accomplish something and are passionate about it, you need to believe in yourself, put your mind to it, and you can accomplish anything! I failed A LOT, but I NEVER GAVE UP. It took three years and over 150 applications to NASA before I received my first internship”

—Kevin DeBruin, Systems Engineer
8—More Than Mohawk Guy
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“The great thing about being at NASA is that there are jobs for all types —— whether it’s engineering, science, finance, communication, law, and so forth. All of them are necessary and all of them involve working on some of the coolest things humans can do. So pick the area you love, but also know that you can still be a part of exploring the universe.”

—Bobak Ferdowsi, Systems Engineer
9—The Power of One
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“When my older sister claimed she would one day be an astronaut, on the heels of Sally Ride’s launch into space, I made the same claim. Though, it was more because I dreamed to be just like my sister! In turned out that she outgrew the crazy dream, and my desire only got stronger.”

—Mamta Patel Nagaraja, Science Communications
10—Dedication and Choices
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“Body-building is a favorite pasttime: it’s a great stress reliever and a hobby that I can take with me when I travel for work or for pleasure. It’s also a great expression of responsibility and ownership: What I’ve accomplished is due entirely to my dedication and choices, and it belongs to no one but me.”

—Troy Hudson, Instrument System Engineer

Check out the full version of Ten Things to Know HERE.

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Benefits To Humanity

How does research in space help life on Earth? That’s a great question! It seems crazy that a laboratory orbiting about 200 miles over us can have a benefits on science on the ground. Here are a few ways that research aboard the International Space Station benefits humanity:
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Improve Human Health

The space station has supported research that supports areas such as aging, trauma, disease and the environment. Advances in human health have been gained from the unique microgravity environment.

For example, crew aboard the station experience issues such as bone loss while in space. Learning about the causes and understanding the treatments can help the elderly or people prone to Osteoporosis here on Earth.
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Are you Asthmatic? Crew aboard the space station use a tool that could be used for Asthma patients. The lightweight, easy-to-use device is used to monitor levels of asthma control and the efficiency of medication. This leads to more accurate dosing, reduced attacks and improved quality of life.

Drinkable water on the space station isn’t something just sitting in water bottles waiting to be consumed. Since storage and weight are limited in transporting things to space, crew members must recycle old, dirty water and reuse it day after day. The technology they use for this on the space station, can also be used in at-risk areas on Earth that don’t have access to clean water.
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Earth Observations

The International Space Station has a unique vantage point for observing Earth’s ecosystems. A wide variety of payloads can be attached to the station’s exterior to collect data on things like: global climate, environmental change and natural hazards.

Farming from Space

Farmers can leverage images from the International Space Station to grow crops. The camera captures frequent images of Earth in visible and infrared light, that helps farmers monitor crop growth for disease or fertility differences.

From NASA to Napa. Some of the research on the space station has even provided benefits to the wine industry on Earth! Solutions for growing crops in space translates really well to solutions for mold prevention in wine cellars and other confined spaces on Earth.
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For many other ways that research on the International Space Station benefits life on Earth, go HERE.

Make sure to follow us on Tumblr for your regular dose of space:http://nasa.tumblr.com
nasa space benefits internationalspacestation benefitstohumanity science research
1,225 notes
Space Station Research: Air and Space Science

Each month, we highlight a different research topic on the International Space Station. In June, our focus is Air and Space Science.
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How is the space station being used to study space? Studies in fundamental physics address space, time, energy and the building blocks of matter. Recent astronomical observation and cosmological models strongly suggest that dark matter and dark energy, which are entities not directly observed and completely understood, dominate these interactions at the largest scales.
image

The space station provides a modern and well-equipped orbiting laboratory for a set of fundamental physics experiments with regimes and precision not achievable on the ground.

For example, the CALorimetric Electron Telescope (CALET) is an astrophysics mission that searches for signatures of dark matter (pictured above). It can observe discrete sources of high energy particle acceleration in our local region of the galaxy.

How is the space station contributing to aeronautics? It provides a long-duration spaceflight environment for conducting microgravity physical science research. This environment greatly reduces buoyancy-driven convection and sedimentation in fluids. By eliminating gravity, space station allows scientists to advance our knowledge in fluid physics and materials science that could lead to better designated air and space engines; stronger, lighter alloys; and combustion processes that can lead to more energy-efficient systems.
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How is the space station used to study air? The Cloud-Aerosol Transport System (CATS) is a laster remote-sensing instrument, or lidar, that measures clouds and tiny aerosol particles in the atmosphere such as pollution, mineral dust and smoke. These atmospheric components play a critical part in understanding how human activities such as fossil fuel burning contribute to climate change.
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The ISS-RapidScat is an instrument that monitors winds for climate research, weather predictions and hurricane monitoring from the International Space Station.
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For more information on space station research, follow @ISS_Research on Twitter!

Make sure to follow us on Tumblr for your regular dose of space: http://nasa.tumblr.com

Titre : Le temps a laissé son manteau
Poète : Charles d'Orléans (1394-1465)

Recueil : Rondeaux.

Le temps a laissié son manteau
De vent, de froidure et de pluye,
Et s'est vestu de brouderie,
De soleil luyant, cler et beau.

Il n'y a beste, ne oyseau,
Qu'en son jargon ne chante ou crie
Le temps a laissié son manteau
De vent, de froidure et de pluye.

Riviere, fontaine et ruisseau
Portent, en livree jolie,
Gouttes d'argent, d'orfaverie ;
Chascun s'abille de nouveau
Le temps a laissié son manteau.

https://nasa.tumblr.com/post/175053575324/navigating-space-by-the-stars

Titre : Ode
Poète : Gérard de Nerval (1808-1855)

Recueil : Élégies nationales (1827).

I.

Le Temps ne surprend pas le sage,
Mais du Temps le sage se rit,
Car lui seul en connaît l'usage :
Des plaisirs que Dieu nous offrit
Il sait embellir l'existence,
Il sait sourire à l'espérance,
Quand l'espérance lui sourit.

II.

Le bonheur n'est pas dans la gloire,
Dans les fers dorés d'une cour,
Dans les transports de la victoire,
Mais dans la lyre et dans l'amour :
Choisissons une jeune amante,
Un luth qui lui plaise et l'enchante :
Aimons et chantons tour-à-tour.

III.

« Illusions ! vaines images !
Nous diront les tristes leçons
De ces mortels prétendus sages
Sur qui l'âge étend ses glaçons :
Le bonheur n'est point sur la terre,
Votre amour n'est qu'une chimère,
Votre lyre n'a que des sons. »

IV.

Ah ! préférons cette chimère
À leur froide moralité ;
Fuyons leur voix triste et sévère ;
Si le mal est réalité,
Et si le bonheur est un songe,
Fixons les yeux sur le mensonge,
Pour ne pas voir la vérité.

V.

Aimons au printemps de la vie,
Afin que d'un noir repentir
L'automne ne soit point suivie ;
Ne cherchons pas dans l'avenir
Le bonheur que Dieu nous dispense ;
Quand nous n'aurons plus l'espérance,
Nous garderons le souvenir.

VI.

Jouissons de ce temps rapide,
Qui laisse après lui des remords,
Si l'amour, dont l'ardeur nous guide,
N'a d'aussi rapides transports :
Profitons de l'adolescence,
Car la coupe de l'existence
Ne pétille que sur ses bords.

VIVE LA FRANCE ET VIVE LA RÉPUBLIQUE...

MOSAÏQUE DE SENTIMENTS DU
CITOYEN TIGNARD YANIS
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Nombre de messages : 9032
Localisation : http://yanis.tignard.free.fr/
Date d'inscription : 09/11/2005

MessageSujet: Re: Trio of Infant Planets, the sextant et Gérard de Nerval.   Mer 20 Juin à 3:16


ALMA Discovers Trio of Infant Planets around Newborn Star

12 June, 2018
Scientific Paper

Two independent teams of astronomers have used Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) to uncover convincing evidence that three young planets are in orbit around the infant star HD 163296. Using a novel planet-finding technique, the astronomers identified three disturbances in the gas-filled disc around the young star: the most reliable evidence yet that newly formed planets are in orbit there. These are considered the first planets discovered by ALMA.

ALMA has transformed our understanding of protoplanetary discs — the gas- and dust-filled planet factories that encircle young stars. The rings and gaps in these discs provide intriguing circumstantial evidence for the presence of protoplanets [1]. Other phenomena, however, could also account for these tantalizing features.

This wide-field image shows the surroundings of the young star HD 163296 in the rich constellation of Sagittarius (The Archer). This picture was created from the material forming part of the Digitized Sky Survey 2. HD 163296 is the bright bluish star at the center. Credit: ESO/Digitized Sky Survey 2; Acknowledgement: Davide De Martin.

But now, using a novel planet-hunting technique that identifies unusual patterns in the flow of gas within a planet-forming disc around a young star, two teams of astronomers have each confirmed distinct, telltale hallmarks of newly formed planets orbiting an infant star [2].

“Measuring the flow of gas within a protoplanetary disc gives us much more certainty that planets are present around a young star,” said Christophe Pinte of Monash University in Australia and Institut de Planétologie et d’Astrophysique de Grenoble (Université de Grenoble-Alpes / CNRS) in France, and lead author on one of the two papers. “This technique offers a promising new direction to understand how planetary systems form.”

This chart shows the rich constellation of Sagittarius (The Archer) and marks the position of the star HD 163296. This star has a mass about twice that of the Sun, but is just four million years old. It is a little too faint to be seen with the unaided eye, but can easily be picked up with binoculars, not far from the famous Trifid Nebula and Lagoon Nebula. Credit: ESO, IAU and Sky & Telescope

To make their discoveries, each team analyzed ALMA observations of HD 163296, a young star about 330 light-years from Earth in the constellation of Sagittarius (The Archer) [3]. This star is about twice the mass of the Sun but is just four million years old — only a thousandth of the age of the Sun.

“We looked at the localized, small-scale motion of gas in the star’s protoplanetary disc. This entirely new approach could uncover some of the youngest planets in our galaxy, all thanks to the high-resolution images from ALMA,” said Richard Teague, an astronomer at the University of Michigan and principal author on the other paper.

Rather than focusing on the dust within the disc, which was imaged in earlier ALMA observations, the astronomers instead studied carbon monoxide (CO) gas spread throughout the disc. Molecules of CO emit a unique millimeter-wavelength light that ALMA can observe in great detail. Subtle changes in the wavelength of this light due to the Doppler effect reveal the motions of the gas in the disc.
Our Solar System formed out of a huge, primordial cloud of gas and dust. The vast majority of that cloud formed the Sun, while the leftover disc of rotating material around it eventually coalesced into the orbiting planets we know — and live on — today. Astronomers can observe similar processes happening around other stars in the cosmos. This splendid Picture of the Week shows a disc of rotating, leftover material surrounding the young star HD 163296. Using the observing power of the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) in Chile, astronomers have been able to discern specific features in the disc, including concentric rings of material surrounding the central star. They were even able to use ALMA to obtain high-resolution measurements of the gas and dust constituents of the disc. With these data they could infer key details of the formation history of this young stellar system. The three gaps between the rings are likely due to a depletion of dust and in the middle and outer gaps astronomers also found a lower level of gas. The depletion of both dust and gas suggests the presence of newly formed planets, each around the mass of Saturn, carving out these gaps on their brand new orbits.

The gaps between the rings are likely due to a depletion of dust and in the middle and outer gaps astronomers also found a lower level of gas. The depletion of both dust and gas suggests the presence of newly formed planets, each around the mass of Saturn, carving out these gaps on their brand new orbits. Credit: ESO, ALMA (ESO/NAOJ/NRAO); A. Isella; B. Saxton (NRAO/AUI/NSF).

The team led by Teague identified two planets located approximately 14.9 billion and 24.7 billion kilometers from the star. The other group, led by Pinte, identified a planet at about 39 billion kilometers from the HD 163296 [4].

The two teams used variations on the same technique, which looks for anomalies in the flow of gas — as evidenced by the shifting wavelengths of the CO emission — that indicate the gas is interacting with a massive object [5].

The technique used by Teague, which derived averaged variations in the flow of the gas as small as a few percents, revealed the impact of multiple planets on the gas motions nearer to the star. The technique used by Pinte [6], which more directly measured the flow of the gas, is better suited to studying the outer portion of the disc. It allowed the authors to locate the third planet more accurately but restricted to more substantial deviations of the flow, higher than about 10%.
ALMA has uncovered convincing evidence that three young planets are in orbit around the infant star HD 163296. Using a novel planet-finding technique, astronomers have identified three discrete disturbances in the young star’s gas-filled disc: the strongest evidence yet that newly formed planets are in orbit there. These are considered the first planets discovered with ALMA.This image shows part of the ALMA data set at one wavelength and reveals a clear “kink” in the material, which indicates unambiguously the presence of one of the planets. The annotation shows the predicted position of the planet in question. Credit: ESO, ALMA (ESO/NAOJ/NRAO); Pinte et al.

This image shows part of the ALMA data set at one wavelength and reveals a clear “kink” in the material, which indicates unambiguously the presence of one of the planets. The annotation shows the predicted position of the planet in question. Credit: ESO, ALMA (ESO/NAOJ/NRAO); Pinte et al.

In both cases, the researchers identified areas where the flow of the gas did not match its surroundings — a bit like eddies around a rock in a river. By carefully analyzing this motion, they could see the influence of planetary bodies similar in mass to Jupiter.

“The precision is mind-boggling,” said coauthor Til Birnstiel of the University Observatory of Munich. In a system where gas rotates at about 5 kilometers per second, ALMA detected velocity changes as small as a few meters per second. “This allows us to find very small deviations from the expected normal rotation in a disk,” Teague said. Planets change the density of the gas near their orbits, which varies the gas’s pressure, inducing these corresponding changes in velocity.

This new technique allows astronomers to estimate protoplanetary masses more precisely and is less likely to produce false positives. “We are now bringing ALMA front and center into the realm of planet detection,” said coauthor Ted Bergin of the University of Michigan.

“Often in science, ideas turn out not to work, or assumptions turn out to be wrong. This is one of the cases where the results are much more exciting than what I had imagined,” Birnstiel said.

Both teams will continue refining this method and will apply it to other discs, where they hope to understand better how atmospheres formation and which elements and molecules are delivered to a planet at its birth.

Zooming in on the young star HD 163296 from ALMA Observatory on Vimeo.
Notes

[1] Although thousands of exoplanets have been discovered in the last two decades, detecting protoplanets remain at the cutting edge of science and there have been no unambiguous detections before now. The techniques currently used for finding exoplanets in fully formed planetary systems — such as measuring the wobble of a star or the dimming of starlight due to a transiting planet — do not lend themselves to detecting protoplanets.

[2] The motion of gas around a star in the absence of planets has a straightforward, predictable pattern (Keplerian rotation) that is nearly impossible to alter both coherently and locally so that only the presence of a relatively massive object can create such disturbances.

[3] ALMA’s stunning images of HD 163296 and other similar systems have revealed intriguing patterns of concentric rings and gaps within protoplanetary discs. These gaps may be evidence that protoplanets are plowing the dust and gas away from their orbits, incorporating some of it into their atmospheres. A previous study of this particular star’s disc shows that the gaps in the dust and gas overlap, suggesting that at least two planets have formed there.

These initial observations, however, merely provided circumstantial evidence and could not be used to estimate the masses of the planets accurately.

[4] These correspond to 100, 165 and 260 times the distance from the Earth to the Sun.

[5] This technique is similar to the one that led to the discovery of the planet Neptune in the nineteenth century. In that case anomalies in the motion of the planet Uranus were traced to the gravitational effect of an unknown body, which was subsequently discovered visually in 1846 and found to be the eighth planet in the Solar System.

[6] The technique used by the Pinte team to determine the presence of the planet is based on a study entitled ‘Planet formation signposts: observability of circumplanetary disks via gas kinematics’, by Perez et al., published in ApJL in 2015.
More information

This research was presented in two papers to appear in the same edition of the Astrophysical Journal Letters. The first is entitled “Kinematic evidence for an embedded protoplanet in a circumstellar disc,” by C. Pinte et al. and the second “A Kinematic Detection of Two Unseen Jupiter Mass Embedded Protoplanets,” by R. Teague et al.

The Pinte team is composed of: C. Pinte (Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia; Univ. Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, IPAG, Grenoble, France), D. J. Price (Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia), F. Ménard (Univ. Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, IPAG, Grenoble, France), G. Duchêne (University of California, Berkeley California, USA; Univ. Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, IPAG, Grenoble, France), W.R.F. Dent (Joint ALMA Observatory, Santiago, Chile), T. Hill (Joint ALMA Observatory, Santiago, Chile), I. de Gregorio-Monsalvo (Joint ALMA Observatory, Santiago, Chile), A. Hales (Joint ALMA Observatory, Santiago, Chile; National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, Virginia, USA) and D. Mentiplay (Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia).

The Teague team is composed of: Richard D. Teague (University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA), Jaehan Bae (Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institution for Science, Washington, DC, USA), Edwin A. Bergin (University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA), Tilman Birnstiel (University Observatory, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Munich, Germany) and Daniel Foreman- Mackey (Center for Computational Astrophysics, Flatiron Institute, New York, USA).

The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), an international astronomy facility, is a partnership of the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere (ESO), the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) and the National Institutes of Natural Sciences (NINS) of Japan in cooperation with the Republic of Chile. ALMA is funded by ESO on behalf of its Member States, by NSF in cooperation with the National Research Council of Canada (NRC) and the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) in Taiwan and by NINS in cooperation with the Academia Sinica (AS) in Taiwan and the Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI).

ALMA construction and operations are led by ESO on behalf of its Member States; by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), managed by Associated Universities, Inc. (AUI), on behalf of North America; and by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ) on behalf of East Asia. The Joint ALMA Observatory (JAO) provides the unified leadership and management of the construction, commissioning and operation of ALMA.

Contacts

Nicolás Lira

Education and Public Outreach Coordinator

Joint ALMA Observatory, Santiago - Chile

Phone: +56 2 2467 6519

Cell phone: +56 9 9445 7726

Email: nicolas.lira@alma.cl

Christophe Pinte

Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia

Phone: +61 4 90 30 24 18

Email: christophe.pinte@univ-grenoble-alpes.fr

Richard Teague

University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA

Phone: +1 734 764 3440

Email: rteague@umich.edu

Calum Turner

ESO Assistant Public Information Officer

Garching bei München, Germany

Phone: +49 89 3200 6670

Email: calum.turner@eso.org

Charles E. Blue

Public Information Officer

National Radio Astronomy Observatory Charlottesville, Virginia - USA

Phone: +1 434 296 0314

Cell phone: +1 202 236 6324

Email: cblue@nrao.edu

Masaaki Hiramatsu

Education and Public Outreach Officer, NAOJ Chile

Observatory
, Tokyo - Japan

Phone: +81 422 34 3630

Email: hiramatsu.masaaki@nao.ac.jp

Titre : À ma sœur
Poète : René-François Sully Prudhomme (1839-1907)

Recueil : Stances et poèmes (1865).

Ces vers que toi seule aurais lus,
L'œil des indifférents les tente ;
Sans gagner un ami de plus
J'ai donc trahi ma confidente.

Enfant, je t'ai dit qui j'aimais,
Tu sais le nom de la première ;
Sa grâce ne mourra jamais
Dans mes yeux qu'avec la lumière.

Ah ! si les jeunes gens sont fous,
Leur enthousiasme s'expie ;
On se meurtrit bien les genoux
Quand on veut saluer la vie.

J'ai cru dissiper cet amour ;
Voici qu'il retombe en rosée,
Et je sens son muet retour
Où chaque larme s'est posée.

MOSAÏQUE DE SENTIMENTS DU
CITOYEN TIGNARD YANIS
Revenir en haut Aller en bas
Voir le profil de l'utilisateur http://www.atelier-yannistignard.com
yanis la chouette



Nombre de messages : 9032
Localisation : http://yanis.tignard.free.fr/
Date d'inscription : 09/11/2005

MessageSujet: Re: Trio of Infant Planets, the sextant et Gérard de Nerval.   Mer 20 Juin à 3:18


Ancient Galaxy Megamergers

25 April, 2018
Scientific Paper

The ALMA and APEX telescopes have peered deep into space — back to the time when the Universe was one tenth of its current age — and witnessed the beginnings of gargantuan cosmic pileups: the impending collisions of young, starburst galaxies. Astronomers thought that these events occurred around three billion years after the Big Bang, so they were surprised when the new observations revealed them happening when the Universe was only half that age! These ancient systems of galaxies are thought to be building the most massive structures in the known Universe: galaxy clusters.

Using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) and the Atacama Pathfinder Experiment (APEX), two international teams of scientists led by Tim Miller from Dalhousie University in Canada and Yale University in the US and Iván Oteo from the University of Edinburgh, United Kingdom, have uncovered startlingly dense concentrations of galaxies that are poised to merge, forming the cores of what will eventually become colossal galaxy clusters.

Peering 90% of the way across the observable Universe, the Miller team observed a galaxy protocluster named SPT2349-56. The light from this object began travelling to us when the Universe was about a tenth of its current age.

The individual galaxies in this dense cosmic pileup are starburst galaxies and the concentration of vigorous star formation in such a compact region makes this by far the most active region ever observed in the young Universe. Thousands of stars are born there every year, compared to just one in our own Milky Way.
This artist’’s impression of SPT2349-56 shows a group of interacting and merging galaxies in the early Universe. Such mergers have been spotted using the ALMA and APEX telescopes and represent the formation of galaxies clusters, the most massive objects in the modern Universe. Astronomers thought that these events occurred around three billion years after the Big Bang, so they were surprised when the new observations revealed them happening when the Universe was only half that age! Credit: ESO/M. Kornmesser

This artist’’s impression of SPT2349-56 shows a group of interacting and merging galaxies in the early Universe. Such mergers have been spotted using the ALMA and APEX telescopes and represent the formation of galaxies clusters, the most massive objects in the modern Universe. Astronomers thought that these events occurred around three billion years after the Big Bang, so they were surprised when the new observations revealed them happening when the Universe was only half that age!
Credit: ESO/M. Kornmesser

The Oteo team discovered a similar megamerger formed by ten dusty star-forming galaxies, nicknamed a “dusty red core” because of its very red colour, by combining observations from ALMA and the APEX.

Iván Oteo explains why these objects are unexpected: “The lifetime of dusty starbursts is thought to be relatively short, because they consume their gas at an extraordinary rate. At any time, in any corner of the Universe, these galaxies are usually in the minority. So, finding numerous dusty starbursts shining at the same time like this is very puzzling, and something that we still need to understand.”
This montage shows three views of a distant group of interacting and merging galaxies in the early Universe. The left image is a wide view from the South Pole Telescope that reveals just a bright spot. The central view is from Atacama Pathfinder Experiment (APEX) that reveals more details. The right picture is from the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) and reveals that the object is actually a group of 14 merging galaxies in the process of forming a galaxy cluster. Credit: ESO/ALMA (ESO/NAOJ/NRAO)/Miller et al.

This montage shows three views of a distant group of interacting and merging galaxies in the early Universe. The left image is a wide view from the South Pole Telescope that reveals just a bright spot. The central view is from Atacama Pathfinder Experiment (APEX) that reveals more details. The right picture is from the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) and reveals that the object is actually a group of 14 merging galaxies in the process of forming a galaxy cluster.
Credit: ESO/ALMA (ESO/NAOJ/NRAO)/Miller et al.

These forming galaxy clusters were first spotted as faint smudges of light, using the South Pole Telescope and the Herschel Space Observatory. Subsequent ALMA and APEX observations showed that they had unusual structure and confirmed that their light originated much earlier than expected — only 1.5 billion years after the Big Bang.

The new high-resolution ALMA observations finally revealed that the two faint glows are not single objects, but are actually composed of fourteen and ten individual massive galaxies respectively, each within a radius comparable to the distance between the Milky Way and the neighbouring Magellanic Clouds.

“These discoveries by ALMA are only the tip of the iceberg. Additional observations with the APEX telescope show that the real number of star-forming galaxies is likely even three times higher. Ongoing observations with the MUSE instrument on ESO’s VLT are also identifying additional galaxies,” comments Carlos De Breuck, ESO astronomer.

Current theoretical and computer models suggest that protoclusters as massive as these should have taken much longer to evolve. By using data from ALMA, with its superior resolution and sensitivity, as input to sophisticated computer simulations, the researchers are able to study cluster formation less than 1.5 billion years after the Big Bang.

“How this assembly of galaxies got so big so fast is a mystery. It wasn’t built up gradually over billions of years, as astronomers might expect. This discovery provides a great opportunity to study how massive galaxies came together to build enormous galaxy clusters,” says Tim Miller, a PhD candidate at Yale University and lead author of one of the papers.

This artist’’s impression video shows a group of interacting and merging galaxies in the early Universe. Such mergers have been spotted using the ALMA and APEX telescopes and represent the formation of galaxies clusters, the most massive objects in the modern Universe. Astronomers thought that these events occurred around three billion years after the Big Bang, so they were surprised when the new observations revealed them happening when the Universe was only half that age!
Credit: ESO/M. Kornmesser
More information

This research was presented in two papers, “The Formation of a Massive Galaxy Cluster Core at z = 4.3”, by T. Miller et al., to appear in the journal Nature, and “An Extreme Proto-cluster of Luminous Dusty Starbursts in the Early Universe”, by I. Oteo et al., which appeared in the Astrophysical Journal.

The Miller team is composed of: T. B. Miller (Dalhousie University, Halifax, Canada; Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, USA), S. C. Chapman (Dalhousie University, Halifax, Canada; Institute of Astronomy, Cambridge, UK), M. Aravena (Universidad Diego Portales, Santiago, Chile), M. L. N. Ashby (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA), C. C. Hayward (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA; Center for Computational Astrophysics, Flatiron Institute, New York, New York, USA), J. D. Vieira (University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois, USA), A. Weiß (Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Bonn, Germany), A. Babul (University of Victoria, Victoria, Canada) , M. Béthermin (Aix-Marseille Université, CNRS, LAM, Laboratoire d’Astrophysique de Marseille, Marseille, France), C. M. Bradford (California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California, USA; Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, USA), M. Brodwin (University of Missouri, Kansas City, Missouri, USA), J. E. Carlstrom (University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois USA), Chian-Chou Chen (ESO, Garching, Germany), D. J. M. Cunningham (Dalhousie University, Halifax, Canada; Saint Mary’s University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada), C. De Breuck (ESO, Garching, Germany), A. H. Gonzalez (University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA), T. R. Greve (University College London, Gower Street, London, UK), Y. Hezaveh (Stanford University, Stanford, California, USA), K. Lacaille (Dalhousie University, Halifax, Canada; McMaster University, Hamilton, Canada), K. C. Litke (Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, USA), J. Ma (University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA), M. Malkan (University of California, Los Angeles, California, USA) , D. P. Marrone (Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, USA), W. Morningstar (Stanford University, Stanford, California, USA), E. J. Murphy (National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, Virginia, USA), D. Narayanan (University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA), E. Pass (Dalhousie University, Halifax, Canada), University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Canada), R. Perry (Dalhousie University, Halifax, Canada), K. A. Phadke (University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois, USA), K. M. Rotermund (Dalhousie University, Halifax, Canada), J. Simpson (University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh; Durham University, Durham, UK), J. S. Spilker (Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, USA), J. Sreevani (University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois, USA), A. A. Stark (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA), M. L. Strandet (Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Bonn, Germany) and A. L. Strom (Observatories of The Carnegie Institution for Science, Pasadena, California, USA).

The Oteo team is composed of: I. Oteo (Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Edinburgh, UK; ESO, Garching, Germany), R. J. Ivison (ESO, Garching, Germany; Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Edinburgh, UK), L. Dunne (Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Edinburgh, UK; Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK), A. Manilla-Robles (ESO, Garching, Germany; University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand), S. Maddox (Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Edinburgh, UK; Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK), A. J. R. Lewis (Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Edinburgh, UK), G. de Zotti (INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Padova, Italy), M. Bremer (University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol, UK), D. L. Clements (Imperial College, London, UK), A. Cooray (University of California, Irvine, California, USA), H. Dannerbauer (Instituto de Astrofíısica de Canarias, La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain; Universidad de La Laguna, Dpto. Astrofísica, La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain), S. Eales (Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK), J. Greenslade (Imperial College, London, UK), A. Omont (CNRS, Institut d’Astrophysique de Paris, Paris, France; UPMC Univ. Paris 06, Paris, France), I. Perez–Fournón (University of California, Irvine, California, USA; Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain), D. Riechers (Cornell University, Space Sciences Building, Ithaca, New York, USA), D. Scott (University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada), P. van der Werf (Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, Leiden, The Netherlands), A. Weiß (Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Bonn, Germany) and Z-Y. Zhang (Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Edinburgh, UK; ESO, Garching, Germany).

The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), an international astronomy facility, is a partnership of the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere (ESO), the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) and the National Institutes of Natural Sciences (NINS) of Japan in cooperation with the Republic of Chile. ALMA is funded by ESO on behalf of its Member States, by NSF in cooperation with the National Research Council of Canada (NRC) and the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) in Taiwan and by NINS in cooperation with the Academia Sinica (AS) in Taiwan and the Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI).

ALMA construction and operations are led by ESO on behalf of its Member States; by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), managed by Associated Universities, Inc. (AUI), on behalf of North America; and by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ) on behalf of East Asia. The Joint ALMA Observatory (JAO) provides the unified leadership and management of the construction, commissioning and operation of ALMA.

Contacts

Masaaki Hiramatsu

Education and Public Outreach Officer, NAOJ Chile

Observatory
, Tokyo - Japan

Phone: +81 422 34 3630

Email: hiramatsu.masaaki@nao.ac.jp

Richard Hook

Public Information Officer, ESO

Garching bei München, Germany

Phone: +49 89 3200 6655

Cell phone: +49 151 1537 3591

Email: rhook@eso.org

Charles E. Blue

Public Information Officer

National Radio Astronomy Observatory Charlottesville, Virginia - USA

Phone: +1 434 296 0314

Cell phone: +1 202 236 6324

Email: cblue@nrao.edu

Valeria Foncea

Education and Public Outreach Officer

Joint ALMA Observatory Santiago - Chile

Phone: +56 2 2467 6258

Cell phone: +56 9 7587 1963

Email: valeria.foncea@alma.cl

Related Posts

Titre : Les plaintes d'un Icare
Poète : Charles Baudelaire (1821-1867)

Recueil : Les fleurs du mal (1857).

Les amants des prostituées
Sont heureux, dispos et repus ;
Quant à moi, mes bras sont rompus
Pour avoir étreint des nuées.

C'est grâce aux astres nonpareils,
Qui tout au fond du ciel flamboient,
Que mes yeux consumés ne voient
Que des souvenirs de soleils.

En vain j'ai voulu de l'espace
Trouver la fin et le milieu ;
Sous je ne sais quel oeil de feu
Je sens mon aile qui se casse ;

Et brûlé par l'amour du beau,
Je n'aurai pas l'honneur sublime
De donner mon nom à l'abîme
Qui me servira de tombeau.

MOSAÏQUE DE SENTIMENTS DU
CITOYEN TIGNARD YANIS
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Nombre de messages : 9032
Localisation : http://yanis.tignard.free.fr/
Date d'inscription : 09/11/2005

MessageSujet: Re: Trio of Infant Planets, the sextant et Gérard de Nerval.   Mer 20 Juin à 3:21

About NASA

NASA’s mission is to pioneer the future in space exploration, scientific discovery and aeronautics research. To do that, thousands of people have been working around the world and in space for more than 50 years, trying to answer some basic questions. What’s out there in space? How do we get there? What will we find? What can we learn there – or learn just by trying to get there – that will make life better here on Earth?

Our work is diverse: proving flight technologies; creating capabilities for sustainable human and robotic exploration; exploring Earth, the solar system and the universe beyond; developing critical enabling technologies such as the Orion space capsule; and conducting science in orbit aboard the International Space Station. With NASA you can share exploration of the universe and discoveries of our home planet, Earth.

Learn more at: www.NASA.gov

Nine astronomy education and outreach professionals – eight from the United States and one from Chile – are participating in a 9-day expedition to ALMA and other prominent North American observatories in Chile as part of the Astronomy in Chile Educator Ambassadors Program (ACEAP).

This program sponsored by the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF), currently in its fourth year, aims to share details of operations in the foremost Chilean observatories funded by NSF, such as the Cerro Tololo Interamerican Observatory (CTIO), the Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) Telescope, the Gemini South Observatory and ALMA.

“Chile is rapidly becoming the astronomical capital of the world, providing a window to the Universe and making discoveries that benefit all of humanity,” said Tim Spuck, education officer of Associated Universities, Inc. – North American representative of ALMA in Chile – and leader of ACEAP, which has already brought 36 ambassadors to Chile.

The new ACEAP participants are being trained on the science and technology involved in the different observatories they visit, and on communication and outreach of what they have learned, so that they can go on to be ambassadors of these concepts in their places of work, through media, presentations or with students.

Participants in this version include planetarium directors, science, physics and astronomy teachers and an astrophotographer. ACEAP ambassadors for 2018 are:

Stephen Case, physics and astronomy professor at Olivet Nazarene University (Bourbonnais, Illinois); and director of the Strickler Planetarium.
Yasmín Catricheo, a high school physics teacher at Concepción school in Chillán and ambassador for the Mapuche community.
John Goar, a science teacher at North Kitsap High School (Poulsbo, Washington).
Eileen Grzybowski, astronomy and AP biology teacher at Norman North High School (Norman, Oklahoma).
Kyle Jeter, 2017 Broward County (Florida) Teacher of the Year and honors astronomy teacher; Director of Amazing Space & Science Camp in Boca Ratón, Florida.
Moiya McTier, astronomy Ph.D. student at the University of Columbia.
Samara Nagle, astrophotographer, and leader of Facebook group Telescope Addicts.
Tiffany Stone Wolbrecht, planetarium lecturer, and producer at Ward Beecher Planetarium, Youngstown State University (Ohio).
Nicolle Zellner, astronomy and physics professor at Albion College (Michigan).

The members of the Astronomy in Chile Educator Ambassadors Program (ACEAP) visiting the ALMA antenna array. Credit: C.Blue (NRAO)


The members of the Astronomy in Chile Educator Ambassadors Program (ACEAP) visiting the ALMA laboratories guided by Electronic Technician Marcos Paredes. Credit: S. Case (ACEAP/NSF)


The members of the Astronomy in Chile Educator Ambassadors Program (ACEAP) visiting the ALMA antenna control room guided by astronomer Hugo Messias. Credit: S. Case (ACEAP/NSF)


Additional Information

More information on ACEAP and its ambassadors at http://epe.aui.edu/programs/astronomy-in-chile-educator-ambassadors-program/.

ALMA, an international astronomy facility, is a partnership of ESO, the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) and the National Institutes of Natural Sciences (NINS) of Japan in cooperation with the Republic of Chile.



Contacts

Sergio Cabezón

Education and Public Affairs Officer for AUI/NRAO in Chile

Email: scabezon@aui.cl

Nicolás Lira

Education and Public Outreach Coordinator

Joint ALMA Observatory, Santiago - Chile

Phone: +56 2 2467 6519

Cell phone: +56 9 9445 7726

Email: nicolas.lira@alma.cl

Titre : La Pensée et la Rêverie
Poète : Antoine de Latour (1808-1881)

Recueil : La vie intime (1833).

Viens, recueillons, ami, ce double écho d'un monde
Où l'âme tour à tour s'éclaire et se féconde,
Rêverie et pensée, oracles immortels !
La pensée ! Oh ! salut, sœur des jours éternels,
Toi par qui devant nous se courbent sans murmure
Ces animaux pétris d'une argile moins pure,
Qui n'ont qu'un vil instinct pour vaincre le trépas,
Et dont l'être commence et s'achève ici-bas !
Si Dieu dans notre sein endormait la pensée,
Que serait l'homme alors ? Une forme glacée,
Corps sans âme, pareil à ces tristes débris
Dans les champs de la Grèce encore ensevelis.
Mais, jaloux de revivre en son plus bel ouvrage,
Le Dieu qui nous créa nous fit à son image.
La pensée, il est vrai, s'éveille lentement,
De nos impressions se féconde et s'étend ;
Esclave de ce monde, à sa première aurore,
Sous le poids de ses fers elle sommeille encore :
Mais comme Galatée, à la voix de l'Amour,
Sous le marbre vivant sent pénétrer le jour,
La royale captive, entrouvrant sa paupière,
Et sous son regard d'aigle enfermant la matière,
A ce monde impuissant impose à son réveil
Les fers qu'elle en reçut pendant son court sommeil.
Voyageur égaré dans ce désert du monde,
L'homme est sans la pensée un navire sans sonde,
Flambeau par un aveugle emporté dans la nuit,
Qu'une feuille protège ou qu'un souffle détruit.
Mais sitôt que l'esprit a brillé dans l'argile,
Il ouvre à la clarté sa paupière docile,
Et toute la nature, en son cours solennel
Te salue en passant, ô dernier né du ciel !
La terre s'abandonne à ton génie avide
L'abîme est sans terreur pour ton œil intrépide,
Et ces rocs éternels d'où la foudre descend
N'ont pas d'autre secret pour ton regard brûlant.
Que dis-je ! dédaignant de faciles conquêtes,
Pour mieux interroger le secret des tempêtes,
La pensée a jeté par des chemins divers
Nos palais sur les flots et nos chars dans les airs.
Voilà celle à qui l'homme ici-bas se confie,
Et sa langue immortelle est la philosophie.

Mais du sombre portique éloignant nos regards,
Ensemble remontons jusqu'aux sources des arts.
Vois-tu la rêverie en sa marche incertaine
Dérobant à nos yeux sa grâce aérienne,
Se confondre de loin avec le doux rayon
Que laisse le soleil sur le pâle gazon ?
Étrangère à la vie, aux âmes virginales
Elle aime à révéler ses formes idéales,
Beautés sans vêtement ainsi qu'au premier jour
Et qui viennent du ciel, ce berceau de l'amour.
Rêverie ! oh ! je plains ces âmes desséchées
Que jamais de ta voix les grâces n'ont touchées,
Et qui des pleurs sacrés ignorant la douceur,
Ne t'ont pas demandé le secret du bonheur.
A peine nous naissons, la vierge demi-nue
Accourt, et, pour l'enfant enfant redevenue,
Sur le voile léger qui revêt le berceau
Déroule, par degrés, un ravissant tableau,
Dont le riant tissu vient tenter la paupière,
Et sans la fatiguer l'invite à la lumière.
Puis, quand l'âge est venu, sais-tu pourquoi l'enfant
Aime à prêter l'oreille aux longs soupirs du vent,
A voir au loin frémir le royal front des chênes,
A plonger son regard dans l'azur des fontaines,
A sentir la rosée épanchée aux vallons,
A suivre l'arc-en-ciel sur la cime des monts,
Alors qu'il se balance et sourit au nuage,
Comme l'aile d'un ange égaré dans l'orage ?
C'est que la rêverie, invisibles encore,
Autour d'elle, partout, jette ses réseaux d'or.
Oh ! ne nous fermez plus dans vos tristes écoles,
Où notre âme s'épuise en disputes frivoles,
Où pour nous enseigner le Dieu que l'univers
Salue à son réveil sous mille noms divers,
Au lieu de nous placer au sein de la nature,
La science étalant son ignorance obscure,
Nous présente sans cesse un livre où le regard
Ne voit que signes morts, vains prestiges de l'art :
Vers le Dieu créateur un plus doux sentier mène ;
L'homme peut le gravir sans qu'une main l'y traîne ;
Vous qui m'enseignez Dieu, dans son œuvre ici-bas
Laissez-moi le surprendre et ne l'expliquez pas.
Ouvrez-moi ce grand livre où brille son image,
Laissez-moi m'incliner, pleurer sur chaque page,
Laissez-moi respirer ces fleurs que chaque jour
Jette au front du printemps comme un don de l'amour ;
Suivre ces astres d'or dont une main suprême
Couronna l'univers comme d'un diadème,
Et contempler au sein de tant d'êtres divers
L'homme, de son regard dépassant l'univers,
Seul debout, élevant vers la voûte divine
Son front encore empreint de sa haute origine ;
Grand Dieu ! Plein de ton œuvre alors et plein de toi,
Je pourrai m'élancer au monde de la foi ;
Si la terre pour nous est une autre patrie,
Ah ! j'en rends grâce à toi, touchante rêverie !

L'enfant devient jeune homme, et son guide immortel
Le conduit pas à pas vers le monde réel ;
Quel autre élève en lui la scène imaginaire
Où commence le drame achevé sur la terre,
Où s'ébauche la vie et ce qui doit un jour
Dans l'espace et le temps apparaître à son tour,
Mystérieux chaos où s'enfante en silence
Ce qui sera bonheur, gloire, vertu, puissance,
Où vit en sentiments, en désirs, en accords,
Tout ce qui prendra vie en ce monde des corps ?
Quel autre, nous plongeant dans cette mer d'images,
D'avance à nos regards en déroule les pages ?
C'est elle, toujours elle, en qui l'adolescent
Dérobe à l'avenir le secret du présent ;
Elle seule en effet montre à l'homme qui passe
Et son jour dans le temps et son lieu dans l'espace,
Seule lui dit son rang dans cette chaîne d'or
Qui des êtres créés embrasse tout l'essor,
Chaîne mystérieuse et toujours agitée,
Par un souffle invisible ici-bas tourmentée,
Et qui, livrant la terre à des êtres nouveaux,
Chaque jour au soleil tourne un de ses anneaux,
Jusqu'à ce qu'épuisée, en sa course féconde,
Disparaissant enfin de la scène du monde,
Dans les cieux tout entière elle remontera
Pour couronner le trône où s'assied Jéhovah !

Aux yeux de l'âge mûr, dont l'or seul est l'idole,
La rêverie hélas ! n'est que chose frivole,
Car elle est ignorante et voudrait faire en vain
L'argent avec le fer et l'or avec l'airain ;
Mais, semblable au soleil dont la chaleur divine
Vient réchauffer parfois l'esclave dans sa mine,
A celui dont le cœur s'enferme en son trésor
Austère elle apparaît, mais consolante encore ;
Et l'on sent, à sa voix féconde, enchanteresse,
S'évanouir ce doute où tout l'homme en détresse
S'interroge, et n'osant contempler l'avenir
S'écrie avec effroi : Si tout allait finir !

Ainsi la rêverie est pour l'adolescence
Un regard amoureux jeté sur l'existence,
Pour l'âge mûr regret, parfois heureux réveil,
Pour le vieillard doux songe au sein d'un doux sommeil,
Pour tous un océan où l'âme rajeunie
Se repose un moment des luttes de la vie,
Où le pauvre exilé jusque dans sa prison
Respire l'air natal et rêve le pardon,
Où l'oreille inclinée écoute et croit entendre
D'une voix d'autrefois l'accent plaintif et tendre,
Monde sacré qui flotte emportant vers le jour
Tout ce qui vit d'espoir, de prière et d'amour,
Dont la langue ici-bas dans tout âme choisie
Est cet écho du ciel qu'on nomme poésie.

Ami, ce sont deux sœurs qui n'eurent qu'un berceau,
Mais chacune a sa foi, sa langue, son flambeau,
Chacune un monde à part empreint de son image ;
Façonnant à son gré cet univers sauvage,
L'une aime à se jouer dans la création ;
L'autre prend son essor où finit l'horizon ;
Plus pures que le jour, plus vives que la flamme,
L'une est l'œil de l'esprit, l'autre l'instinct de l'âme.

MOSAÏQUE DE SENTIMENTS DU
CITOYEN TIGNARD YANIS
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MessageSujet: Re: Trio of Infant Planets, the sextant et Gérard de Nerval.   

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