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 Alps and plains, Europa Clipper et Earth's Carbon Puzzle.

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yanis la chouette



Nombre de messages : 9460
Localisation : http://yanis.tignard.free.fr/
Date d'inscription : 09/11/2005

MessageSujet: Alps and plains, Europa Clipper et Earth's Carbon Puzzle.   Ven 1 Juin à 4:07

Soldats de la Paix. 🇺🇳
Jupiter II Europe.
Véritis Ciconia, la Cigogne verte ou la Lune.
http://leclandesmouettes.bbflash.net/t30-veritis-ciconia-la-cigogne-verte-ou-la-lune
After the Ordeal.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VZU3AVyAFC4
Le vol du Corbeau ou Nicosie.
http://leclandesmouettes.bbflash.net/t65-le-vol-du-corbeau-ou-nicosie
Europa Clipper
https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Europa_Clipper
Europe, fille d'Agénor.
TAY

It's a scientific conundrum with huge implications for our future: How will our planet react to the increasing levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere?

That seemingly simple question is particularly tricky because carbon -- an essential building block for life on Earth -- does not stay in one place or take only one form. Carbon in its many forms, both from natural and human-caused sources, moves within and among the atmosphere, the ocean and land as our living planet breathes. To track and inventory carbon and unravel the many intricate processes that cause it to morph across the planet is an epic challenge.

And that's where NASA comes in.

The agency is a trailblazer in using space-based and airborne sensors to observe and quantify carbon in the atmosphere and throughout the land and ocean, working with many U.S. and international partners.

For more than two decades, NASA has used the vantage point of space to tackle the carbon puzzle one piece at a time. The agency has invested hundreds of millions of dollars in the tools needed to get the job done, from building and launching spacecraft and developing new instruments and integrated datasets to funding basic research, field work and computer modeling. And that investment continues today.

Several NASA spacecraft, including some built and managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, currently collect global observations used to track different forms of carbon that scientists use in the broad field called carbon cycle science, which includes greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide and methane.

NASA's newest carbon-observing mission in orbit, launched in 2014, is the JPL-built Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2), which is making unprecedented, accurate global measurements of carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere and providing unique information on the natural processes controlling carbon exchange between land and air and between the atmosphere and ocean. OCO-2 data have allowed scientists to study in detail how shifts in rainfall alter the amount of carbon stored or released by vegetation and how changes in ocean temperature affect ocean water's ability to absorb carbon dioxide.

NASA supports a variety of carbon-related research programs totaling about $100 million a year that delve into the physical and biological processes controlling the ways our planet's changing environment influences -- and is influenced by -- life on Earth.

NASA-funded research in terrestrial ecology, for example, studies how changes in ecosystem structure and function influence the regional and global carbon cycles. NASA is funding a multi-year field campaign in Alaska and northwest Canada called ABoVE (the Arctic-Boreal Vulnerability Experiment) that is investigating how changes in Arctic permafrost and ecosystems in a warming climate result in changes to the balance of carbon moving between the atmosphere and land. Several JPL scientists are part of the ABoVE team.

Research efforts underway in ocean biology and biogeochemistry focus on understanding and predicting the biological, ecological and biogeochemical changes in the upper ocean. Since ocean ecosystems play a major role in Earth's carbon cycle, it's essential to better understand and quantify the mechanisms of carbon flow and their interaction with local ecosystems.

This August, NASA embarks on an oceanographic expedition to the northeast Pacific called EXPORTS (the Export Processes in the Ocean from Remote Sensing study) that will help scientists develop the capability to better predict how carbon in the ocean moves, which could change as Earth's climate changes. The National Science Foundation is a co-sponsor of the expedition.

Just as basic research into Earth's carbon cycle continues to be a robust activity at NASA, so is the development of new space-based tools for carbon monitoring. Several are now nearing launch and in development.

The JPL-managed ECOSTRESS (the ECOsystem Spaceborne Thermal Radiometer Experiment on Space Station), slated to launch this summer to the International Space Station, will make the first-ever measurements of plant water use and vegetation stress on land. These data are expected to provide key insights into how plants link Earth's global carbon cycle with its water cycle.

Later this year ECOSTRESS will be joined on the space station by GEDI, the Global Ecosystem Dynamics Investigation. GEDI will use a spaceborne laser to precisely measure the height of the vegetation canopy in forested regions of the world to help estimate how much carbon is locked up in forests and how that quantity changes over time.

In early 2019, JPL's OCO-3 instrument is scheduled to launch to the space station to complement OCO-2 observations and allow scientists to probe the daily cycle of carbon dioxide exchange processes over much of Earth.

And still in the early stages of development is the Geostationary Carbon Cycle Observatory (GeoCarb) mission, planned to launch in the early 2020s. GeoCarb, which includes JPL participation, will pioneer the quantification and monitoring of the carbon stocks of North, Central and South America from geostationary orbit. The NASA instrument, to be launched on a commercial communications satellite, will collect 10 million observations a day of carbon dioxide, methane and carbon monoxide.

NASA's full-court press on carbon cycle science and the development of new carbon-monitoring tools is expected to remain a top priority for years to come.

https://www.jpl.nasa.gov/news/news.php?feature=7145

News Media Contact
Alan Buis
Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif.
818-354-0474
Alan.Buis@jpl.nasa.gov

Steve Cole
NASA Headquarters, Washington
202-358-0918
Stephen.e.cole@nasa.gov

2018-120

MOSAÏQUE DU
CITOYEN TIGNARD YANIS
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yanis la chouette



Nombre de messages : 9460
Localisation : http://yanis.tignard.free.fr/
Date d'inscription : 09/11/2005

MessageSujet: Re: Alps and plains, Europa Clipper et Earth's Carbon Puzzle.   Sam 9 Juin à 10:56

YO MAN, LET 'S GO WOMAN... UB 40 Kingston Town...
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iLyP9HX33Dg
FOR BERNARD "CAOLET".
TAY

Extase et love. UB40, CAN'T HELP FALLING IN LOVE...
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ajp0Uaw4rqo
Témérité n'est pas prudence.
Proverbe français ; Recueil de proverbes français (1821).
TAY

JÉRUSALEM ET NATALIE PORTMAN... Madonna - La Isla Bonita...
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zpzdgmqIHOQ
La prudence repose dans le cœur du sage.
Proverbe de Salomon ; Le livre des proverbes - IVe s. av. J.-C.
L'ÉRÉBE, LE STYX ET CHARON.
Y'BECCA.
TAY

The Nelson Mandela 70th Birthday Tribute, June 11, 1988 at Wembley Stadium. UB40 - Red Red Wine... https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-T2MIGuA8p4
Félicité et prudence s'accouplent rarement. Proverbe français ; Les proverbes et dictons communs (1611).
TAY

Avant de fréquenter les gens, cherchez à bien les connaitre, et usez de prudence.
Les proverbes du Maroc (1992).
Une fois la flèche du destin décochée de l'arc de la prédestination, le bouclier de la prudence devient impuissant.
Mille et un proverbes turcs (1878).
Y'BECCA.
TAY

SENTIMENTS DU
CITOYEN TIGNARD YANIS

Masse sombre dans la constellation de la Vierge.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9yO0g0_c--E
La Vierge, royaume des galaxies.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WQaxGXEx9lM
Quand la flèche de la fatalité est lancée, le bouclier de la prudence ne peut en garantir.
Proverbes de la Turquie (1956).
TAY



"Témérité n'est pas prudence."
Proverbe français ; Recueil de proverbes français (1821)

"Le temps et l'expérience engendrent la prudence."
Proverbe italien ; Les proverbes, adages et expressions italiennes (1826)

"Félicité et prudence s'accouplent rarement."
Proverbe français ; Les proverbes et dictons communs (1611)

"La prudence dispense de l'indulgence."
Proverbe français ; Recueil d'apophtegmes et axiomes (1855)

"La prudence repose dans le cœur du sage."
Proverbe de Salomon ; Le livre des proverbes - IVe s. av. J.-C.

"Silence, prudence ; prudence, paix."
Proverbe oriental ; Les proverbes et maximes orientales (1778)

"Avant de fréquenter les gens, cherchez à bien les connaitre, et usez de prudence."
Proverbe marocain ; Les proverbes du Maroc (1992)

"Écoute les paroles de la prudence, suis ses conseils, et rassemble-les dans ton cœur. Ses maximes sont universelles ; elle est la base de toutes les vertus ; elle est notre guide dans le cours de la vie."
Proverbe hindou ; Dictionnaire des proverbes et dictons hindous (1980)

"Une fois la flèche du destin décochée de l'arc de la prédestination, le bouclier de la prudence devient impuissant."
Proverbe turc ; Mille et un proverbes turcs (1878)

"La force sans prudence est la mort."
Proverbe allemand ; Recueil de proverbes allemands (1872)

Étoiles et Constellations, par Jean-Pierre Luminet (1996)
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cEksSVzl3qc
Mieux vaut un pied sur le frein que deux dans le cercueil.
Dicionário de provérbios portugueses (2006).
Y'BECCA.
TAY


"La valeur sans prudence est un cheval aveugle."
Proverbe persan ; Dictionnaire des proverbes et dictons persans (1980)

"On ne saurait être trop sur ses gardes."
Proverbe danois ; Dictionnaire des proverbes danois (1757)

"La paresse souvent prend le nom de prudence."
Proverbe français ; Dictionnaire des proverbes français (1749)

"D'un projet, quel qu'il soit, la prudence est l'appui."
Proverbe français ; Dictionnaire des proverbes et idiotismes français (1827)

"La prudence, contre les accidents, sait les éviter."
Proverbe français ; Dictionnaire des proverbes et idiotismes français (1827)

"Avec vos amis même, ayez de la prudence."
Proverbe français ; Dictionnaire des proverbes et idiotismes français (1827)

"La méfiance est la fille aînée de la prudence."
Proverbe français ; Dictionnaire des proverbes et idiotismes français (1827)

"La valeur n'est vertu qu'unie à la prudence."
Proverbe français ; Dictionnaire des proverbes et idiotismes français (1827)

"La prudence est le plus grand des biens."
Proverbe grec ; Maximes de la Grèce antique (1855)

"Une passion qui n'admet ni mesure ni limite ne peut être gouvernée par la prudence."
Proverbe latin ; Proverbes et dictons latins (1757)

"Qui monte à l'arbre ne laisse pas ses babouches à terre."
Proverbe turc ; Mille et un proverbes turcs (1878)

"Qui doit gravir en une journée un sommet, doit prévoir des vivres pour plusieurs journées."
Proverbe tchèque ; Proverbes et dictons tchèques (1909)

"Quand vous aurez mangé le petit du tigre, dormez que d'un oeil."
Proverbe guadeloupéen ; Recueil de proverbes créoles (1877)

"La prudence a plus de part aux succès que la force."
Proverbe hindou ; Livre des sagesses des Purânas.



"L'habitude endort la prudence."
Proverbe africain ; Dictionnaire des proverbes africains (1984)

"Les vertus sans la prudence sont des beautés sans yeux."
Proverbe espagnol ; Maximes et sentences espagnoles (1859)

"Un grain de prudence vaut mieux qu'un magasin de subtilité."
Proverbe espagnol ; Maximes et sentences espagnoles (1859)

"Reculer pour mieux revenir à la charge est prudence et non lâcheté."
Proverbe latin ; Proverbes et dictons latins (1757)

"La prudence est la fille de la réflexion."
Proverbe latin ; Sentences latines - Ier s. av. J.-C.

"Ecoute les paroles de la prudence, suis ses conseils, et rassemble-les dans ton cœur."
Proverbe hindou ; Livre des sagesses des Purânas.

"Une once de prudence vaut mieux qu'une livre de témérité."
Proverbe écossais ; Proverbes et dictons écossais (1876)

"La témérité a tué plus d'hommes que la prudence."
Proverbe latin ; Proverbes et dictons latins (1757)

RAPPORT DE Y'BECCA
SOUS L’ÉGIDE DU
CITOYEN TIGNARD YANIS
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Voir le profil de l'utilisateur http://www.atelier-yannistignard.com En ligne
yanis la chouette



Nombre de messages : 9460
Localisation : http://yanis.tignard.free.fr/
Date d'inscription : 09/11/2005

MessageSujet: Re: Alps and plains, Europa Clipper et Earth's Carbon Puzzle.   Mar 12 Juin à 3:43


May 31, 2018
Gravitational Wave Event Likely Signaled Creation of a Black Hole

The spectacular merger of two neutron stars that generated gravitational waves announced last fall likely did something else: birthed a black hole. This newly spawned black hole would be the lowest mass black hole ever found.

A new study analyzed data from NASA’s Chandra X-ray Observatory taken in the days, weeks, and months after the detection of gravitational waves by the Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory (LIGO) and gamma rays by NASA’s Fermi mission on August 17, 2017.

While nearly every telescope at professional astronomers’ disposal observed this source, known officially as GW170817, X-rays from Chandra are critical for understanding what happened after the two neutron stars collided.

From the LIGO data astronomers have a good estimate that the mass of the object resulting from the neutron star merger is about 2.7 times the mass of the Sun. This puts it on a tightrope of identity, implying it is either the most massive neutron star ever found or the lowest mass black hole ever found. The previous record holders for the latter are no less than about four or five times the Sun’s mass.

“While neutron stars and black holes are mysterious, we have studied many of them throughout the Universe using telescopes like Chandra,” said Dave Pooley of Trinity University in San Antonio, Texas, who led the study. “That means we have both data and theories on how we expect such objects to behave in X-rays.”

The Chandra observations are telling, not only for what they revealed, but also for what they did not. If the neutron stars merged and formed a heavier neutron star, then astronomers would expect it to spin rapidly and generate a very strong magnetic field. This, in turn, would have created an expanding bubble of high-energy particles that would result in bright X-ray emission. Instead, the Chandra data show levels of X-rays that are a factor of a few to several hundred times lower than expected for a rapidly spinning, merged neutron star and the associated bubble of high-energy particles, implying a black hole likely formed instead.

If confirmed, this result shows that a recipe for making a black hole can sometimes be complicated. In the case of GW170817, it would have required two supernova explosions that left behind two neutron stars in a sufficiently tight orbit for gravitational wave radiation to bring the neutron stars together.

“We may have answered one of the most basic questions about this dazzling event: what did it make?” said co-author Pawan Kumar of the University of Texas at Austin. “Astronomers have long suspected that neutron star mergers would form a black hole and produce bursts of radiation, but we lacked a strong case for it until now."

A Chandra observation two to three days after the event failed to detect a source, but subsequent observations 9, 15 and 16 days after the event, resulted in detections. The source went behind the Sun soon after, but further brightening was seen in Chandra observations about 110 days after the event, followed by comparable X-ray intensity after about 160 days.

By comparing the Chandra observations with those by the NSF's Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA), Pooley and collaborators explain the observed X-ray emission as being due entirely to the shock wave – akin to a sonic boom from a supersonic plane – from the merger smashing into surrounding gas. There is no sign of X-rays resulting from a neutron star.

The claims by Pooley's team can be tested by future X-ray and radio observations. If the remnant turns out to be a neutron star with a strong magnetic field, then the source should get much brighter at X-ray and radio wavelengths in about a couple of years when the bubble of high energy particles catches up with the decelerating shock wave. If it is indeed a black hole, astronomers expect it to continue to become fainter that has recently been observed as the shock wave weakens.

“GW170817 is the astronomical event that keeps on giving,” said J. Craig Wheeler, a co-author on the study also from the University of Texas. “We are learning so much about the astrophysics of the densest known objects from this one event.”

If follow-up observations find that a heavy neutron star has survived, such a discovery would challenge theories for the structure of neutron stars and how massive they can get.

“At the beginning of my career, astronomers could only observe neutron stars and black holes in our own galaxy, and now we are observing these exotic stars across the cosmos,” said co-author Bruce Gossan of the University of California at Berkeley. “What an exciting time to be alive, to see instruments like LIGO and Chandra showing us so many thrilling things nature has to offer.”

A paper describing this result appears in the latest issue of The Astrophysical Journal Letters and is available online (http://lanl.arxiv.org/abs/1712.03240). NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, manages the Chandra program for NASA's Science Mission Directorate in Washington. The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory in Cambridge, Massachusetts, controls Chandra's science and flight operations.

Molly Porter
NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Ala.
256-424-5158
molly.a.porter@nasa.gov

Megan Watzke
Chandra X-ray Center, Cambridge, Mass.
617-496-7998
mwatzke@cfa.harvard.edu

Last Updated: June 3, 2018
Editor: Jennifer Harbaugh
Tags: Black Holes, Chandra X-Ray Observatory, Universe

https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/chandra/news/gravitational-wave-event-likely-signaled-creation-of-a-black-hole


TIGNARD YANIS @TIGNARDYANIS
14 h il y a 14 heures
LA CHANCE EST UN SENTIMENT LIÉ AUX CONSCIENCES :
SELON LES CONTEXTES, LES PERSONNES RÉVÈLENT LES DEGRÉS DES SUPERSTITIONS
DE CHACUN. AINSI, IL Y A LA DÉFINITION DE LA SUPERFICIE DU TEMPS
SUR LA CLAMEUR DE L'ESPACE : LA CLARTÉ ET L'ESPRIT.
TAY

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MessageSujet: Re: Alps and plains, Europa Clipper et Earth's Carbon Puzzle.   

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