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 TÉMOIGNAGES DE L'ODYSSÉE, AUX HARMONIES SUR SOURCE D'OSMOSE.

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AuteurMessage
yanis la chouette



Nombre de messages : 9682
Localisation : http://yanis.tignard.free.fr/
Date d'inscription : 09/11/2005

MessageSujet: TÉMOIGNAGES DE L'ODYSSÉE, AUX HARMONIES SUR SOURCE D'OSMOSE.   Mar 20 Fév à 1:51

Title Diamond ring
Released 12/02/2018 9:00 am
Copyright ESA, CC BY-SA 3.0 IGO
Description

Love is in the air this week! Whether you’re a red rose enthusiast or are planning to eschew all involvement this year, we have a cosmic Valentine’s treat to please even the most romance-averse: this bright and beautiful celestial ring.

Glimmering with colour and light against a pitch-black sky, this ring was seen during the eclipse that took place on 21 August 2017 across the USA. This event was a total solar eclipse, meaning that the Moon slipped perfectly in front of the Sun and blocked the entirety of the star’s light – an occurrence known as totality – for a band of observers across the country.

The shadow of the eclipse took 1.5 hours to cross the USA, moving from Oregon to South Carolina, and gave eager eclipse-watchers within the totality belt up to 160 seconds of total darkness.

This snapshot was captured during an eclipse expedition to the USA as part of ESA’s CESAR (Cooperation through Education in Science and Astronomy Research) educational initiative. CESAR engages students in the wonders of science and technology – astronomy in particular. The expedition team organised a special event on eclipse day, and delivered a broadcast including eclipse footage and talks with experts.

Totality for the team occurred at precisely 10:42 local time in Casper, Wyoming (17:42 GMT); this image was taken moments after totality ended and the Moon continued along its path through the sky.

The eclipse’s likeness to a diamond ring is a well-documented effect within astronomy, and seen often in solar eclipses. It is known as, predictably, either the diamond ring effect or the Baily’s beads effect. The beads refer to the tiny pearls and droplets of sunlight that can be seen forming around the Moon’s dark outline. When the Moon moves on enough for the beads to draw together and form a more solid and extended band of light, Baily’s beads are said to have formed the diamond ring effect – as seen here.

The CESAR team took images at every stage of the eclipse, many of which show Baily’s beads and other phenomena in more detail. These can be seen here.
Id 390166

http://www.esa.int/spaceinimages/Images/2018/02/Diamond_ring


Title Survival flair
Released 12/02/2018 2:32 pm
Copyright GCTC
Description

ESA astronaut Luca Parmitano is gearing up for his second mission to the International Space Station in 2019 on a Russian Soyuz spacecraft. All astronauts who fly on Soyuz do a winter survival course in the forests near Star City, Russia.

When Soyuz lands on Earth support teams are usually at hand within minutes to help the astronauts out, but there is always the possibility that the capsule lands in a remote, cold area. As part of their normal training, astronauts learn to survive in harsh climates while waiting for rescue.

For Luca, the course is more of a refresher than learning new skills – he already survived the training in October 2012 as part of his first mission.

The course includes getting out of Soyuz unaided, changing from spacesuits into more winter-friendly garments, signalling for help (as pictured here), building a shelter out of wood and the capsule’s parachute, building a fire and providing first aid.
Id 390182

http://www.esa.int/spaceinimages/Images/2018/02/Survival_flair

TÉMOIGNAGES DE L'ODYSSÉE, AUX HARMONIES SUR SOURCE D'OSMOSE.

SENTIMENTS
DU CITOYEN TIGNARD YANIS
ALIAS
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Dark Obscur en photographie.
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yanis la chouette



Nombre de messages : 9682
Localisation : http://yanis.tignard.free.fr/
Date d'inscription : 09/11/2005

MessageSujet: Re: TÉMOIGNAGES DE L'ODYSSÉE, AUX HARMONIES SUR SOURCE D'OSMOSE.   Mar 20 Fév à 1:59



Lumière sur la collection de peintures conservée au musée du quai Branly - Jacques Chirac. Près de deux cents œuvres inédites révèlent l’évolution, à travers les siècles, du regard porté en Occident sur les peuples, sociétés et territoires plus ou moins lointains.

Pour cette première exposition consacrée à la collection de peintures conservée quai Branly, Peintures des lointains rassemble près de deux cent toiles et œuvres graphiques – parmi les cinq cents du fonds – datant de la fin du XVIIIe siècle jusqu’au milieu du XXe siècle.

Une collection composite et largement méconnue, où l’odalisque d’Ange Tissier côtoie les portraits d’Amérindiens de George Catlin, les scènes de vie quotidienne cairote d’Émile Bernard voisinent les estampes et dessins de Tahiti signés Matisse ou Gauguin.

À travers cette collection, c’est aussi l’histoire d’une rencontre avec l’Autre et l’Ailleurs qui est contée, l’évolution du regard artistique face à l’inconnu qui est questionnée. Dans une Europe en pleine expansion coloniale, face au choc d’un monde qui lui ouvre ses portes, l’art occidental emprunte différentes voies. Cédant d’abord à la tentation de l’exotisme – où l’exaltation de la couleur et de la lumière sert les rêves d’un Orient de luxe et de volupté – il figurera par la suite un regard plus réaliste, ethnographique, attentif à l’autre.

Entre onirisme et naturalisme, fantasme et documentaire, romantisme et propagande coloniale, un miroir de l’histoire artistique et politique.

http://www.quaibranly.fr/fr/expositions-evenements/au-musee/expositions/details-de-levenement/e/peintures-des-lointains-37627/


Commissaire

Sarah Ligner, Responsable de l'unité patrimoniale Mondialisation historique et contemporaine au musée du quai Branly - Jacques Chirac

Lieu : Mezzanine ouest
Dates :
Du mardi 30 janvier 2018 au dimanche 06 janvier 2019
Fermeture le lundi
lundi, mardi, mercredi, dimanche : 11h00-19h00
jeudi, vendredi, samedi : 11h00-21h00


News | February 13, 2018
New Study Finds Sea Level Rise Accelerating

The rate of global sea level rise has been accelerating in recent decades, rather than increasing steadily, according to a new study based on 25 years of NASA and European satellite data.

This acceleration, driven mainly by increased melting in Greenland and Antarctica, has the potential to double the total sea level rise projected by 2100 when compared to projections that assume a constant rate of sea level rise, according to lead author Steve Nerem. Nerem is a professor of Aerospace Engineering Sciences at the University of Colorado Boulder, a fellow at Colorado's Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences (CIRES), and a member of NASA's Sea Level Change team.

Global sea level rise is accelerating incrementally over time rather than increasing at a steady rate, as previously thought, according to a new study based on 25 years of NASA and European satellite data.

If the rate of ocean rise continues to change at this pace, sea level will rise 26 inches (65 centimeters) by 2100 -- enough to cause significant problems for coastal cities, according to the new assessment by Nerem and colleagues from NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland; CU Boulder; the University of South Florida in Tampa; and Old Dominion University in Norfolk, Virginia. The team, driven to understand and better predict Earth's response to a warming world, published their work Feb. 12 in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

"This is almost certainly a conservative estimate," Nerem said. "Our extrapolation assumes that sea level continues to change in the future as it has over the last 25 years. Given the large changes we are seeing in the ice sheets today, that's not likely."

Rising concentrations of greenhouse gases in Earth's atmosphere increase the temperature of air and water, which causes sea level to rise in two ways. First, warmer water expands, and this "thermal expansion" of the ocean has contributed about half of the 2.8 inches (7 centimeters) of global mean sea level rise we've seen over the last 25 years, Nerem said. Second, melting land ice flows into the ocean, also increasing sea level across the globe.

These increases were measured using satellite altimeter measurements since 1992, including the Topex/Poseidon, Jason-1, Jason-2 and Jason-3 satellite missions, which have been jointly managed by multiple agencies, including NASA, Centre national d'etudes spatiales (CNES), European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT), and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, manages the U.S. portion of these missions for NASA's Science Mission Directorate. The rate of sea level rise in the satellite era has risen from about 0.1 inch (2.5 millimeters) per year in the 1990s to about 0.13 inches (3.4 millimeters) per year today.

"The Topex/Poseidon/Jason altimetry missions have been essentially providing the equivalent of a global network of nearly half a million accurate tide gauges, providing sea surface height information every 10 days for over 25 years," said Brian Beckley, of NASA Goddard, second author on the new paper and lead of a team that processes altimetry observations into a global sea level data record. "As this climate data record approaches three decades, the fingerprints of Greenland and Antarctic land-based ice loss are now being revealed in the global and regional mean sea level estimates."

Even with a 25-year data record, detecting acceleration is challenging. Episodes like volcanic eruptions can create variability: the eruption of Mount Pinatubo in 1991 decreased global mean sea level just before the Topex/Poseidon satellite launch, for example. In addition, global sea level can fluctuate due to climate patterns such as El Ninos and La Ninos (the opposing phases of the El Nino-Southern Oscillation), which influence ocean temperature and global precipitation patterns.

Nerem and his team used climate models to account for the volcanic effects and other datasets to determine the El Nino/La Nina effects, ultimately uncovering the underlying rate and acceleration of sea level rise over the last quarter century.

The team also used tide gauge data to assess potential errors in the altimeter estimate.

"The tide gauge measurements are essential for determining the uncertainty in the global mean sea level acceleration estimate," said co-author Gary Mitchum, University of South Florida College of Marine Science. "They provide the only assessments of the satellite instruments from the ground." Others have used tide gauge data to measure sea level acceleration, but scientists have struggled to pull out other important details from tide-gauge data, such as changes in the last couple of decades due to more active ice sheet melt.

In addition to NASA's involvement in missions that make direct sea level observations from space, the agency's Earth science work includes a wide-ranging portfolio of missions, field campaigns and research that contribute to improved understanding of how global sea level is changing. Airborne campaigns such as Operation IceBridge and JPL's Oceans Melting Greenland gather measurements of ice sheets and glaciers, while computer modeling research improves our understanding of how Antarctica and Greenland will respond in a warming climate.

In 2018, NASA will launch two new satellite missions that will be critical to improving future sea level projections: the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment Follow-On (GRACE-FO) mission, a partnership with GeoForschungsZentrum (GFZ) in Germany, will continue measurements of the mass of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets; while the Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite-2 (ICESat-2) will make highly accurate observations of the elevation of ice sheets and glaciers.

News Media Contact
Written by Katie Weeman
Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences

and

Patrick Lynch
NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md.

Alan Buis
Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif.
818-354-0474
Alan.Buis@jpl.nasa.gov

2018-029

https://www.jpl.nasa.gov/news/news.php?feature=7060&utm_source=iContact&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=NASAJPL&utm_content=earth20180213-1

News | February 13, 2018
A Piece of Mars is Going Home

A chunk of Mars will soon be returning home.

A piece of a meteorite called Sayh al Uhaymir 008 (SaU008) will be carried on board NASA's Mars 2020 rover mission, now being built at the agency's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California. This chunk will serve as target practice for a high-precision laser on the rover's arm.

Mars 2020's goal is ambitious: collect samples from the Red Planet's surface that a future mission could potentially return to Earth. One of the rover's many tools will be a laser designed to illuminate rock features as fine as a human hair.

That level of precision requires a calibration target to help tweak the laser's settings. Previous NASA rovers have included calibration targets as well. Depending on the instrument, the target material can include things like rock, metal or glass, and can often look like a painter's palette.

But working on this particular instrument sparked an idea among JPL scientists: why not use an actual piece of Mars? Earth has a limited supply of Martian meteorites, which scientists determined were blasted off Mars' surface millions of years ago.

These meteorites aren't as unique as the geologically diverse samples 2020 will collect. But they're still scientifically interesting -- and perfect for target practice.

"We're studying things on such a fine scale that slight misalignments, caused by changes in temperature or even the rover settling into sand, can require us to correct our aim," said Luther Beegle of JPL. Beegle is principal investigator for a laser instrument called SHERLOC (Scanning Habitable Environments with Raman and Luminescence for Organics and Chemicals). "By studying how the instrument sees a fixed target, we can understand how it will see a piece of the Martian surface."

SHERLOC will be the first instrument on Mars to use Raman and fluorescence spectroscopies, scientific techniques familiar to forensics experts. Whenever an ultraviolet light shines over certain carbon-based chemicals, they give off the same characteristic glow that you see under a black light.

Scientists can use this glow to detect chemicals that form in the presence of life. SHERLOC will photograph the rocks it studies, then map the chemicals it detects across those images. That adds a spatial context to the layers of data Mars 2020 will collect.

"This kind of science requires texture and organic chemicals -- two things that our target meteorite will provide," said Rohit Bhartia of JPL, SHERLOC's deputy principal investigator.

No Flaky Meteorites

Martian meteorites are precious in their rarity. Only about 200 have been confirmed by The Meteoritical Society, which has a database listing these vetted meteorites.

To select the right one for SHERLOC, JPL turned to contacts at NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston, as well as the Natural History Museum of London. Not just any Martian meteorite would do: its condition would need to be solid enough that it would not flake apart during the intensity of launch and landing.

It also needed to possess certain chemical features to test SHERLOC's sensitivity. These had to be reasonably easy to detect repeatedly for the calibration target to be useful.

Experts tried several samples, cutting off thin bits to test whether they would crumble. Using a "flaky" sample could damage the entire meteorite in the process.

The SHERLOC team ultimately agreed on using SaU008, a meteorite found in Oman in 1999. Besides being more rugged than other samples, a piece of it was available courtesy of Caroline Smith, principal curator of meteorites at London's Natural History Museum.

"Every year, we provide hundreds of meteorite specimens to scientists all over the world for study," Smith said. "This is a first for us: sending one of our samples back home for the benefit of science."

SaU008 will be the first Martian meteorite to have a fragment return to the planet's surface -- though not the first on a return trip to Mars.

NASA's Mars Global Surveyor included a chunk of a meteorite known as Zagami. It's still floating around the Red Planet onboard the now-defunct orbiter.

Additionally, the team behind Mars2020's SuperCam instrument will be adding a Martian meteorite to their own calibration target.

Preparing for Humans on Mars

Along with its own Martian meteorite, SHERLOC's calibration target will include several interesting scientific samples for human spaceflight. These include materials that could be used to make spacesuit fabric, gloves and a helmet's visor.

By watching how they hold up under Martian weather, including radiation, NASA will be able to test these materials for future Mars missions.

"The SHERLOC instrument is a valuable opportunity to prepare for human spaceflight as well as to perform fundamental scientific investigations of the Martian surface," said Marc Fries, a SHERLOC co-investigator and curator of extraterrestrial materials at Johnson Space Center. "It gives us a convenient way to test material that will keep future astronauts safe when they get to Mars."

News Media Contact
Andrew Good
Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif.
818-393-2433
andrew.c.good@jpl.nasa.gov

2018-030

https://www.jpl.nasa.gov/news/news.php?feature=7058&utm_source=iContact&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=NASAJPL&utm_content=mars20180213-1

TÉMOIGNAGES DE L'ODYSSÉE, AUX HARMONIES SUR SOURCE D'OSMOSE.

SENTIMENTS
DU CITOYEN TIGNARD YANIS
ALIAS
TAY
La chouette effraie
et
Dark Obscur en photographie.
______________________

kounak le chat
Revenir en haut Aller en bas
Voir le profil de l'utilisateur http://www.atelier-yannistignard.com
yanis la chouette



Nombre de messages : 9682
Localisation : http://yanis.tignard.free.fr/
Date d'inscription : 09/11/2005

MessageSujet: Re: TÉMOIGNAGES DE L'ODYSSÉE, AUX HARMONIES SUR SOURCE D'OSMOSE.   Mar 20 Fév à 2:09

NEWS | February 13, 2018
A Piece of Mars is Going Home
https://mars.nasa.gov/mars2020/
A chunk of Mars will soon be returning home.

A piece of a meteorite called Sayh al Uhaymir 008 (SaU008) will be carried on board NASA's Mars 2020 rover mission, now being built at the agency's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California. This chunk will serve as target practice for a high-precision laser on the rover's arm.

Mars 2020's goal is ambitious: collect samples from the Red Planet's surface that a future mission could potentially return to Earth. One of the rover's many tools will be a laser designed to illuminate rock features as fine as a human hair.
close up of meteorite
Close-up of a slice of a meteorite scientists have determined came from Mars. This slice will likely be used here on Earth for testing a laser instrument for NASA's Mars 2020 rover; a separate slice will go to Mars on the rover. Click image for full image and caption. Image Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech

That level of precision requires a calibration target to help tweak the laser's settings. Previous NASA rovers have included calibration targets as well. Depending on the instrument, the target material can include things like rock, metal or glass, and can often look like a painter's palette.

But working on this particular instrument sparked an idea among JPL scientists: why not use an actual piece of Mars? Earth has a limited supply of Martian meteorites, which scientists determined were blasted off Mars' surface millions of years ago.

These meteorites aren't as unique as the geologically diverse samples 2020 will collect. But they're still scientifically interesting -- and perfect for target practice.
cleaning a meteorite
A slice of a meteorite scientists have determined came from Mars placed inside an oxygen plasma cleaner, which removes organics from the outside of surfaces. This slice will likely be used here on Earth for testing a laser instrument for NASA's Mars 2020 rover; a separate slice will go to Mars on the rover. Click image for full image and caption. Image Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech

"We're studying things on such a fine scale that slight misalignments, caused by changes in temperature or even the rover settling into sand, can require us to correct our aim," said Luther Beegle of JPL. Beegle is principal investigator for a laser instrument called SHERLOC (Scanning Habitable Environments with Raman and Luminescence for Organics and Chemicals). "By studying how the instrument sees a fixed target, we can understand how it will see a piece of the Martian surface."

SHERLOC will be the first instrument on Mars to use Raman and fluorescence spectroscopies, scientific techniques familiar to forensics experts. Whenever an ultraviolet light shines over certain carbon-based chemicals, they give off the same characteristic glow that you see under a black light.

Scientists can use this glow to detect chemicals that form in the presence of life. SHERLOC will photograph the rocks it studies, then map the chemicals it detects across those images. That adds a spatial context to the layers of data Mars 2020 will collect.

"This kind of science requires texture and organic chemicals -- two things that our target meteorite will provide," said Rohit Bhartia of JPL, SHERLOC's deputy principal investigator.

No Flaky Meteorites

Martian meteorites are precious in their rarity. Only about 200 have been confirmed by The Meteoritical Society, which has a database listing these vetted meteorites.

To select the right one for SHERLOC, JPL turned to contacts at NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston, as well as the Natural History Museum of London. Not just any Martian meteorite would do: its condition would need to be solid enough that it would not flake apart during the intensity of launch and landing.

It also needed to possess certain chemical features to test SHERLOC's sensitivity. These had to be reasonably easy to detect repeatedly for the calibration target to be useful.

Experts tried several samples, cutting off thin bits to test whether they would crumble. Using a "flaky" sample could damage the entire meteorite in the process.

The SHERLOC team ultimately agreed on using SaU008, a meteorite found in Oman in 1999. Besides being more rugged than other samples, a piece of it was available courtesy of Caroline Smith, principal curator of meteorites at London’s Natural History Museum.

"Every year, we provide hundreds of meteorite specimens to scientists all over the world for study," Smith said. "This is a first for us: sending one of our samples back home for the benefit of science."

SaU008 will be the first Martian meteorite to have a fragment return to the planet's surface -- though not the first on a return trip to Mars.

NASA's Mars Global Surveyor included a chunk of a meteorite known as Zagami. It's still floating around the Red Planet onboard the now-defunct orbiter.

Additionally, the team behind Mars2020's SuperCam instrument will be adding a Martian meteorite to their own calibration target.

Preparing for Humans on Mars

Along with its own Martian meteorite, SHERLOC's calibration target will include several interesting scientific samples for human spaceflight. These include materials that could be used to make spacesuit fabric, gloves and a helmet's visor.

By watching how they hold up under Martian weather, including radiation, NASA will be able to test these materials for future Mars missions.

"The SHERLOC instrument is a valuable opportunity to prepare for human spaceflight as well as to perform fundamental scientific investigations of the Martian surface," said Marc Fries, a SHERLOC co-investigator and curator of extraterrestrial materials at Johnson Space Center. "It gives us a convenient way to test material that will keep future astronauts safe when they get to Mars."


Andrew Good
Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif.
818-393-2433
andrew.c.good@jpl.nasa.gov

https://mars.nasa.gov/news/8308/a-piece-of-mars-is-going-home/

King Crimson "Earthbound" (1972.3.13) Denver, Colorado, USA.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MxJKceuDSMo

What are Science Instruments?
https://mars.nasa.gov/mars2020/mission/instruments/
Science instruments are state-of-the-art tools for acquiring information about Martian geology, atmosphere, environmental conditions, and potential biosignatures.


NEWS | July 31, 2014
NASA Announces Mars 2020 Rover Payload to Explore the Red Planet as Never Before

The next rover NASA will send to Mars in 2020 will carry seven carefully-selected instruments to conduct unprecedented science and exploration technology investigations on the Red Planet.

NASA announced the selected Mars 2020 rover instruments Thursday at the agency's headquarters in Washington. Managers made the selections out of 58 proposals received in January from researchers and engineers worldwide. Proposals received were twice the usual number submitted for instrument competitions in the recent past. This is an indicator of the extraordinary interest by the science community in the exploration of the Mars. The selected proposals have a total value of approximately $130 million for development of the instruments.

The Mars 2020 mission will be based on the design of the highly successful Mars Science Laboratory rover, Curiosity, which landed almost two years ago, and currently is operating on Mars. The new rover will carry more sophisticated, upgraded hardware and new instruments to conduct geological assessments of the rover's landing site, determine the potential habitability of the environment, and directly search for signs of ancient Martian life.

"Today we take another important step on our journey to Mars," said NASA Administrator Charles Bolden." While getting to and landing on Mars is hard, Curiosity was an iconic example of how our robotic scientific explorers are paving the way for humans to pioneer Mars and beyond. Mars exploration will be this generation's legacy, and the Mars 2020 rover will be another critical step on humans' journey to the Red Planet."

Scientists will use the Mars 2020 rover to identify and select a collection of rock and soil samples that will be stored for potential return to Earth by a future mission. The Mars 2020 mission is responsive to the science objectives recommended by the National Research Council's 2011 Planetary Science Decadal Survey.

"The Mars 2020 rover, with these new advanced scientific instruments, including those from our international partners, holds the promise to unlock more mysteries of Mars' past as revealed in the geological record," said John Grunsfeld astronaut, and associate administrator of NASA's Science Mission Directorate in Washington. "This mission will further our search for life in the universe and also offer opportunities to advance new capabilities in exploration technology."

The Mars 2020 rover also will help advance our knowledge of how future human explorers could use natural resources available on the surface of the Red Planet. An ability to live off the Martian land would transform future exploration of the planet. Designers of future human expeditions can use this mission to understand the hazards posed by Martian dust and demonstrate technology to process carbon dioxide from the atmosphere to produce oxygen. These experiments will help engineers learn how to use Martian resources to produce oxygen for human respiration and potentially for use as an oxidizer for rocket fuel.

"The 2020 rover will help answer questions about the Martian environment that astronauts will face and test technologies they need before landing on, exploring and returning from the Red Planet," said William Gerstenmaier, associate administrator for the Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate at NASA Headquarters in Washington. "Mars has resources needed to help sustain life, which can reduce the amount of supplies that human missions will need to carry. Better understanding the Martian dust and weather will be valuable data for planning human Mars missions. Testing ways to extract these resources and understand the environment will help make the pioneering of Mars feasible."

The selected payload proposals are:


* Mastcam-Z, an advanced camera system with panoramic and stereoscopic imaging capability with the ability to zoom. The instrument also will determine mineralogy of the Martian surface and assist with rover operations. The principal investigator is James Bell, Arizona State University in Tempe.

* SuperCam, an instrument that can provide imaging, chemical composition analysis, and mineralogy. The instrument will also be able to detect the presence of organic compounds in rocks and regolith from a distance. The principal investigator is Roger Wiens, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico. This instrument also has a significant contribution from the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales,Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Plane'tologie (CNES/IRAP) France.

* Planetary Instrument for X-ray Lithochemistry (PIXL), an X-ray fluorescence spectrometer that will also contain an imager with high resolution to determine the fine scale elemental composition of Martian surface materials. PIXL will provide capabilities that permit more detailed detection and analysis of chemical elements than ever before. The principal investigator is Abigail Allwood, NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in Pasadena, California.

* Scanning Habitable Environments with Raman & Luminescence for Organics and Chemicals (SHERLOC), a spectrometer that will provide fine-scale imaging and uses an ultraviolet (UV) laser to determine fine-scale mineralogy and detect organic compounds. SHERLOC will be the first UV Raman spectrometer to fly to the surface of Mars and will provide complementary measurements with other instruments in the payload. The principal investigator is Luther Beegle, JPL.

* The Mars Oxygen ISRU Experiment (MOXIE), an exploration technology investigation that will produce oxygen from Martian atmospheric carbon dioxide. The principal investigator is Michael Hecht, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts.

* Mars Environmental Dynamics Analyzer (MEDA), a set of sensors that will provide measurements of temperature, wind speed and direction, pressure, relative humidity and dust size and shape. The principal investigator is Jose Rodriguez-Manfredi, Centro de Astrobiologia, Instituto Nacional de Tecnica Aeroespacial, Spain.

* The Radar Imager for Mars' Subsurface Exploration (RIMFAX), a ground-penetrating radar that will provide centimeter-scale resolution of the geologic structure of the subsurface. The principal investigator is Svein-Erik Hamran, the Norwegian Defence Research Establishment, Norway.

"We are excited that NASA's Space Technology Program is partnered with Human Exploration and the Mars 2020 Rover Team to demonstrate our abilities to harvest the Mars atmosphere and convert its abundant carbon dioxide to pure oxygen'" said James Reuther, deputy associate administrator for programs for the Space Technology Mission Directorate. "This technology demonstration will pave the way for more affordable human missions to Mars where oxygen is needed for life support and rocket propulsion."

Instruments developed from the selected proposals will be placed on a rover similar to Curiosity, which has been exploring Mars since 2012. Using a proven landing system and rover chassis design to deliver these new experiments to Mars will ensure mission costs and risks are minimized as much as possible, while still delivering a highly capable rover.

Curiosity recently completed a Martian year on the surface -- 687 Earth days -- having accomplished the mission's main goal of determining whether Mars once offered environmental conditions favorable for microbial life.

The Mars 2020 rover is part the agency's Mars Exploration Program, which includes the Opportunity and Curiosity rovers, the Odyssey and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft currently orbiting the planet, and the MAVEN orbiter, which is set to arrive at the Red Planet in September and will study the Martian upper atmosphere.

In 2016, a Mars lander mission called InSight will launch to take the first look into the deep interior of Mars. The agency also is participating in the European Space Agency's (ESA's) 2016 and 2018 ExoMars missions, including providing "Electra" telecommunication radios to ESA's 2016 orbiter and a critical element of the astrobiology instrument on the 2018 ExoMars rover.

NASA's Mars Exploration Program seeks to characterize and understand Mars as a dynamic system, including its present and past environment, climate cycles, geology and biological potential. In parallel, NASA is developing the human spaceflight capabilities needed for future round-trip missions to Mars.

NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory will build and manage operations of the Mars 2020 rover for the NASA Science Mission Directorate at the agency's headquarters in Washington.

For more information about NASA's Mars programs, visit:
http://www.nasa.gov/mars

Dwayne Brown
Headquarters, Washington
202-358-1726
dwayne.c.brown@nasa.gov

https://mars.nasa.gov/news/nasa-announces-mars-2020-rover-payload-to-explore-the-red-planet-as-never-before/

Read news article: NASA Announces Mars 2020 Rover Payload to Explore the Red Planet as Never Before >>

NEWS | February 16, 2018
Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter Mission Status Report.



Diagnostic Work is Focus for Resuming Service and Exiting Safe Standby Status

NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO), at Mars since 2006, put itself into a precautionary standby mode on Feb. 15 in response to sensing an unexpectedly low battery voltage.

The orbiter is solar-powered but relies on a pair of nickel-hydrogen batteries during periods when it is in the shadow of Mars for a portion of each orbit. The two are used together, maintaining almost identical charge during normal operations.

The spacecraft remains in communication with Earth and has been maintaining safe, stable temperatures and power, but has suspended its science observations and its service as a communications relay for Mars rovers. Normal voltage has been restored, and the spacecraft is being monitored continuously until the troubleshooting is complete.

"We're in the diagnostic stage, to better understand the behavior of the batteries and ways to give ourselves more options for managing them in the future," said MRO Project Manager Dan Johnston of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California. "We will restore MRO's service as a relay for other missions as soon as we can do so with confidence in spacecraft safety -- likely in about one week. After that, we will resume science observations."

https://mars.nasa.gov/news/8311/mars-reconnaissance-orbiter-mission-status-report/

NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter entered orbit around the Red Planet on March 10, 2006. Since then, it has returned more data than all other past and current interplanetary missions combined, with a tally of more than 317 terabits so far.

The mission met all its science goals in a two-year primary science phase. Five extensions, the latest beginning in 2016, have added to the science returns. The longevity of the mission has given researchers tools to study seasonal and longer-term changes on Mars. Among other current activities, the orbiter is examining possible landing sites for future missions to Mars and relaying communications to Earth from NASA's two active Mars rovers.

JPL, a division of Caltech in Pasadena, manages the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington. Lockheed Martin Space, Denver, built the orbiter and collaborates with JPL to operate it. For more information about the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, visit:

https://www.nasa.gov/mro

https://mars.jpl.nasa.gov/mro/

Andrew Good / Guy Webster
Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif.
818-393-2433 / 818-354-6278
andrew.c.good@jpl.nasa.gov / guy.webster@jpl.nasa.gov

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Preservation Hall est un club de jazz, située 726, St Peters Street, dans le French Quarter ou Vieux Carré de La Nouvelle-Orléans (Louisiane, États-Unis). Sa programmation est essentiellement composée d'artistes liés au jazz Nouvelle-Orléans.

Le Preservation Hall, de l’extérieur, présente une apparence modeste qui contraste avec son prestige : c’est un petit bâtiment dont l’aspect décrépit, aussi bien à l’intérieur qu’à l’extérieur, est soigneusement entretenu. L’architecture est dans le style colonial espagnol, à un seul étage orné d’un balcon en fer forgé. L’entrée est une porte cochère, surmontée d’une enseigne à peine visible, ouvrant sur un passage pour voitures qui mène à une cour intérieure. L’intérieur est de dimensions réduites. Le prix d’entrée est raisonnable (12 dollars en juin 2010) mais les habitués doivent recourir à des stratégies particulières pour accéder aux bonnes places : passer le premier set debout et sans voir, puis avoir une bonne vue sur les musiciens au second set, et au troisième s’approprier enfin une place assise sur les quelques bancs de bois. L’établissement est ouvert le soir de 18 h à 23 h et les amateurs forment souvent une longue file d’attente avant l’ouverture.

Type Club de jazz
Lieu La Nouvelle-Orléans, Drapeau des États-Unis États-Unis
Coordonnées 29° 57′ 30″ nord, 90° 03′ 54″ ouest
Architecte(s) Gurlie & Guillot (1817)
Inauguration 1961
Nb. de salles 1
Direction Famille d'Allan Jaffe
Site web preservationhall.com

King Crimson "Sailor's Tale" (1972.3.13) Denver, Colorado, USA.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=l479lpzrf8c

Historique

Le premier bâtiment à cet emplacement fut construit en 1750. En 1803, Antonio Faisandieu en fit une taverne. Il le vendit ensuite en 1808 à Pierre et Barthélémy Jourdan. Le 30 septembre 1816, le bâtiment brûle dans l’incendie de l’Orleans Ballroom. Les architectes Gurlie et Guillot rachètent le lot, reconstruisent en respectant vraisemblablement le style d’origine, et revendent la nouvelle construction en novembre 1817 à Agathe Fanchon, femme de couleur libre, qui la conserve jusqu’en 1866. Dans la première moitié du vingtième siècle, l’aile de service et le patio constituent la résidence et le studio du photographe Joseph Woodson "Pops" Whitesell (1876-1958)1.

Au début des années 1960, Larry Borenstein (en) y ouvre une galerie d’art. Les musiciens de jazz de l’époque travaillant rarement à temps complet, il a l’idée d’en employer quelques-uns afin d’attirer la clientèle. Bientôt il y a affluence de public, plus attiré par le jazz que par les œuvres d’art de la galerie.

Allan et Sandra Jaffe lui succèdent et font du Preservation Hall, officiellement ouvert en 1961, une véritable institution. Avec l’explosion du rock 'n' roll et du jazz moderne, le style Nouvelle-Orléans est passé de mode : le Preservation Hall a pour vocation de maintenir et de défendre ce genre musical. Ils ignorent alors quelles sont les règles en vigueur pour la réussite d’une salle de jazz : il n’y pas de piste de danse, et on ne sert ni nourriture ni boissons, la musique seule prévaut. Les seuls produits en vente sont les enregistrements réalisés sur place et par les musiciens de La Nouvelle-Orléans. C’est cette originalité qui fait le succès du Preservation Hall. Les musiciens, regroupés dans le Preservation Hall Jazz Band (en), propagent dans le monde entier la réputation du lieu.

En août 2005, l’ouragan Katrina épargne le Preservation Hall, mais il doit rester fermé pendant des mois. La réouverture a lieu les 27 et 28 avril 2006, pour célébrer le 45e anniversaire.
L’entrée
Références

↑ Histoire du 726 St Peters St. sur le site Encyclopedia Louisiana [archive]

https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Preservation_Hall

News | February 13, 2018
Farewell to a Pioneering Pollution Sensor.

On Jan. 31, NASA ended the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer's (TES) almost 14-year career of discovery. Launched in 2004 on NASA's Aura spacecraft, TES was the first instrument designed to monitor ozone in the lowest layers of the atmosphere directly from space. Its high-resolution observations led to new measurements of atmospheric gases that have altered our understanding of the Earth system.

TES was planned for a five-year mission but far outlasted that term. A mechanical arm on the instrument began stalling intermittently in 2010, affecting TES's ability to collect data continuously. The TES operations team adapted by operating the instrument to maximize science operations over time, attempting to extend the data set as long as possible. However, the stalling increased to the point that TES lost operations about half of last year. The data gaps hampered the use of TES data for research, leading to NASA's decision to decommission the instrument. It will remain on the Aura satellite, receiving enough power to keep it from getting so cold it might break and affect the two remaining functioning instruments.

"The fact that the instrument lasted as long as it did is a testament to the tenacity of the instrument teams responsible for designing, building and operating the instrument," said Kevin Bowman of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, the TES principal investigator.

A True Earth System Sounder

TES was originally conceived to measure ozone in the troposphere, the layer of atmosphere between the surface and the altitude where intercontinental jets fly, using high-spectral-resolution observations of thermal infrared radiation. However, TES cast a wider net, capturing signatures of a broad array of other atmospheric gases as well as ozone. That flexibility allowed the instrument to contribute to a wide range of studies -- not only atmospheric chemistry and the impacts of climate change, but studies of the cycles of water, nitrogen and carbon.

One of the surprises of the mission was the measurement of heavy water: water molecules composed of deuterium, an isotope of hydrogen that has more neutrons than normal hydrogen. The ratio of deuterium to "normal" water in water vapor gives clues to the vapor's history -- how it evaporated and fell as precipitation in the past -- which in turns helps scientists discern what controls the amount in the atmosphere.

Heavy water data have led to fundamental advances in our understanding of the water cycle that were not possible before, such as how tropical thunderstorms keep the troposphere hydrated, how much water in the atmosphere is evaporated from plants and soil as compared to surface water, and how water "exhaled" from southern Amazon vegetation jump-starts the rainforest's rainy season. JPL scientist John Worden, the pioneer of this measurement, said, "It's become one of the most important applications of TES. It gives us a unique window into Earth's hydrological cycle."

While the nitrogen cycle isn't as well measured or understood as the water cycle, nitrogen makes up 78 percent of the atmosphere, and its conversion to other chemical compounds is essential to life. TES demonstrated the first space measurement of a key nitrogen compound, ammonia. This compound is a widely used fertilizer for agriculture in solid form, but as a gas, it reacts with other compounds in the atmosphere to form harmful pollutants.

Another nitrogen compound, peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN), can be lofted into the troposphere from fires and human emissions. Largely invisible in data collected at ground level, this pollutant can travel great distances before it settles back to the surface, where it can form ozone. TES showed how PAN varied globally, including how fires influenced its distribution. "TES really paved the way in our global understanding of both PAN and [ammonia], two keystone species in the atmospheric nitrogen cycle," said Emily Fischer, an assistant professor in the department of atmospheric science at Colorado State University, Fort Collins.

The Three Faces of Ozone

Ozone, a gas with both natural and human sources, is known for its multiple "personalities." In the stratosphere ozone is benign, protecting Earth from incoming ultraviolet radiation. In the troposphere, it has two distinct harmful functions, depending on altitude. At ground level it's a pollutant that hurts living plants and animals, including humans. Higher in the troposphere, it's the third most important human-produced greenhouse gas, trapping outgoing thermal radiation and warming the atmosphere.

TES data, in conjunction with data from other instruments on Aura, were used to disentangle these personalities, leading to a significantly better understanding of ozone and its impact on human health, climate and other parts of the Earth system.

Air currents in the mid- to upper troposphere carry ozone not only across continents but across oceans to other continents. A 2015 study using TES measurements found that the U.S. West Coast's tropospheric ozone levels were higher than expected, given decreased U.S. emissions, partly because of ozone that blew in across the Pacific Ocean from China. The rapid growth in Asian emissions of precursor gases -- gases that interact to create ozone, including carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide -- changed the global landscape of ozone.

"TES has borne witness to dramatic changes in which the gases that create ozone are produced. TES's remarkably stable measurements and ability to resolve the layers of the troposphere allowed us to separate natural changes from those driven by human activities," said JPL scientist Jessica Neu, a coauthor of the study.

Regional changes in emissions of ozone precursor gases alter not only the amount of ozone in the troposphere, but its efficiency as a greenhouse gas. Scientists used TES measurements of ozone's greenhouse effect, combined with chemical weather models, to quantify how the global patterns of these emissions have altered climate. "In order to both improve air quality and mitigate climate change, we need to understand how human pollutant emissions affect climate at the scales in which policies are enacted [that is, at the scale of a city, state or country]. TES data paved the way for how satellites could play a central role," said Daven Henze, an associate professor in the department of mechanical engineering at the University of Colorado at Boulder.

A Pathfinder Mission

"TES was a pioneer, collecting a whole new set of measurements with new techniques, which are now being used by a new generation of instruments," Bowman said. Its successor instruments are used for both atmospheric monitoring and weather forecasting. Among them are the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) instrument on the NOAA-NASA Suomi-NPP satellite and the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) series, developed by the French space agency in partnership with EUMETSAT, the European meteorological satellite organization.

Cathy Clerbaux, a senior scientist with the French Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique who is the leading scientist on the IASI series, said, "TES's influence on later missions like ours was very important. TES demonstrated the possibility of deriving the concentration of atmospheric gases by using interferometry to observe their molecular properties. Although similar instruments existed to sound the upper atmosphere, TES was special in allowing measurements nearer the surface, where pollution lies. The scientific results obtained with IASI greatly benefited from the close collaboration we developed with the TES scientists."

TES scientists have been pioneers in another way: by combining the instrument's measurements with those of other instruments to produce enhanced data sets, revealing more than either original set of observations. For example, combining the Ozone Monitoring Instrument on Aura's measurements in ultraviolet wavelengths with TES's thermal infrared measurements gives a data set with enhanced sensitivity to air pollutants near the surface.

The team is now applying that capability to measurements by other instrument pairs - for example, enhanced carbon monoxide (CO) from CrIS with CO and other measurements from the TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI) on the European Space Agency's Copernicus Sentinel-5 Precursor satellite. "The application of the TES algorithms to CrIS and TROPOMI data will continue the 18-year record of unique near-surface carbon monoxide measurements from [NASA's Terra' satellite's Measurement of Pollution in the Troposphere instrument, or MOPITT] into the next decade," said Helen Worden, a scientist at the National Center for Atmospheric Research in Boulder, Colorado, who is both the principal investigator of MOPITT and a TES science team member.

These new techniques developed for TES along with broad applications throughout the Earth System assure that the mission's legacy will continue long after TES's final farewell.

News Media Contact
Alan Buis
Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California
818-354-0474
Alan.Buis@jpl.nasa.gov

Written by Carol Rasmussen
NASA's Earth Science News Team

2018-031

https://www.jpl.nasa.gov/news/news.php?feature=7061&utm_source=iContact&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=NASAJPL&utm_content=tes20180213-1

New Clues to Compositions of TRAPPIST-1 Planets
https://www.jpl.nasa.gov/news/news.php?feature=7052

Un club de jazz est une salle de concert dont la programmation est principalement composée d'artistes de jazz. Les villes comptant le plus de clubs de jazz se trouvent aux États-Unis (New York, La Nouvelle-Orléans, Chicago) et en Europe (Paris, Londres). À New York, la 52e rue à Manhattan est célèbre pour avoir compté jusqu'à plusieurs dizaines de clubs dans les années 1950.

Aux débuts du jazz, ceux-ci comprenaient généralement de grandes salles afin d'accueillir les big bands et de permettre au public de danser. Dans les années 1940, avec l'émergence du genre bebop, pratiqué par de plus petites formations (quartets, trios), les concerts et les clubs de jazz deviennent plus intimistes. Ils sont fréquemment de plus petite dimension que les salles de concert dédiées aux autres genres musicaux (classique, pop/rock), ce qui pourrait refléter un déclin prolongé de l'intérêt pour la musique jazz1.

Avec les auditoriums et les festivals de jazz, les clubs de jazz sont les principaux lieux de diffusion de la musique jazz en concert. Les clubs de jazz se trouvent le plus souvent en sous-sol, ou au rez-de-chaussée d'immeubles. Bien qu'ils soient nommés « clubs », les clubs de jazz sont généralement ouverts au public et ne requièrent pas d'abonnement. En outre, certaines salles diversifient parfois leur programmation en accueillant des concerts de blues ou de musiques du monde.

Principaux clubs de jazz
États-Unis
L'entrée du Blue Note, situé dans le quartier de Greenwich Village, à New York.
New York

The Village Vanguard
The Village Gate
Fillmore East
The Blue Note
Birdland
Savoy Ballroom
The Cotton Club

Autres villes

The Blackhawk (San Francisco)
Friar's Inn (Chicago)
Quality Cafe (Los Angeles)
Preservation Hall (La Nouvelle-Orléans)

Europe
Paris

Le New Morning
Le Caveau de la Huchette
Les clubs de la rue des Lombards : Sunset-Sunside, Le Duc des Lombards, Le Baiser salé...

Autres villes

Le Ronnie Scott's (Londres)
Le Hot Club du Portugal (Lisbonne)
Le Jazzhus Montmartre (Copenhague)

King Crimson "Cadence and Cascade" (1972.3.13) Denver, Colorado, USA.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UXdzeRCWf7Q

NASA JPL‏ Compte certifié @NASAJPL
The Sun sings a song of ice and light as it breaks through the cold rings of #Saturn and jets of Enceladus: https://go.nasa.gov/2G3W36T

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MessageSujet: Re: TÉMOIGNAGES DE L'ODYSSÉE, AUX HARMONIES SUR SOURCE D'OSMOSE.   Mar 20 Fév à 2:28

Resources
A Song of Ice and Light...

A Song of Ice and Light
A backlit view of Enceladus and Saturn's rings

Photojournal: PIA17144

February 12, 2018

Saturn’s moon Enceladus drifts before the rings and the tiny moon Pandora in this view that NASA’s Cassini spacecraft captured on Nov. 1, 2009. The entire scene is backlit by the Sun, providing striking illumination for the icy particles that make up both the rings and the jets emanating from the south pole of Enceladus, which is about 314 miles (505 km) across. Pandora, which is about (52 miles, 84 kilometers) wide, was on the opposite side of the rings from Cassini and Enceladus when the image was taken. This view looks toward the night side on Pandora as well, which is lit by dim golden light reflected from Saturn.

This natural-color image was taken in visible light with the Cassini spacecraft’s narrow-angle camera at a distance of approximately 149,600 miles (240,800 kilometers) from Enceladus and 352,200 miles (566,800 kilometers) from Pandora.

The Cassini spacecraft ended its mission on Sept. 15, 2017.

The Cassini mission is a cooperative project of NASA, ESA (the European Space Agency) and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the mission for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington. The Cassini orbiter and its two onboard cameras were designed, developed and assembled at JPL. The imaging operations center is based at the Space Science Institute in Boulder, Colorado.

For more information about the Cassini-Huygens mission visit https://saturn.jpl.nasa.gov and https://www.nasa.gov/cassini. The Cassini imaging team homepage is at http://ciclops.org.
Credit

NASA/JPL-Caltech/Space Science Institute

https://saturn.jpl.nasa.gov/resources/7821/

Renaissance - Scheherazade & Other Stories.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MEZ5tu1RIJU

Didier Lockwood (11 February 1956 – 18 February 2018) was a French jazz violinist. He played in the progressive rock/jazz fusion band Magma in the 1970s and was known for his use of electric amplification and experimentation on different sounds on the electric violin.[1][2][3]

Career

In 1979 Lockwood released his first album as a leader, New World,[4] and subsequently recorded more than 20 albums.[5]

In 1994 Lockwood moved to New York City for two years. During that time he recorded two albums, New York Rendez Vous and Storyboard.[6]

Lockwood's influences included fusion violinist Jean-Luc Ponty. He took up the electric violin after hearing Ponty play on the album King Kong: Jean-Luc Ponty Plays the Music of Frank Zappa.[1] Another important influence was fellow Frenchman Stéphane Grappelli. In 2000, Lockwood recorded a tribute album to Grappelli.[7]
Selected discography
Collaborations

with Magma

Theatre Du Taur Concert, 1975
Live/Hhaï (1975)
Concert 1976 Opéra de Reims (Akt IX, released 1996)[8]
Inédits (1977)
Retrospektiw (Parts I+II) (1981, rec. 1980)
Retrospektiw (Part III) (1981, rec. 1980)

with Pierre Moerlen's Gong

Downwind (1979, rec. 1978)

with ZAO

Kawana (1976)[9]
Live! (1976)[10]

As sideman

With Billy Hart

Oshumare (Gramavision, 1985)

McDonald and Giles - McDonald and Giles (Full Album 1971)
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LMff9CM7yPU

Renaissance are an English progressive rock band, best known for their 1978 UK top 10 hit "Northern Lights" and progressive rock classics like "Carpet of the Sun", "Mother Russia", and "Ashes Are Burning". They developed a unique sound, combining a female lead vocal with a fusion of classical, folk, rock, and jazz influences.[1] Characteristic elements of the Renaissance sound are Annie Haslam's wide vocal range, prominent piano accompaniment, orchestral arrangements, vocal harmonies, acoustic guitar, bass guitar, synthesiser, and versatile drum work. The band created a significant following in the northeast United States in the 70s, and that region remains their strongest fan base.

Background information
Origin London, England, UK
Genres Progressive rock, symphonic rock
Years active 1969–1987
1998–2002
2009–present
Labels Island Records
Sire Records (US)
Warner Bros. Records
Elektra Records (US)
BTM Records
I.R.S. Records
Giant Electric Pea
Illegal Records
Repertoire Records
HTD Records
Friday Music
Associated acts The Yardbirds
The Nashville Teens
Illusion
Nevada
I and Thou
Renaissant
Website Official Website
Members Annie Haslam
David J. Keyes
Rave Tesar
Frank Pagano
Jason Hart
Ryche Chlanda

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MessageSujet: Re: TÉMOIGNAGES DE L'ODYSSÉE, AUX HARMONIES SUR SOURCE D'OSMOSE.   Mar 20 Fév à 2:38

Grandine il vento is the 13th studio album by the British progressive rock band, Renaissance first released in 2013, and re-released as Symphony of Light in 2014. It was financed through a Kickstarter campaign.

Periods and eras of
Western classical music
Early
Medieval c. 500–1400
Renaissance c. 1400–1600
Common practice
Baroque c. 1600–1750
Classical c. 1730–1820
Romantic c. 1780–1910
Modern and contemporary/postmodern
Impressionist c. 1890–1925
Expressionist c. 1908–1950

Modern

c. 1890–1975
20th century (1901–2000)

Contemporary Postmodern

c. 1930–present
21st century (2001–present)

Background

After the band's split in 2002, the band reunited and performed in 2009. In November 2012, the band's guitarist and composer, Michael Dunford died from a cerebral haemorrhage.[2] One month later, the band's vocalist, Annie Haslam stated that the band would continue to perform.[3] In 2013, it was announced that the new guitarist of the band was Ryche Chlanda.[4] In April 2013, the band released the album first on the internet, and then in a CD format. It was dedicated on the inside sleeve to Michael Dunford. The album cover features a painting by Annie Haslam. Two guests played on this album: John Wetton (who had performed with Renaissance in 1971) and Ian Anderson (of Jethro Tull). The album was reissued 15 April 2014 by Red River Entertainment as Symphony of Light with three additional tracks.[5]
Track listing

All songs by Michael Dunford and Annie Haslam, except "Carpet of the Sun" by Dunford/Betty Thatcher-Newsinger

"Symphony of Light" - 12:09
"Waterfall" - 4:44
"Grandine il vento" - 6:13
"Porcelain" - 6:41
"Cry to the World" - 5:44
"Air of Drama" - 5:21
"Blood Silver Like Moonlight" - 5:16
"The Mystic and the Muse" - 7:48
"Carpet of the Sun" (live) - 3:28 (Japan only)

2014 Re-release as Symphony of Light
Colourful abstract painting featuring vivid colours, pastel shades, black, and white in swirling, flowing forms
Cover art from Symphony of Light Painting by Annie Haslam. © 2014 Annie Haslam

"Symphony of Light"
"Waterfall"
"Grandine il vento"
"Porcelain"
"Cry to the World"
"Air of Drama"
"Blood Silver Like Moonlight"
"The Mystic and the Muse"
"Tonight"
"Immortal Beloved"
"Renaissance Man"

All songs by Dunford/Haslam except 11 by Tesar/Haslam.
Personnel
Renaissance

Annie Haslam - lead and backing vocals, co-producer
Michael Dunford - acoustic guitars, backing vocals, arrangements
Rave Tesar - piano, keyboards, arrangements
Jason Hart - keyboards, accordion, backing vocals, arrangements
David J. Keyes - bass, double bass, lead and backing vocals
Frank Pagano - drums, percussion, backing vocals

Additional musicians

Ian Anderson - flute on track 5
John Wetton - vocals on track 7
Tom Brislin - additional keyboards on track 8
Andy Spiller - arrangements on track 8

Production

Rave Tesar - producer, engineer, mixing and mastering
Kevin Culligan - executive producer

References

Haslam, Annie. "New Renaissance Studio Album: Grandine il Vento". Kickstarter. Kickstarter. Retrieved 10 December 2013.
Lifton, Dave (2012), "Michael Dunford of Renaissance Dies", Ultimate Classic Rock, retrieved 2012-12-22
Haslam, Annie (22 December 2012), Annie Haslam Facebook page, Facebook Missing or empty |title= (help);
Haslam, Annie (February 2013), "Renaissance Announces New Guitarist", Renaissance website blog, retrieved 2013-02-14

"Symphony of Light CD Release". Renaissance Official Website. Retrieved 2015-09-19.

[hide]

v t e

Renaissance

Annie Haslam David J. Keyes Rave Tesar Frank Pagano Jason Hart Ryche Chlanda

John Hawken Jane Relf Keith Relf Louis Cennamo Jim McCarty Michael Dunford Terry Crowe Terry Slade Neil Korner John Tout Anne-Marie "Binky" Cullom Danny McCulloch Frank Farrell John Wetton Jon Camp Terence Sullivan Mick Parsons Rob Hendry Peter Finberg Peter Gosling Peter Baron Mick Taylor Gavin Harrison Raphael Rudd Greg Carter Mark Lampariello Charles Descarfino Roy Wood Mickey Simmonds Alex Caird Tom Brislin

Studio albums

Renaissance Illusion Prologue Ashes Are Burning Turn of the Cards Scheherazade and Other Stories Novella A Song for All Seasons Azure d'Or Camera Camera Time-Line Tuscany Grandine il vento

Live albums

Live at Carnegie Hall In the Land of the Rising Sun: Live in Japan 2001 Mother Russia Live and Direct British Tour '76 Dreams & Omens: "Live" at the Tower Theatre

Songs

"Mother Russia" "Northern Lights"

Related articles

The Yardbirds The Nashville Teens Illusion Betty Thatcher Nevada

Renaissance - Novella (Full Album).
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OSOo8F65ojg

AINSI,

Resources
Geyser Basin in 3-D (video).



February 3, 2016

This graphic shows a 3-D model of 98 geysers whose source locations and tilts were found in a Cassini imaging survey of Enceladus' south polar terrain by the method of triangulation. While some jets are strongly tilted, it is clear the jets on average lie in four distinct "planes" that are normal to the surface at their source location.

Dotted vectors indicate five jets whose sources were determined from images acquired too closely in time to determine tilts accurately. Consequently their 3-D configuration has a large uncertainty associated with it.

Two geysers, indicated by crosses in Surveyor's Map of Enceladus' Geyser Basin, have no tilt determinations at all and are not shown here.

A movie showing a 360-degree view of this model is also presented here.

The still graphic and the movie illustrate some of the findings reported in a paper by Porco, DiNino, and Nimmo, and published in the online version of the Astronomical Journal in July 2014: http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0004-6256/148/3/45 .

A companion paper, by Nimmo et al. is available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0004-6256/148/3/46 .

The Cassini-Huygens mission is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the mission for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington. The Cassini orbiter and its two onboard cameras were designed, developed and assembled at JPL. The imaging operations center is based at the Space Science Institute in Boulder, Colorado.

For more information about the Cassini-Huygens mission visit http://saturn.jpl.nasa.gov and http://www.nasa.gov/cassini. The Cassini imaging team homepage is at http://ciclops.org.

Image credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Space Science Institute

https://saturn.jpl.nasa.gov/resources/35/

Si la poésie constitue une part essentielle de l'œuvre de Paul Neuhuys, né à Anvers en 1897, le récit et l'essai n'en sont cependant pas absents. Quelques contes et romans (Les Dix Dollars de mademoiselle Rubens, 1926, La Conversion de Pittacus, 1927, etc.) restituent l'atmosphère anversoise des années vingt et les démêlés artistiques d'une jeunesse souvent désabusée, qui voient l'auteur devenir un des protagonistes de la revue Ça Ira. Il meurt en 1984.

http://www.wikipoemes.com/poemes/paul-neuhuys/index.php

Islande - Poéme

Poéme / Poémes d'Paul Neuhuys.

Bourlinguons par les banquises

Coltinons par les volcans parmi les macareux, les pingouins, les pétrels.

Voici
Thulé, limite extrême de la terre.

Le soleil de minuit brille comme un lichen sur les flancs de l'Hekla

A l'Hôtel
Walhalla la servante
Gudrun prépare un feu de crottin aggloméré et
Brunhilde, derrière un rideau de geysers,

s'apprête à la pêche à la morue.

© WikiPoemes - Droits de reproduction et de diffusion réservés.

Jacques Brel - La Quete - YouTube
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=U2kn0Q3UHOc

TÉMOIGNAGES DE L'ODYSSÉE, AUX HARMONIES SUR SOURCE D'OSMOSE.

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MessageSujet: Re: TÉMOIGNAGES DE L'ODYSSÉE, AUX HARMONIES SUR SOURCE D'OSMOSE.   Mar 20 Fév à 2:48

Trittau est une commune de l'arrondissement de Stormarn dans le Schleswig-Holstein.
Géographie

Trittau se trouve à une trentaine de kilomètres à l'Est de Hambourg.
Jumelage

Drapeau de l'Allemagne Gadebusch (Allemagne) depuis le 10 février 1990

Administration
Pays Drapeau de l'Allemagne Allemagne
Land Flag of Schleswig-Holstein.svg Schleswig-Holstein
Arrondissement
(Landkreis) Stormarn
Bourgmestre
(Bürgermeister) Oliver Mesch
Code postal 22946
Code communal
(Gemeindeschlüssel) 01 0 62 082
Indicatif téléphonique 04154
Immatriculation OD
Démographie
Population 8 628 hab. (31 décembre 2014)
Densité 302 hab./km2
Géographie
Coordonnées 53° 36′ 51″ nord, 10° 24′ 09″ est
Superficie 2 859 ha = 28,59 km2

Paroles de la chanson «Look What You Made Me Do» (avec traduction) par Taylor Swift.
https://video.search.yahoo.com/search/video?fr=tightropetb&p=Look+what+you+made+me+do+YOUTUBE+OFFICIEL#id=1&vid=9170ef5ee610ff1f15c6310b3f1f9759&action=click

I don't like your little games
Je n'aime pas tes petits jeux
Don't like your tilted stage
Je n'aime pas ta scène penchée
The role you made me play
Le rôle que tu m'as fait joué
Of the fool, no, I don't like you
D'une idiote, non, je ne t'aime pas
I don't like your perfect crime
Je n'aime pas ton crime parfait
How you laugh when you lie
ta façon de rire lorsque tu mens
You said the gun was mine
Tu as dit que l'arme était à moi
Isn't cool, no, I don't like you (oh)
Ça n'est pas cool, non, je ne t'aime pas

(Bridge:)
But I got smarter, I got harder in the nick of time
Mais je suis devenue futée, devenue plus dure juste à temps
Honey, I rose up from the dead, I do it all the time
Chéri, je suis ressuscitée des morts, je le fais tout le temps
I've got a list a of names and yours is in red underlined
J'ai une liste des noms et le tien est souligné en rouge
I check it once, then I check it twice oh!
Je vérifie une fois, puis une deuxième fois

(Chorus:)
Oh! Look what you made me do 2x
Oh regarde ce que tu m'as fait faire
Look what you just made me do 2x
Regarde juste ce que tu m'as fait faire
Oh! Look what you made me do 2x
Regarde ce que tu m'as fait faire
Look what you just made me do 2x
Regarde juste ce que tu m'as fait faire

I don't like your Kingdom keys
Je n'aime pas les clés de ton royaume
They once belonged to me
Elles m'ont appartenu une fois
You ask me for a place to sleep
Tu me demandes un endroit pour dormir
Locked me out and threw a feast (what?)
Tu m'as enfermée et as organisé un festin (quoi ?)
The world goes on, another day, another drama, drama
Le monde tourne, un autre jour, un autre drame, drame
But not for me, not for me, all I think about is karma
Mais pas pour moi, pas pour moi, tout ce à quoi je pense c'est le karma
And then the world moves on, but one thing's for sure
Et ensuite le monde avance, mais une chose est sûre
Maybe I got mine, but you'll all get yours
Peut-être que j'ai le mien, mais tu auras aussi le tien

(Bridge)

(Chorus)

I don't trust nobody and nobody trusts me
Je ne fais confiance à personne et personne ne me fait confiance
I'll be the actress starring in your bad dreams
Je serai l'actrice principale dans tes mauvais rêves
(x4)

(look what you made me do..)
(Regarde ce que tu m'as fait faire...)

I'm sorry the old Taylor can't come to phone right now
Désolée l'ancienne Taylor peut pas répondre maintenant
Why?
Pourquoi ?
Oh! Cause she's dead (oh!)
Oh! Parce qu'elle est morte (oh)

(Chorus) (x2)

Ainsi à la fin des dizaines de TS, vêtues de leurs tenues iconiques se disputent en reprenant toutes les répliques et insultes dont elle a été victime histoire de dire à toutes ces personnes qu'elle est au courant de tout ce qui se dit sur elle et qu'elle prend note; comme elle l'a si bien dit tout ce qui reste à la fin Ce n'est que la réputation bon voici ce qui se dit par toutes les Taylor :
You guys!
Eh! Les gars !
Stop making that surprise face, it's so annoying
Arrête d'avoir cet air surpris tout le temps, ça en devient ennuyant
Yeah! You can't possibly be that surprised all the time
Tu ne peux juste pas être surprise comme ça tout le temps
What With that bitch
Quoi salope !
Don't call me that!
Ne m'appelle pas comme ça
Yoo !
Oh !
Oh! Stop acting like you're so nice, you are so fake
Arrête de faire la gentille, tu es tellement fausse
*pleurs*
And there she goes playing the victim, again
Et voilà elle joue les victimes encore
What are you doing?
Qu'est-ce que tu fais ?
Getting receipts, gonna edit this later
J'essaie d'obtenir les reçus, j'éditerai ça plus tard
I would very much like to be excluded from this narrative
J'aimerais beaucoup être exclue de ce récit
Oh ! Shut up!
Oh! La ferme !

DONC,


Title Proba-V image of South Korea
Released 14/02/2018 9:43 am
Copyright ESA/Belspo – produced by VITO
Description

A false-colour image of Pyeongchang county and surrounding territory in South Korea – currently hosting the 2018 Winter Olympics.

This is a view of the northern part of the country, with vegetation in red and built-up areas seen in grey, including capital city Seoul, astride the banks of the Hangang River, seen left. Pyeongchang county is located towards the east coast. Mountainous regions are seen dusted with snow.

The Winter Olympics run from 8 to 25 February. By adding four new disciplines, this international event is the first Winter Games to extend over 100 medals, spread across 15 sports.

Launched on 7 May 2013, Proba-V is a miniaturised ESA satellite tasked with a full-scale mission: to map land cover and vegetation growth across the entire planet every two days.

Its main camera’s continent-spanning 2250 km swath width collects light in the blue, red, near-infrared and mid-infrared wavebands at 300 m resolution and down to 100 m resolution in its central field of view.

VITO Remote Sensing in Belgium processes and then distributes Proba-V data to users worldwide. An online image gallery highlights some of the mission’s most striking images so far, including views of storms, fires and deforestation.

This 300 m-resolution image was acquired on 21 January 2018.
Id 390252

http://www.esa.int/spaceinimages/Images/2018/02/Proba-V_image_of_South_Korea


Title Island heart
Released 14/02/2018 10:00 am
Copyright contains modified Copernicus Sentinel data (2018), processed by ESA, CC BY-SA 3.0 IGO
Description

For Valentine’s Day we bring you a little heart-shaped island, which has been imaged from space by the Copernicus Sentinel-2 mission. Lying about 20 km off the coast of India’s state of Karnataka, in the Arabian Sea, the uninhabited island of Netrani may be small, but is perfectly formed. Sentinel-2 images Earth in 13 spectral channels, and since today is all about romance, Netrani has been processed using a combination of the instrument infrared channels so that the island appears in red – a red heart for Valentine’s Day.

The image was captured on 30 January 2018.
Id 390237

http://www.esa.int/spaceinimages/Images/2018/02/Island_heart

TÉMOIGNAGES DE L'ODYSSÉE, AUX HARMONIES SUR SOURCE D'OSMOSE.

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MessageSujet: Re: TÉMOIGNAGES DE L'ODYSSÉE, AUX HARMONIES SUR SOURCE D'OSMOSE.   Mar 20 Fév à 2:57

Frenchman Coulee
From Wikimedia Commons, the free media repository

Continent: North America - Region: Washington
English: Frenchman Coulee

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Frenchman_Coulee

NASA - National Aeronautics and Space Administration
Page aimée · 7 h ·

Questions about spacewalks? Tomorrow, NASA Astronaut Randy "Komrade" Bresnik and NASA Astronaut Jack “2fish” Fischer will be answering live from NASA's Johnson Space Center's Neutral Buoyancy Lab training pool on the International Space Station page: https://facebook.com/ISS


Dec. 13, 2016
The NASA app for Smartphones, Tablets and Digital Media Players

NASA app showcases a huge collection of the latest NASA content, including images, videos on-demand, NASA Television, mission information, news & feature stories, latest tweets, ISS sighting opportunities, satellite tracking, Third Rock Radio and much more. The NASA app is available free of charge. Download for iOS, Android, Apple TV, Kindle Fire, Fire TV and Fire TV Stick.
Screenshot of the NASA app on Android.
Screenshot of the NASA app for Android.
Screenshot of NASA app on iOS home screen
Screenshot of the NASA app for iOS.
Screenshot of NASA app on the Amazon Fire TV
Screenshot of the NASA app for Amazon Fire TV.

Features

Watch the latest NASA events unfold in real-time on NASA TV

Watch a live view of the earth from the High Definition Earth Viewing (HDEV) experiment on the ISS

Easily view the latest NASA photos, videos and feature stories

Share everything you discover with friends on social media

Rate photos and videos, and then check out which ones make the top rated list

Choose the best NASA images and make them easy to find using the favorites feature

Save images to your mobile device

Get information about all of NASA's current missions

Get the latest launch information & view countdown clocks

Get the current list of upcoming International Space Station (ISS) sighting opportunities for your location, plus sighting opportunities for other NASA missions

Track the location of the International Space Station and other NASA Earth orbiting satellites in real-time

View all the NASA Tweets from around the agency in one place

Display a map with links to all of the NASA visitor centers

Checkout the featured content and program sections

View the Earth as Art image collection and interactive map

Listen to Third Rock Radio (alternative rock radio station)

Cast content to your Apple TV, Chromecast and Fire TV devices.

https://www.nasa.gov/nasaapp


Feb. 15, 2018
Supermassive Black Holes Are Outgrowing Their Galaxies

The biggest black holes in the Universe are growing faster than the rate of stars being formed in their galaxies, according to two new studies using data from NASA’s Chandra X-ray Observatory and other telescopes.

Over many years, astronomers have gathered data on the formation of stars in galaxies and the growth of supermassive black holes (that is, those with millions or billions the mass of the Sun) in their centers. These data suggested that the black holes and the stars in their host galaxies grow in tandem with each other.

Now, findings from two independent groups of researchers indicate that the black holes in massive galaxies have grown much faster than in the less massive ones.

“We are trying to reconstruct a race that started billions of years ago,” said Guang Yang of Penn State who led one of the two studies. “We are using extraordinary data taken from different telescopes to figure out how this cosmic competition unfolded.”

Using large amounts of data from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory, the Hubble Space Telescope and other observatories, Yang and his colleagues studied the growth rate of black holes in galaxies at distances of 4.3 to 12.2 billion light years from Earth. The X-ray data included the Chandra Deep Field-South & North and the COSMOS-Legacy surveys.

The scientists calculated the ratio between a supermassive black hole's growth rate and the growth rate of stars in its host galaxy. A common idea is that this ratio is approximately constant for all galaxies.

Instead, Yang and colleagues found that this ratio is much higher for more massive galaxies. For galaxies containing about 100 billion solar masses worth of stars, the ratio is about ten times higher than it is for galaxies containing about 10 billion solar masses worth of stars.

“An obvious question is why?” said co-author Niel Brandt, also of Penn State. “Maybe massive galaxies are more effective at feeding cold gas to their central supermassive black holes than less massive ones.”

Another group of scientists independently found evidence that the most massive black holes’ growth has outstripped that of stars in their host galaxies. Mar Mezcua, of the Institut of Space Sciences in Spain, and her colleagues studied black holes in some of the brightest and most massive galaxies in the Universe. They studied 72 galaxies located at the center of galaxy clusters at distances ranging up to about 3.5 billion light years from Earth. The study used X-ray data from Chandra and radio data from the Australia Telescope Compact Array, the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array and Very Long Baseline Array.

Mezcua and her colleagues estimated the masses of black holes in these galaxy clusters by using a well-known relationship that connects the mass of a black hole to the X-ray and radio emission associated with the black hole. The black hole masses were found to be about ten times larger than masses estimated by another method using the assumption that the black holes and galaxies grew in tandem.

“We found black holes that are far bigger than we expected,” said Mezcua. “Maybe they got a head start in this race to grow, or maybe they’ve had an edge in speed of growth that’s lasted billions of years.”

The researchers found that almost half of the black holes in their sample had masses estimated to be at least 10 billion times the mass of the Sun. This places them in an extreme weight category that some astronomers call “ultramassive” black holes.

"We know that black holes are extreme objects,” said co-author J. Hlavacek-Larrondo of the University of Montreal, “so it may not come as a surprise that the most extreme examples of them would break the rules we thought they should follow."

The work by Mezcua et al. was published in the February 2018 issue of Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (MNRAS) and is available online (https://arxiv.org/abs/1710.10268). The paper by Yang et al. has been accepted and will appear in the April 2018 issue of the MNRAS (available online: https://arxiv.org/abs/1710.09399).

NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, manages the Chandra program for NASA's Science Mission Directorate in Washington. The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory in Cambridge, Massachusetts, controls Chandra's science and flight operations.

Read More from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory.

For more Chandra images, multimedia and related materials, visit:

http://www.nasa.gov/chandra

Molly Porter
NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Ala.
256-424-5158
molly.a.porter@nasa.gov

Megan Watzke
Chandra X-ray Center, Cambridge, Mass.
617-496-7998
mwatzke@cfa.harvard.edu
Last Updated: Feb. 15, 2018
Editor: Lee Mohon
Tags: Black Holes, Chandra X-Ray Observatory, Galaxies, Universe

https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/chandra/news/supermassive-black-holes-are-outgrowing-their-galaxies.html

TÉMOIGNAGES DE L'ODYSSÉE, AUX HARMONIES SUR SOURCE D'OSMOSE.

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MessageSujet: Re: TÉMOIGNAGES DE L'ODYSSÉE, AUX HARMONIES SUR SOURCE D'OSMOSE.   Mar 20 Fév à 3:06

IL ETAIT UNE FOIS THALASSA.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-rM1oMSAZfw

Feb. 8, 2018
The Winter 'Astrolympics' Kick Off

80s Synth - Generique Thalassa France 3...
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CzLYyNRYfWs

As the athletes get set to compete in Pyeongchang, Korea, the public can explore the Olympic Games in a different way through an innovative project blending science and sports. “AstrOlympics” relates the amazing feats of Olympic athletes with the spectacular phenomena found throughout space.

This project from NASA’s Chandra X-ray Observatory highlights the physical connections between sport and space. Examining various topics including speed, distance, time, mass, rotation, and pressure, AstrOlympics explores the impressive range of these different physical properties.

AstrOlympics provides brief explanations of the physical concepts and then compares examples from common every day experiences, Olympic events, and discoveries from space made with Chandra and other observatories. For example, the rotation section compares the spin of an ice skater to that of a washing machine to the rotating of a spinning dead star.
Chandra and Astrolympics on speed

The AstrOlympics project consists of a series of posters, videos, and a website. All of these materials are free to download and use. Science educators may contact the project via the website to request a small number of available hard copies. AstrOlympics will also be distributed through NASA and International Astronomical Union networks.

The 2018 Olympic Games will be held in South Korea between February 9-25.

NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, manages the Chandra program for NASA's Science Mission Directorate in Washington. The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory in Cambridge, Massachusetts, controls Chandra's science and flight operations.

All of the AstrOlympics products and materials are available for free download at http://chandra.si.edu/olympics/

https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/chandra/news/supermassive-black-holes-are-outgrowing-their-galaxies.html

More information about the Chandra X-ray Observatory at http://chandra.si.edu/index.html and http://www.nasa.gov/chandra
Last Updated: Feb. 8, 2018
Editor: Jennifer Harbaugh
Tags: Chandra X-Ray Observatory, Galaxies, Universe

Le générique de Thalassa
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DoUqLK07Z1Q


Title Space radiation on Earth
Released 14/02/2018 7:48 am
Copyright GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH/Jan Michael Hosan 2018
Description

The constant ‘rain’ of radiation in space includes cosmic rays, which, despite the name ‘ray’, comprises highly energetic particles arriving from beyond the Solar System. These rays are considered the main health hazard for astronauts conducting future exploration missions to the Moon, Mars and beyond.

This bad stuff can also play havoc with sensitive spacecraft electronics, corrupting data, damaging circuits and degrading microchips.

There are many different kinds of cosmic rays, and they can have very different effects on spacecraft and their occupants, depending on the types of particles, the particles’ energies and the duration of the exposure.

A new international accelerator, the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR), now under construction near Darmstadt, Germany, at the existing GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research (GSI), will provide particle beams like the ones that exist in space and make them available to scientists for studies that will be used to make spacecraft more robust and help humans survive the rigours of spaceflight.

For example, researchers will be able to investigate how cells and human DNA are altered or damaged by exposure to cosmic radiation and how well microchips stand up to the extreme conditions in space.

FAIR’s central element will be a new accelerator ring with a circumference of 1100 m, capable of accelerating protons to near-light speeds. The existing GSI accelerators will repurposed to serve as pre-accelerators for the new FAIR facility.

This image shows the high-tech equipment that generates the particles, which are then injected into the GSI and FAIR accelerator systems.

On 14 February 2018, ESA and FAIR inked a cooperation agreement that will build on an existing framework of cooperation between the Agency and GSI, and see the two cooperate in the fields of radiation biology, electronic components, materials research, shielding materials and instrument calibration.

The agreement also includes cooperation in technology and software development and in joint activities in areas such as innovation management.

More information

The Universe in the Laboratory: ESA and FAIR form partnership for researching cosmic radiation

Heavy but fast

New radiation research programme for human spaceflight

Cosmic opportunity for radiation research at ESA

Radiation: satellites’ unseen enemy

Follow GSI/FAIR

Instagram @universeinthelab
Twitter @GSI_en
Facebook GSIHelmholtzzentrum & FAIRAccelerator
Id 390249

http://www.esa.int/spaceinimages/Images/2018/02/Space_radiation_on_Earth



TÉMOIGNAGES DE L'ODYSSÉE, AUX HARMONIES SUR SOURCE D'OSMOSE.

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MessageSujet: Re: TÉMOIGNAGES DE L'ODYSSÉE, AUX HARMONIES SUR SOURCE D'OSMOSE.   Mar 20 Fév à 3:07


Title Chelyabinsk asteroid
Released 21/06/2017 12:03 pm
Copyright M. Ahmetvaleev
Description

Vapour cloud trail left by the Chelyabinsk asteroid as seen by M. Ahmetvaleev on 15 February 2013.

It shows the path where an approximately 20 m-diameter, 13 000-tonne (and previously unknown) near-Earth object (NEO) entered Earth's atmosphere over the city of Chelyabinsk in Russia.

The small asteroid exploded at a height of about 30 km, generating a bright, hot explosion with a gas cloud, as well as a large shock wave that broke windows and knocked down parts of buildings and structures. Subsequent media reports said some 1500 people were injured by flying glass and other debris, although no deaths were reported.

In 2015, former Apollo astronaut Rusty Schweickart described the event in this Asteroid Day blog post.

On 30 June 2018, ESA will join international experts, astronauts, scientists and concerned citizens to mark the annual UN-recognised Asteroid Day.

Details will be published in the main ESA website later.

More information

ESA hunts for near-Earth objects
Id 379559

http://www.esa.int/spaceinimages/Images/2017/06/Chelyabinsk_asteroid


Welcome to the #AsteroidDay2018 Kick off event!
Asteroid Day 2018 will kick off on 15 February with a high-level Google Hangout hosted on the Asteroid Day website. Host Scott Manley, Astronogamer and asteroid expert, will be joined by Dr. Ed Lu, Director of the B612 Asteroid Institute; Planetary Scientist and Astronaut Dr. Tom Jones; Physicist Dr. Mark Boslough; Debbie Lewis, a specialist in risk, crisis and disaster management; Ian Carnelli, an asteroid mission expert at the European Space Agency (ESA); Ruediger Jehn, from ESA’s near-Earth object survey team, and Asteroid Day co-founder Danica Remy. The expert panel will provide updates on asteroid-related research, public policy and detection and deflection missions, as well as additional information on Asteroid Day 2018 programs and participants.

https://asteroidday.org/2018-kickoff/

15 February 2018

The Sun bathes our planet in the light and heat it needs to sustain life, but it also bombards us with dangerous charged particles in solar wind. Our magnetic field largely shields from this onslaught, but like many a relationship, it’s somewhat complicated. Thanks to ESA’s Swarm mission the nature of this Earth–Sun coupling has been revealed in more detail than ever before.

Earth’s magnetic field is like a huge bubble, protecting us from cosmic radiation and charged particles carried by powerful winds that escape the Sun’s gravitational pull and sweep across the Solar System.

The trio of Swarm satellites were launched in 2013 to improve our understanding of how the field is generated and how it protects us from this barrage of charged particles.

Since our magnetic field is generated mainly by an ocean of liquid iron that makes up the planet’s outer core, it resembles a bar magnet with field lines emerging from near the poles.
Aurora borealis

The field is highly conductive and carries charged particles that flow along these field lines, giving rise to field-aligned currents.

Carrying up to 1 TW of electrical power – about six times the amount of energy produced every year by wind turbines in Europe – these currents are the dominant form of energy transfer between the magnetosphere and ionosphere.

The shimmering green and purple light displays of the auroras in the skies above the polar regions are a visible manifestation of energy and particles travelling along magnetic field lines.

The theory about the exchange and momentum between solar wind and our magnetic field actually goes back more than 100 years, and more recently the Active Magnetosphere and Planetary Electrodynamics Response Experiment satellite network has allowed scientists to study large-scale field-aligned currents.

However, the Swarm mission is leading to exciting new wave of discoveries. A new paper explores the dynamics of this energetic coupling across different spatial scales – and finds that it’s all in the detail.

Ryan McGranaghan from NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory said, “We have a good understanding of how these currents exchange energy between the ionosphere and the magnetosphere at large scales so we assumed that smaller-scale currents behaved in the same way, but carried proportionally less energy.”

“Swarm has allowed us to effectively zoom in on these smaller currents and we see that, under certain conditions, this is not the case.
Solar corona viewed by Proba-2
Our star’s turbulent surface

“Our findings show that these smaller currents carry significant energy and that their relationship with the larger currents is very complex. Moreover, large and small currents affect the magnetosphere–ionosphere differently.”

Colin Forsyth from University College London noted, “Since electric currents around Earth can interfere with navigation and telecommunication systems, this is an important discovery.

“It also gives us a greater understanding of how the Sun and Earth are linked and how this coupling can ultimately add energy to our atmosphere.

“This new knowledge can be used to improve models so that we can better understand, and therefore, ultimately, prepare for the potential consequences of solar storms.”
Swarm constellation
Swarm constellation

ESA’s Swarm mission manager, Rune Floberghagen, added, “Since the beginning of the mission we have carried out projects to address the energy exchange between the magnetosphere, ionosphere and the thermosphere.

"But what we are witnessing now is nothing short of a complete overhaul of the understanding of how Earth responds to and interacts with output from the Sun.

“In fact, this scientific investigation is becoming a fundamental pillar for the extended Swarm mission, precisely because it is breaking new ground and at the same time has strong societal relevance. We now wish to explore this potential of Swarm to the fullest.”

http://www.esa.int/Our_Activities/Observing_the_Earth/Swarm/Swarm_details_energetic_coupling

Didier Lockwood avec Magma
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9no8NDO6yys

ISSEHN
Ajoutée le 19 févr. 2018
Didier, j'étais à ton 1er Concert de Magma le 9 Février 1975 à Chalons sur Marne. et je te revoie encore, studieux avec ton archet, déambulant dans cette salle jouxtant la patinoire, jouant et rejouant en silence cette musique qui allait marquer ta vie de jeune musicien qui sortait à peine du conservatoire. Ce concert qui devait débuter ce dimanche vers 15h, fut retardé en raison des grandes baies vitrées qui laissaient passer la lumière du jour, Magma voulant jouer dans le noir avec pour seules lumières quelques faibles projecteurs mais surtout la Lumière de sa Musique...
Et ce fut un enchantement, un cataclysme avec en ouverture l'inénarrable Köhntarkösz. Ton implication, ton jeu, la couleur que tu allais apporter à Magma fut un choc et elle nous manque toujours depuis. Cette exceptionnelle formation allait parcourir la France pendant 2 ans. 2 années de folie pure dont le Live de la taverne de l'Olympia demeure le seul témoignage, et reste inégalé.
Cette petite vidéo de 1992 pour nous rappeler, où cette formation avait exceptionnellement été en partie réunie à nouveau pour Arte, afin de célébrer déjà le grand Didier Lockwood.
Merci pour tout Didier.
A vie, à Mort, et Après, où la musique continue dans les sphères célestes. Je t'y entends déjà...

Frank Zappa on The Steve Allen Show March 4, 1963.mp4.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1MewcnFl_6Y


TÉMOIGNAGES DE L'ODYSSÉE, AUX HARMONIES SUR SOURCE D'OSMOSE.

SENTIMENTS
DU CITOYEN TIGNARD YANIS
ALIAS
TAY
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et
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Date d'inscription : 09/11/2005

MessageSujet: Re: TÉMOIGNAGES DE L'ODYSSÉE, AUX HARMONIES SUR SOURCE D'OSMOSE.   Mar 20 Fév à 3:21

Title Beijing
Released 16/02/2018 10:00 am
Copyright contains modified Copernicus Sentinel data (2016), processed by ESA, CC BY-SA 3.0 IGO
Description

Today, 16 February, upwards of 20% of the world’s population will be celebrating Chinese New Year, also known as the Spring Festival. According to the traditional Chinese calendar, which is based on the lunar cycle and the position of the Sun, the New Year changes each year, but always falls between 21 January and 20 February. There are 12 Chinese zodiac animals that represent years, and 2018 is the year of the dog.

Marking this special day, we take a look at a Sentinel-2 image of Beijing, the capital of China. It is one of the most populous cities in the world, with over 21 million people, but during the New Year millions travel from the big cities back to their hometowns to spend the holiday with their families in what is considered the world’s largest annual migration.

Beijing lies in northeast China at the northern tip of the North China Plain. While the city lies on flat ground, it is surrounded by mountains to the north and west (not pictured). From space, the city appears to be divided up into many squares, which is a consequence of it being one of oldest planned cities in the world. Beijing’s present urban form was established in the early Ming dynasty – between 1368 and 1644 – with planning stipulating that the city should be a square encompassing nine avenues running north–south and nine running east–west.

While this Copernicus Sentinel-2 image details much of the city, a number of famous landmarks can be picked out easily. For example, lying in the heart of Beijing, the Forbidden City, one of China’s largest and best preserved heritage sites, and Tiananmen Square can be seen.

Happy Chinese Year – or Xīn nián kuài lè – to all.

This Sentinel-2 image, which was captured on 3 May 2016, is also featured on the Earth from Space video programme.
Id 390283

http://www.esa.int/spaceinimages/Images/2018/02/Beijing

News | February 15, 2018
5,000 Days on Mars; Solar-Powered Rover Approaching 5,000th Martian Dawn

The Sun will rise on NASA's solar-powered Mars rover Opportunity for the 5,000th time on Saturday, sending rays of energy to a golf-cart-size robotic field geologist that continues to provide revelations about the Red Planet.

"Five thousand sols after the start of our 90-sol mission, this amazing rover is still showing us surprises on Mars," said Opportunity Project Manager John Callas, of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California.

A Martian "sol" lasts about 40 minutes longer than an Earth day, and a Martian year lasts nearly two Earth years. Opportunity's Sol 1 was landing day, Jan. 25, 2004 (that's in Universal Time; it was Jan. 24 in California). The prime mission was planned to last 90 sols. NASA did not expect the rover to survive through a Martian winter. Sol 5,000 will begin early Friday, Universal Time, with the 4,999th dawn a few hours later. Opportunity has worked actively right through the lowest-energy months of its eighth Martian winter.

From the rover's perspective on the inside slope of the western rim of Endeavour Crater, the milestone sunrise will appear over the basin's eastern rim, about 14 miles (22 kilometers) away. Opportunity has driven over 28 miles (45 kilometers) from its landing site to its current location about one-third of the way down "Perseverance Valley," a shallow channel incised from the rim's crest of the crater's floor. The rover has returned about 225,000 images, all promptly made public online.

"We've reached lots of milestones, and this is one more," Callas said, "but more important than the numbers are the exploration and the scientific discoveries."

The mission made headlines during its first months with the evidence about groundwater and surface water environments on ancient Mars. Opportunity trekked to increasingly larger craters to look deeper into Mars and father back into Martian history, reaching Endeavour Crater in 2011. Researchers are now using the rover to investigate the processes that shaped Perseverance Valley.

For more about Opportunity's adventures and discoveries, see:

https://www.nasa.gov/rovers
https://marsrovers.jpl.nasa.gov

News Media Contact
Guy Webster / Andrew Good
Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif.
818-354-6278 / 818-393-2433
guy.webster@jpl.nasa.gov / andrew.c.good@jpl.nasa.gov

Laurie Cantillo / Dwayne Brown
NASA Headquarters, Washington
202-358-1077 / 202-358-1726
laura.l.cantillo@nasa.gov / dwayne.c.brown@nasa.gov

https://www.jpl.nasa.gov/news/news.php?feature=7063&utm_source=iContact&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=NASAJPL&utm_content=merb20180215-1

News | February 15, 2018
Long-Lived Mars Rover Opportunity Keeps Finding Surprises

NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity keeps providing surprises about the Red Planet, most recently with observations of possible "rock stripes."

The ground texture seen in recent images from the rover resembles a smudged version of very distinctive stone stripes on some mountain slopes on Earth that result from repeated cycles of freezing and thawing of wet soil. But it might also be due to wind, downhill transport, other processes or a combination.

Opportunity landed on Mars in January 2004. As it reaches the 5,000th Martian day, or sol, of what was planned as a 90-sol mission, it is investigating a channel called "Perseverance Valley," which descends the inboard slope of the western rim of Endeavour Crater.

"Perseverance Valley is a special place, like having a new mission again after all these years," said Opportunity Deputy Principal Investigator Ray Arvidson of Washington University in St. Louis. "We already knew it was unlike any place any Mars rover has seen before, even if we don't yet know how it formed, and now we're seeing surfaces that look like stone stripes. It's mysterious. It's exciting. I think the set of observations we'll get will enable us to understand it."

On some slopes within the valley, the soil and gravel particles appear to have become organized into narrow rows or corrugations, parallel to the slope, alternating between rows with more gravel and rows with less.

The origin of the whole valley is uncertain. Rover-team scientists are analyzing various clues that suggest actions of water, wind or ice. They are also considering a range of possible explanations for the stripes, and remain uncertain about whether this texture results from processes of relatively modern Mars or a much older Mars.

Other lines of evidence have convinced Mars experts that, on a scale of hundreds of thousands of years, Mars goes through cycles when the tilt or obliquity of its axis increases so much that some of the water now frozen at the poles vaporizes into the atmosphere and then becomes snow or frost accumulating nearer the equator.

"One possible explanation of these stripes is that they are relics from a time of greater obliquity when snow packs on the rim seasonally melted enough to moisten the soil, and then freeze-thaw cycles organized the small rocks into stripes," Arvidson said. "Gravitational downhill movement may be diffusing them so they don't look as crisp as when they were fresh."

Bernard Hallet of the University of Washington, Seattle, agrees the alignments seen in images of Perseverance Valley are not as distinctive as the stone stripes he has studied on Earth. Field measurements on Earth, near the summit of Hawaii's Mauna Kea where the soil freezes every night but is often dry, have documented how those form when temperature and ground conditions are right: Soils with a mix of silt, sand and gravel expand more where the finer-grain material is most prevalent and retains more water. Freezing expands the soil, pushing larger particles up. If they move to the side, as well as down the general slope, due to gravity or wind, they tend to move away from the finer-grain concentrations and stretch out downslope. Where larger particles become more concentrated, the ground expands less. The process repeats hundreds or thousands of times, and the pattern self-organizes into alternating stripes.

Perseverance Valley holds rocks carved by sand blowing uphill from the crater floor, and wind might also be the key in sorting larger particles into rows parallel to the slope.

"Debris from relatively fresh impact craters is scattered over the surface of the area, complicating assessment of effects of wind," said Opportunity science-team member Robert Sullivan of Cornell University, Ithaca, New York. "I don't know what these stripes are, and I don't think anyone else knows for sure what they are, so we're entertaining multiple hypotheses and gathering more data to figure it out."

Every sol Opportunity keeps working may add information to help solve some puzzles and find new ones. For more information about Opportunity, visit:

https://www.nasa.gov/rovers

https://marsrovers.jpl.nasa.gov

News Media Contact
Guy Webster / Andrew Good
Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif.
818-354-6278 / 818-393-2433
guy.webster@jpl.nasa.gov / andrew.c.good@jpl.nasa.gov

Laurie Cantillo / Dwayne Brown
NASA Headquarters, Washington
202-358-1077 / 202-358-1726
laura.l.cantillo@nasa.gov / dwayne.c.brown@nasa.gov

https://www.jpl.nasa.gov/news/news.php?feature=7062&utm_source=iContact&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=NASAJPL&utm_content=mer20180215-1

Pink Floyd & Frank Zappa HD Live.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5uUNgAkv0Cs

TÉMOIGNAGES DE L'ODYSSÉE, AUX HARMONIES SUR SOURCE D'OSMOSE.

SENTIMENTS
DU CITOYEN TIGNARD YANIS
ALIAS
TAY
La chouette effraie
et
Dark Obscur en photographie.
______________________

kounak le chat
Revenir en haut Aller en bas
Voir le profil de l'utilisateur http://www.atelier-yannistignard.com
yanis la chouette



Nombre de messages : 9682
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Date d'inscription : 09/11/2005

MessageSujet: Re: TÉMOIGNAGES DE L'ODYSSÉE, AUX HARMONIES SUR SOURCE D'OSMOSE.   Mar 20 Fév à 3:33

Acquisition du Musée du Louvre...
Les donateurs de la campagne.
JE SUIS LE CITOYEN TIGNARD YANIS
ALIAS
TAY La chouette effraie.

Les donateurs de la campagne

Le musée du Louvre remercie chaleureusement LVMH / Moët Hennessy . Louis Vuitton pour son mécénat exceptionnel, les 8 500 donateurs de la campagne Tous mécènes !, la Société des Amis du Louvre, les Laboratoires Septodont et leur Président du Conseil de surveillance, Monsieur Henri Schiller et l'entreprise Hugau Gestion pour leur soutien en faveur de l'acquisition et de la valorisation du Livre d'heures de François Ier dans les collections nationales.
Ainsi que tous les petits donateurs qui ont permis d'atteindre un espoir inespéré pour le Musée, La Nation et La République.

http://www.tousmecenes.fr/fr/remerciements/

L'Œuvre à la loupe

Le livre d’heures est un bijou exceptionnel, au croisement de l’orfèvrerie, de l’enluminure et de la joaillerie. Le visiteur est invité à découvrir ce chef-d’œuvre éblouissant.
Cliquez sur le livre d’heures et faites glisser votre souris sur les visuels pour le découvrir dans les moindres détails.

http://www.tousmecenes.fr/fr/modules/oeuvre-a-la-loupe/

La première de couverture est composée d’une cornaline ovale cernée de quatre têtes de chérubins qui représente le Christ en Croix entouré de Saint François recevant les stigmates du Christ et de Saint Jérôme en ermite pénitent. Deux bandeaux émaillés de blanc portent une inscription latine en lettres d’émail noir : « Nous t’adorons, Ô Christ, et nous te bénissons car tu as racheté le monde par ta sainte croix ». Les côtés sont sertis de pierres précieuses et bordés d’or et d’arabesques noires représentant masques, torches et armes.

La quatrième de couverture est composée d’une cornaline ovale cernée de quatre têtes de chérubins. Celle-ci représente la Vierge à l’Enfant entourée de Sainte Barbe et de Sainte Catherine, représentées avec les instruments de leur martyre. La Vierge à l’Enfant est assise sur un trône sur lequel est inscrit en latin « Ô Mère de Dieu, souviens-toi de moi ». Deux bandeaux émaillés de blanc portent l’inscription latine : « Ô Marie, Mère de grâce, Mère de miséricorde, protégez-nous de nos ennemis et accueillez-nous à l’heure de notre mort ». Les côtés sont sertis de pierres précieuses et bordés d’or et d’arabesques noires représentant masques, torches et armes.

Le dos du livre d’heures, couvert d’or et d’arabesques noires, est entièrement serti de cabochons de rubis et de turquoises. Ces gemmes non taillées évoquent les modèles ottomans où ces deux pierres alternent sur les pièces d’orfèvrerie à l’époque du règne de Soliman le Magnifique, devenu sultan en 1520 et avec lequel François Ier a conclu une alliance contre les Habsbourg en 1536.

Livre d'or

http://www.tousmecenes.fr/fr/livre-d-or/

L'île Robinson Crusoe, en espagnol : Isla Robinsón Crusoe, autrefois Más a Tierra, Más Atierra ou encore Aguas Buenas, est une île du Chili située 674 kilomètres au large des côtes d'Amérique du Sud, dans l'océan Pacifique. Il s'agit de la plus grande île et la seule à être peuplée de l'archipel Juan Fernández qu'elle forme avec l'île Alejandro Selkirk et l'île Santa Clara.

Toponymie

L'île Robinson Crusoé est appelée Isla Robinsón Crusoe en espagnol. Avant 1966, l'île était appelée Más a Tierra, Más Atierra ou encore Aguas Buenas1 mais le gouvernement chilien la renomme en référence au roman Robinson Crusoé afin de rendre hommage au naufragé Alexandre Selkirk qui a inspiré le romancier Daniel Defoe par son aventure sur l'île.
Géographie
Vue du village de San Juan Bautista au fond de la Bahía Cumberland.
Localisation

L'île Robinson Crusoe est située en Amérique du Sud, dans l'océan Pacifique, à 674 kilomètres au large des côtes sud-américaines. Administrativement, l'île est chilienne et fait partie de la municipalité de Juan Fernández de la province de Valparaíso dans la région de Valparaíso.
Topographie

L'île Robinson Crusoe a un relief montagneux constitué par d'anciens volcans basaltiques imbriqués, notamment quatre volcans boucliers au caldeiras ouvertes vers le nord-est, et de leurs coulées de lave érodés2. Cette érosion a formé des vallées profondes aux parois escarpées. El Yunque, le point culminant de l'île, s'élève à 915 mètres d'altitude3. La partie occidentale de l'île est constituée d'une péninsule, le Cordón Escarpado, moins élevée et plus sèche que le reste de l'île constituée de plusieurs cônes volcaniques érodés2. Dans le prolongement de la péninsule se trouve l'île Santa Clara à 1,5 kilomètre de distance.
Faune et flore

Depuis 1977, l'île Robinson Crusoe constitue avec les autres îles de l'archipel Juan Fernández une réserve mondiale de biosphère. Elles sont considérées comme d'intérêt scientifique majeur en raison des espèces floristiques et faunistiques endémiques : 101 des 146 espèces natives de l'île y sont endémiques. Le colibri rouge en est l'emblème.
Histoire

L'île Robinson Crusoe s'est formée entre 5,8 et 3,8 millions d'années2. Une éruption se serait produite sur l'île en 17432. La dernière confirmée s'est produite en 1835 à 1,5 kilomètre au nord de l'île2.

C'est sur l'île Robinson Crusoe que le marin écossais Alexandre Selkirk est débarqué en 1704 et qu'il y vécut dans une solitude absolue pendant quatre ans et quatre mois4,5,6.

Le croiseur allemand SMS Dresden est coulé dans la Bahía Cumberland le 15 mars 1915 par les Britanniques.

Le 27 février 2010, le séisme d'une magnitude de 8,8 sur l'échelle de Richter qui frappe le Chili provoque un tsunami. Une vague de 10 m atteint l'île7, huit personnes perdent la vie et le village côtier de San Juan Batista est en grande partie détruit8. Heureusement, Martina Maturana, une jeune fille de douze ans, prévient les habitants et leur permet de se réfugier sur les hauteurs9.
Démographie
Pêcheurs de langouste de Juan Fernandez.

L'île Robinson Crusoe est la seule île de l'archipel Juan Fernández à être peuplée avec environ 600 habitants. Quelques véhicules sont présents sur l'île et la population dispose d'une connexion internet par satellite et d'émetteurs de télévision.
Économie

La population de l'île Robinson Crusoe vit surtout de la pêche à la langouste de Juan Fernandez mais aussi du tourisme. Ces derniers sont quelques centaines à se rendre sur l'île chaque année qui peuvent y pratiquer la plongée sous-marine.
Références

↑ (en) Paddy Clark, « Dig finds camp of 'real Crusoé' », BBC,‎ 1er novembre 2008 (lire en ligne [archive])
↑ a, b, c, d et e (en) « Robinson Crusoe » [archive], sur http://www.volcano.si.edu [archive], Global Volcanism Program, Smithsonian Institution (consulté le 16 mars 2014)
↑ (es) H.T. Santibáñez et M.T. Cerda, Los parques nacionales de Chile : una guía para el visitante, Editorial Universitaria, 2004 (ISBN 9789561117013 et 9561117010, lire en ligne [archive])
↑ « Des chercheurs sur les traces de Robinson Crusoe », Courrier international,‎ 4 novembre 2008 (lire en ligne [archive])
↑ Daniel Defoe, Philarète Chasles, Ferdinand Denis et Jean Labouderie, Aventures par Mme Amable Tastu, précédées d'une notice sur De Foe, par M. Philarète Chasles et suivies d'une notice sur le matelot Selkirk, sur l'ile de Juan-Fernandez, sur les Caraibes et les Puelches, par F. Denis, et d'une dissertation religieuse par l'abbé Labourderie, Didier, 1845 (lire en ligne [archive])
↑ Ricardo Uztarroz, La Véritable histoire de Robinson Crusoé, Flammarion, 2010 (ISBN 9782081246126, lire en ligne [archive]), p. 25
↑ (en) Colin Ricketts, Tsunami Warning Came Too Late for Robinson Crusoe Island [archive]. Earth Times, 17 août 2011
↑ (en) Eben Harrell, Chile's President : Why Did Tsunami Warnings Fail? [archive], Time Magazine, 2 mars 2010
↑ (en) Erica Liepmann, Chilean Girl Saves Her Island From Tsunami After Earthquake [archive], Huffington Post, 4 mars 2010

Géographie
Pays Drapeau du Chili Chili
Archipel Juan Fernández
Localisation Océan Pacifique
Coordonnées 33° 38′ 29″ S, 78° 50′ 28″ O
Superficie 47,9 km2
Point culminant El Yunque (915 m)
Géologie
Géologie Île volcanique
Type Volcan rouge
Activité Actif
Dernière éruption 20 et 21 février 1835
Code GVP 356020 [archive]
Observatoire Aucun
Administration
Région Valparaíso
Province Valparaíso
Municipalité Juan Fernández
Démographie
Population 600 hab.
Densité 12,53 hab./km2
Plus grande ville San Juan Bautista
Autres informations
Fuseau horaire UTC-6

Alexandre Selkirk (ou Alexandre Selcraig) (né en 1676 à Lower Largo comté de Fife, Royaume d'Écosse – mort le 25 janvier 1721 à Cape Coast dans l'actuel Ghana) est un marin écossais dont l'aventure inspira le roman Robinson Crusoé de Daniel Defoe (1719).

Sa vie avant son départ

Alexandre Selkirk est le fils d'un cordonnier et tanneur de Lower Largo. Dans sa jeunesse, il fait preuve d'un caractère querelleur et indiscipliné. Cité à comparaître le 27 août 1669 devant le consistoire de Kirk pour « tenue indécente » dans une église, il « ne comparut pas, s'étant enfui sur les mers : son affaire reste ouverte jusqu'à son retour »1. Alexandre Selkirk commence sa carrière de marin en 1695. En 1703, il rejoint une expédition corsaire dans l'océan Pacifique sous le commandement du capitaine William Dampier. Il est nommé navigateur du Ports (en), commandé par le capitaine Thomas Stradling. À ce poste intermédiaire entre les officiers et les sous-officiers, il connaît parfaitement le navire, son état et ses performances.
Le débarquement sur l'île

En octobre 1704, après une campagne décevante contre les navires et les villes de l'empire espagnol en Amérique, l'expédition se sépare en plusieurs groupes. Le capitaine Stradling fait escale aux îles Juan Fernandez, au large de Valparaíso, pour approvisionner le bateau en bois et en eau avant de repartir vers le Royaume d'Angleterre en octobre 1704. Le bateau ayant subi de gros dommages dans les batailles et nécessitant un carénage, Selkirk veut le réparer avant de franchir le cap Horn.

Devant le refus obstiné du capitaine Stradling d'accéder à sa requête, Selkirk, sous le coup de la colère, refuse de poursuivre la route et exige qu'on le laisse sur l'île Mas-a-Tierra, dans l'archipel Juan Fernández, à quelques 400 miles (600 km) des côtes chiliennes. Il essaya de convaincre quelques-uns de ses compagnons d'équipage de déserter avec lui en restant sur l'île. Son plan reposait sur l'hypothétique passage d'un autre bateau qui leur viendrait en aide. Personne ne s'engage avec lui dans l'aventure. Le capitaine Stradling exauça le vœu d'Alexander Selkirk et l'abandonna sur l'île de Juan Fernandez, trop heureux de se débarrasser d'un officier mêlé à toutes les tentatives de mutinerie depuis le départ d'Angleterre. Ce n'est que lorsqu'il se retrouve seul sur l'île que Selkirk réalise les conséquences de sa demande. Il tente sans succès de convaincre le capitaine de le rembarquer, mais il doit rester seul sur l'île. Il fit signe et appela le navire, en vain.

En réalité, il avait eu raison d'exiger d'être débarqué car le navire coula par la suite, noyant la majorité de l'équipage, comme il le craignait.
La vie sur l'île

Selkirk vécut quatre ans et douze jours sans la moindre compagnie humaine sauf les pirates qui survinrent peu après. Tout ce qu'il possédait sur l'île était un mousquet, de la poudre à canon, des outils de charpentier, un couteau, quelques vêtements et de la corde. À cause de bruits étranges qui lui parvenaient de l'intérieur des terres, qu'il craignait provenir de bêtes dangereuses, Selkirk resta dans les premiers temps sur le rivage pour être plus en sécurité. Pendant ce temps il mangea principalement des crustacés comme des crabes. Il scrutait quotidiennement l'océan pour trouver des bateaux, seule source d'aide possible. La solitude, la misère et le remords furent ses seuls compagnons pendant son temps passé sur l'île. Finalement, la seule chose qui le poussa dans l'intérieur de l'île fut les réunions bruyantes des hordes de lions de mer à la saison de reproduction.

Une fois qu'il fut installé dans les terres sa vie prit un tour plus agréable. Il disposait de plus de nourriture : des chèvres sauvages (introduites par de précédents marins) lui donnaient viande et lait ; des navets, des choux et des baies de poivre noir lui offraient plusieurs assortiments de légumes et épices. Bien que des rats puissent l'attaquer la nuit, il lui était possible de dormir en sécurité s'il avait l'astuce de domestiquer ou de dormir près de quelques chats sauvages.

Selkirk fit preuve de nombreuses ressources dans la réutilisation d'éléments qui lui restaient du navire comme de ceux qu'il trouvait sur place. Il bâtit deux cabanes à partir de bois de poivrier. Il utilisa son mousquet pour chasser les chèvres et son couteau pour nettoyer leurs carcasses. Sa réserve de poudre à canon ne cessant de diminuer, il fut forcé de s'en passer pour chasser. Durant l'une de ces chasses, il se blessa grièvement après avoir dévalé un escarpement et resta inconscient près d'une journée (sa proie amortit sa chute et lui évita d'avoir le dos cassé). À la suite de cet incident il lut des livres très fréquemment, il trouvait dans ses lectures un réconfort face à sa situation mais aussi un moyen de maintenir sa pratique de l'anglais. Après trois années de solitude, entouré seulement de chien, de chat et de chèvres qu'il apprivoise, il aperçoit deux fois un navire et se signale à lui. Cependant, ces navires sont espagnols et loin de le sauver, l'équipage de chacun des navires l'aurait pendu comme pirate s'il ne s'était enfui et caché à temps.

Il doit encore patienter près de deux années et demie supplémentaires avant que William Dampier ne le secoure le 2 février 1709, au cours d'une expédition menée par le capitaine Woodes Rogers. Il fut d'une grande aide pour soigner les hommes de Rogers atteints de scorbut, il chassait pour l'équipage deux à trois chèvres par jour. Selkirk reprend avec eux les raids sur les côtes chiliennes et péruviennes. Rogers et Selkirk devinrent réellement des compagnons de confiance : ce dernier se voit attribuer le commandement d'un des navires. De même, lorsque Rogers publia A cruising voyage round the world: first to the South-Sea, thence to the East-Indies, and homewards by the Cape of Good Hope, en 1712, il fit part de l'aventure du rescapé2.

Lorsqu'il rentre enfin à Londres en 1711, il est pauvre. Il rencontre l'écrivain Richard Steele, qui écrit son histoire et la publie dans le journal The Englishman le 3 décembre 17131. Par la suite, il rentre chez lui en Écosse, où il devient une célébrité locale. Au début de l'année 1717, Selkirk revint à Lower Largo mais n'y fit une halte que de quelques mois. Il y fit la rencontre de Sophia Bruce, une jeune employée de laiterie de 16 ans, lui-même étant alors âgé de 41 ans. Ils s'enfuirent tous les deux à Londres mais apparemment ne se marièrent pas pour autant. Il ne se remet jamais parfaitement de son séjour solitaire sur l'île : il passe beaucoup de temps seul et est mal à l'aise. Il se construit une sorte de case sur la propriété de son père. Enfin, il reprend le large à bord d'un négrier et périt de la fièvre jaune (ou de noyade) en 1721 au large des côtes d'Afrique.

En 1966, l'île chilienne Mas-a-Tierra, en hommage conjoint à Alexandre Selkirk et au roman Robinson Crusoé inspiré par son aventure, a été rebaptisée île Robinson Crusoé. Une île voisine a été rebaptisée île Alejandro Selkirk.
Notes et références

↑ a et b (en) The Englishman par Sir Richard Steele (1714) disponible [archive] sur Google Livres
↑ (en) A Cruising Voyage Round the World par Woodes Rogers (1712) disponible [archive] sur Google Livres

Voir aussi
Bibliographie

Woodes Rogers, Voyage autour du monde, commencé en 1708 et fini en 1711, 1716.
Tome 1, [lire en ligne [archive]]
Tome 2, [lire en ligne [archive]]
Tome 3, (non certifié)
André Reuzé, Le véritable Robinson Crusoé ou la vie étonnante d’Alexandre Selkirk, orné de seize pages hors-texte, éditions Bernard Grasset, 1937.
Diana Souhami, Les folles aventures du vrai Robinson Crusoé, traduit de l'anglais par Mélanie Marx, préface de Michel Le Bris, supervision et postface de Sylvère Monod, Autrement, 2006 ; (ISBN 2-7467-0812-4)
Ricardo Uztarroz, La véritable histoire de Robinson Crusoe (et l’île des marins abandonnés), Arthaud, 2006.
Jean Graton - La vraie histoire de Robinson - Histoire en BD de 4 pages en couleurs - in Spirou belge 809 du 15 octobre 1953.
Vendredi ou la vie sauvage - Michel Tournier.

Liens externes

L'histoire d'Alexandre Selkirk [archive]
(fr) Yvan Matagon, La vraie histoire d'Alexandre Selkirk, émission 2000 ans d'Histoire - France Inter, 2001 [archive]
(en) Account of a trip to Selkirk's Island [archive]
(en) « Site of Selkirk's camp identified » [archive], The Times (Londres), 17 septembre 2005.
(en) The life and adventures of Alexander Selkirk [archive], by John Howell (1829) sur Google Books
(en) "The story of Alexander Selkirk" [archive] (1841) by Samuel Griswald on the Internet Archive
(en) « Diaries of swashbuckling hero who rescued Robinson Crusoe unearthed » [archive], from Telegraph.co.uk, 5 January 2009.
Notices d'autoritéVoir et modifier les données sur Wikidata : Fichier d’autorité international virtuel • International Standard Name Identifier • Bibliothèque nationale de France (données) • Système universitaire de documentation • Bibliothèque du Congrès • Gemeinsame Normdatei • Bibliothèque nationale de la Diète • Bibliothèque royale des Pays-Bas • Bibliothèque nationale d’Australie • Bibliothèque nationale tchèque • WorldCat

Daniel Balavoine "Tous les cris les S.O.S" | Archive INA
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D8mfdeCersw

TÉMOIGNAGES DE L'ODYSSÉE, AUX HARMONIES SUR SOURCE D'OSMOSE.

SENTIMENTS
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TAY
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MessageSujet: Re: TÉMOIGNAGES DE L'ODYSSÉE, AUX HARMONIES SUR SOURCE D'OSMOSE.   Mar 20 Fév à 3:45

Le samedi 10 février 2018, le général d’armée Richard Lizurey, directeur général de la gendarmerie nationale a honoré la mémoire du major David Lannes décédé en service le 5 février.

Les honneurs militaires lui ont été rendus en présence de ses proches et très nombreux camarades lors d’une cérémonie empreinte de solennité et d’émotion qui s’est déroulée à Mérignac (33).

http://avenir-gendarmerie.org/index.php/2018/02/12/hommage-honneurs-militaires-rendus-au-major-david-lannes-decede-en-service/

Source: Facebook de la Gendarmerie nationale / Crédits photos: © D.R.

----------------------------

SCULPTURE EN CHOCOLAT.
CHOCOLATIER TOULOUSAIN,
PLACE DE L'ESTRAPADE.
TOULOUSE SAINT CYPRIEN.
RIVE GAUCHE DE LA GARONNE.
CENTRE HISTORIQUE DE
L'OCCITANIE ET DE SES
ORIGINES DANS L'HISTOIRE.
L'HOMME DE TAUTAVEL
EST NÉ SUR LES RIVES
DE LA GARONNE À TOULOUSE.

--------------------------

FDJ Sport @FDJ_Sport 23 h il y a 23 heures
Vous vous êtes accrochés et vous avez su rester concentrés pour aller chercher cette belle 2ème place. Allez @GabriellaPks et @GuillaumeCIZ on ne lâche rien, tout se jouera demain pour réussir à décrocher cette médaille d’or à #PyeongChang2018 #SaisisTaChance #TeamChallengeFDJ


TIGNARD YANIS @TIGNARDYANIS 4 h il y a 4 heures
CLIN D'OEIL: JO 2018; Papadakis et Cizeron prennent l'argent, à moins d'un point du sacre. C'est ainsi... Une grande déception mais bravo ! Yanis http://rmcsport.bfmtv.com/jo/jo-2018-papadakis-et-cizeron-prennent-l-argent-a-moins-d-un-point-du-sacre-1377790.html … via @RMCSport

GABRIELLA ET GUILLAUME... MARTIN FOURCADE PEUT FAIRE DES ERREURS ET ÊTRE CHAMPION OLYMPIQUE. AU PATINAGE ARTISTIQUE, TU PEUX RÉALISER L'OEUVRE PARFAITE ET ÊTRE TROISIÈME. IL EST DES MÉDAILLES D'ARGENT AMÈRES: CETTE MAIN BALADEUSE NE VALAIT PAS UNE TELLE SANCTION. TAY

LE PATINAGE ARTISTIQUE TOUT COMME LA PLUPART DES SPORTS D'HIVER SONT DES ENJEUX DE FIERTÉ NATIONALE. LA FRANCE POSSÈDE DE GRANDS CHAMPION'NE'S ET FAIT FIGURE D'EPOUVANTAILS PAR SES INDIVIDUALITÉS. IL Y A DES CLANS COMME À L'EUROVISION DE CHANSONS. TAY

PATINAGE ARTISTIQUE: QUAND ON EST CONSIDÉRÉ COMME SURDOUÉ LA MOINDRE ERREUR COMPTE DOUBLE. CETTE ERREUR DE BRETELLE AURAIT COÛTÉ DES POINTS AUX CANADIENS OU AMÉRICAINS MAIS MOINS QU'AUX FRANÇAIS OU AUX RUSSES. C'EST UNE QUESTION DE PRESTIGE EN AMÉRIQUE DU NORD. TAY

-----------------------------

Alexis Camus‏ @alexis_camus
Alexis Camus a retweeté Quotidien
Bonjour @Qofficiel, savez vous pourquoi @EMLYON est une école renommée ?
Réflexion, débat, analyse, ouverture.
Exactement l'inverse que ce que vous faites dans votre émission !
N'hésitez pas à nous rejoindre pour apprendre ▶️ http://m.masters.em-lyon.com/fr/grande-ecole-esc-msc-management/admissions-msc

TIGNARD YANIS‏ @TIGNARDYANIS
En réponse à @alexis_camus @Qofficiel @EMLYON
En tout cas, ce n'est pas la première fois que des politiciens s'amusent à faire le chef de meute.
Je suis dans l'interrogation du doute et du vrai: Nous voyons ainsi une réelle omerta d'intérêt.
TAY

Le lac Tohopekaliga est un lac situé dans le comté d'Osceola, en Floride.
Administration
Pays Drapeau des États-Unis États-Unis
État Floride
Coordonnées 28° 11′ 00″ nord, 81° 23′ 00″ ouest

-------------------------

UNE NOUVELLE ESPÉRANCE DANS LE CIEL D'UNE EUROPE SPATIALE MONTRANT UNE MATURITÉ HORS DU COMMUN: BIENVENUE À LA CROATIE. Y'BECCA. TAY
9 February 2018

The Republic of Croatia signed a Cooperation Agreement with ESA on 19 February 2018. This agreement will allow Croatia and ESA to create the framework for a more intensive and concrete cooperation related to ESA programmes and activities.

Ms Blaženka Divjak, Croatian Minister of Science and Education, and Mr Frédéric Nordlund, Head of External Relations Department, on behalf of the ESA Director General, signed the agreement during an official ceremony in Zagreb, Croatia.

With this agreement, ESA has now established formal cooperation with all EU Member States that are not Member States of ESA. This cooperative step with Croatia will create new and truly valued concrete opportunities for both parties. Minister Divjak said: "We need to build synergies through this agreement between space science, research, education and industry."

The ESA Director General conducts a series of biannual meetings with representatives of the EU Member States that are not Member States of ESA. Croatia attended these meetings and, through this agreement, is given the opportunity to participate as observer in ESA Council meetings as well as that of its subordinate bodies.

Discussions between ESA and Croatia, represented by the Ministry of Science and Education, about a potential cooperation started in 2014. The first negotiation meeting took place in May 2015 in Zagreb. The government of Croatia has nominated the Ministry of Science and Education as ESA’s counterpart for the implementation of this Cooperation Agreement.

Among the Croatian entities involved in space are the Rudjer Boskovic Institute (RBI), Meteorological and Hydrological Service (DHMZ), the National Protection and Rescue Directorate (DUZS), Croatian Academy of Science and Arts (HAZU) and the Faculties of Science, Electrical Engineering and Computing, Geodesy, Transport, Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture of the University of Zagreb and other leading universities in Croatia. A number of Croatian companies are also involved in space, particularly in satellite software development.

-----------------------

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MessageSujet: Re: TÉMOIGNAGES DE L'ODYSSÉE, AUX HARMONIES SUR SOURCE D'OSMOSE.   Mar 20 Fév à 10:44

DROIT DE GRÉVE EN FRANCE, LE REPOS D’ISRAËL, YAHVÉ ET Y'BECCA

Le droit de grève en France est un droit à valeur constitutionnelle (alinéa 7 du Préambule de la Constitution de la Quatrième République) depuis la décision Liberté d'association rendue le 16 juillet 1971 par le Conseil constitutionnel (reconnaissance de la valeur constitutionnelle du Préambule de la Constitution de 1958). Ce droit, dans le secteur privé, n'est, en principe, autorisé qu'aux salariés1.

Dans un arrêt en date du 2 février 2006, la Chambre sociale de la Cour de cassation l'a défini comme la cessation collective, concertée et totale du travail en vue de présenter à l'employeur des revendications professionnelles2.

14 juin 1791 : instauration du délit de coalition par la loi Le Chapelier.

24 mai 1864 : abrogation du délit de coalition et instauration du droit de grève par Napoléon III avec la loi Ollivier, que suivra la loi Waldeck-Rousseau autorisant les syndicats en France (1884). Émile Ollivier et Pierre Waldeck-Rousseau étaient considérés comme des libéraux sous la IIIe République.

27 octobre 1946 : le droit de grève est pleinement reconnu dans la constitution (« Le droit de grève s'exerce dans le cadre des lois qui le réglementent », alinéa 7 du préambule).

3 janvier 1966 : art. 8 du Pacte international relatif aux droits économiques, sociaux et culturels.

7 décembre 2000 : art. 28 de la Charte des droits fondamentaux de l'Union européenne.

21 Octobre 2016 : art.99 du Pacte international relatif aux droits économiques, sociaux et culturels


TIGNARD YANIS @TIGNARDYANIS
2 min il y a 2 minutes

Prince & The New Power Generation, Gett Off"icial".
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rrbFQEcpJ3A
“Les bonnes questions sont celles qui donnent aux lecteurs ou aux auditeurs, la vivifiante impression qu'à votre place, il les auraient aussi posées.” De Bernard Pivot / Le Métier de lire.
Y'BECCA.
TAY

“La seule utilité réelle de la cravate, c'est qu'on la retire, sitôt rentré chez soi, pour se donner l'impression d'être libéré de quelque chose, mais on ne sait pas de quoi.” De Paulo Coelho / Veronika décide de mourir.
TAY

EXTRAVAGANCE substantif féminin.
A.−
1. Comportement, état extravagant (d'une personne). (Quasi-)synon. divagation, excentricité, fantaisie, folie.Enfin, quelque grands que soient les bénéfices du vin, on peut dire qu'il frise souvent la folie ou, tout au moins, l'extravagance (Baudel., Paradis artif.,1860, p. 411).Les barbares se poussaient, criaient. Ils dansaient en délire autour de la grande chute d'eau, et, dans l'extravagance de leur joie, venaient s'y mouiller la tête (Flaub., Salammbô,t. 2, 1863, p. 75):
1. Chez elle le remords, la crainte d'être surprise, les joies cruelles de l'adultère, ne se traduisaient pas comme chez les autres femmes, par des larmes et des accablements, mais par une extravagance plus haute, par un besoin de tapage plus irrésistible. Et, au milieu de son effarement grandissant, on commençait à entendre un râle, le détraquement de cette adorable et étonnante machine qui se cassait. Zola, Curée,1872, p. 514.
2. Caractère extravagant (d'une chose). (Quasi-)synon. bizarrerie, excentricité, mauvais goût.Les rois qui font les oblations aux dieux ont des coiffures d'une extravagance insensée (Du Camp, Nil,1854, p. 157).Rien ne manque à ce texte pour en faire un modèle de platitude, d'extravagance et de débilité mentale (Ambrière, Gdes vac.,1946, p. 224).Ces maîtres de la critique sincère et avertie n'ont pas hésité à mettre le Greco à sa place véritable : au troisième plan dans la peinture, au premier dans l'extravagance et la fausse originalité (T'Serstevens, Itinér. esp.,1963, p. 216).Cf. absurdité ex. 1 :
2. L'habit français, mesquin, écourté, conservait cependant quelque élégance. Bientôt les classes tendirent à se confondre, les mœurs à s'effacer; le bon sens et le bon goût s'éloignèrent de compagnie, et l'extravagance des modes précéda de quelques années la folie plus sérieuse dont la nation devait être atteinte : tandis que les hommes, en attendant mieux, se faisaient égaux par le frac, les femmes se défiguraient à l'envi par la hauteur démesurée de leur coiffure. La révolution arriva... Jouy, Hermite,t. 4, 1813, p. 262.
B.− Le plus souvent au plur.
1. Acte, comportement extravagant. Faire des extravagances, mille extravagances. J'ai beaucoup souffert de voir mon Esteban entraîné par sa générosité à une extravagance (Mérimée, Théâtre C. Gazul,1825, p. 237).Je sens que mon amitié pour L... est forte aujourd'hui, après avoir passé par les extravagances de collège et le délire de notre première sortie dans le monde (M. de Guérin, Journal,1832, p. 145):
3. En vain Stephen se livrait à tous les plaisirs, se jetait dans toutes les folies, dans toutes les extravagances; au milieu de ses écarts de gaieté, son cœur n'avait pas cessé un instant d'être cruellement rongé par ses souvenirs et par ses regrets. Karr, Sous tilleuls,1832, p. 253.
2. Idée, opinion, entreprise, qui n'a pas de sens commun, qui échappe à la raison. Les lois générales du monde matériel, sur lesquelles les plus graves des anciens nous ont transmis tant de puérilités et d'extravagances (Bonald, Législ. primit.,t. 2, 1802, p. 48).L'erreur n'est et ne peut jamais être une extravagance complète, un délire total (Cousin, Hist. philos. mod.,t. 1, 1847, p. 141).Le testament n'était qu'un tissu d'extravagances (Colette, Képi,1943, p. 169):
4. Cette expédition de la Russie était une vraie extravagance que toutes les autorités civiles et militaires de l'Empire avaient blâmée... Chateaubr., Mém.,t. 2, 1848, p. 453.
3. Rare. Chose ou personne extravagante. Une fois, j'étais entré commander un fromage chez le crémier, et au milieu des petites employées j'en avais remarqué une, vraie extravagance blonde, haute de taille bien que puérile, et qui, au milieu des autres porteuses, semblait rêver, dans une attitude assez fière (Proust, Prisonn.,1922, p. 139).
Prononc. et Orth. : [εkstʀavagɑ ̃:s]. Cf. extra-. Ds Ac. 1694-1932. Étymol. et Hist. 1560 « digression » (Rom. d'Alector, fol. 136a ds La Curne); 1595 « excès » (Montaigne, Essais, éd. A. Thibaudet, I, XXXVII, p. 269); 1634 « action, paroles hors du sens commun » (Mairet, Sophonisbe, I, 1 ds Littré). Dér. du rad. de extravagant*; suff. -ance*. Fréq. abs. littér. : 434. Fréq. rel. littér. : xixes. : a) 672, b) 555; xxes. : a) 494, b) 676.

“Si vous êtes malade, ne le soyez pas trop longtemps. Tâchez de ne pas dépasser les 21 jours réglementaires, car, la patience des meilleurs amis est assez courte et vous auriez vite l'impression d'être délaissé.”
De Sacha Guitry / La Maladie.

Pré-requis

Pour être licite et pour que l'employé gréviste soit protégé, une grève doit remplir certaines conditions :

le mouvement de grève doit être collectif et concerté : à partir de deux personnes dans une entreprise quand cette dernière est seule concernée, ou à partir d'une personne dans le cadre d'un mouvement dépassant la seule entreprise ;

le salarié en grève doit cesser totalement le travail ;

des revendications d'ordre professionnel doivent être posées, par exemple l'amélioration des conditions de travail ou du salaire.

La grève n'a pas de durée légale — elle peut se tenir sur moins d'une journée comme sur plusieurs mois.

Le salarié n'a pas à être syndiqué pour faire usage de son droit de grève.

“Le critique est celui qui peut transposer d'une autre manière ou traduire en éléments nouveaux, son impression de la beauté.”
De Oscar Wilde / Le Portrait de Dorian Gray.

SENTIMENT DU
CITOYEN TIGNARD YANIS
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MessageSujet: Re: TÉMOIGNAGES DE L'ODYSSÉE, AUX HARMONIES SUR SOURCE D'OSMOSE.   Sam 24 Fév à 10:45

LA CHINE BOUDDHISTE, L'INDE COMMUNISTE, Y'BECCA ET LE TIBET.

LES ÉTOILES.
DÉDIE AUX RÉPUBLIQUES DE L'INDE, DU NÉPAL ET DU TIBET.

ELLES ONT UNE ROTATION... LES DIFFÉRENTS ARC DE CERCLES
CAR L’ÉQUATEUR ET LES PÔLES ONT UNE ROTATIONS LIES AUX
DIFFÉRENTS COURANTS INTÉRIEUR DÉCRIT PAR LES ALBATROS
DANS LEURS EXPLORATIONS DES NUAGES...
L’OMÉGA EST UNE FAIBLE ÉTOILE, MALGRÉ TOUT, CERTAINS
SCIENTIFIQUES SE SONT AMUSES à DONNER DES SENS
DIFFÉRENTS à LA LETTRE OMÉGA.

LA LUMIÈRE ET DIFFÉRENTES GALAXIES ONT UNE RÉVOLUTION
LIÉE AUX ROTATIONS PROVOQUANT DES ELLIPTIQUES AUX
ORIGINES DES PREMIERS TROU NOIRS OU L'INVERSE DU
MAGNÉTISME VIENT QUE LA MORT SERAI UNE VARIATION
DES SUBSTANCES DANS LE MAGNÉTIQUE ENGENDRANT LE TERME.

DANS LA LUMIÈRE ET L'OMBRE, ON A RÉUSSI à SAVOIR
QUE LE SOLEIL SE DÉPLAÇAIT DANS L'ESPACE: UN GRAIN MONTRE
QUE RIEN N'EST IMMOBILE DANS LA CIRCONSTANCE DE L'APESANTEUR.
LE VIDE N'EST DONC PAS IMMOBILE ET DANS CES DIFFÉRENTS
PHÉNOMÈNES PRÉSENTS; NOUS PERCEVONS DES REPÈRES
CAR CES DIFFÉRENTS PHÉNOMÈNES NOUS PERMETTENT
D'AVOIR UN REPÈRE.: S'AMUSE NAGALÏÉW LA MOUETTE DANS CES THÉORIES
SUR L'UNIVERS, LE PRÉSENT ET LA CIRCONSTANCE.

LE RENARD EST MUET, LA CHOUETTE JUBILE, LE LOUP EST ÉMERVEILLÉ
ET LA CIGOGNE SAVOURE.

PUIS; L’ŒIL ARDENT, NAGALÏÉW LA MOUETTE REGARDE
SON PÈRE MAGELLAN L'ALBATROS ET RAJOUTE:

" CERTAINES ÉTUDES ME PERMETTENT DE COMPRENDRE, CHER PÈRE QUE
LES MATHS ET L'INFORMATIQUE NE MÉRITENT PAS QUE L'ON PASSE à COTÉ
DU PLAISIRS DE LA JOIE ET DES LARMES ".

" NAGALÏÉW;
IL EST TEMPS DE SAVOIR Où SE DIRIGE LE MONDE...
IL EST TEMPS DE REALISER QU'IL FAUT INTERVENIR...
IL EST TEMPS QU'IL FAUT FAIRE REAGIR.. " : LUI RÉPONDS SON PÈRE.

ALORS TAY LA CHOUETTE REGARDE NAGALÏÉW
QU'IL A ÉLEVÉ DANS L'AMOUR DE JÉRUSALEM AUPRÈS DE SES PARENTS
ET DIT :

" JE VAIS TE RÉCITER CE POÈME QUE J'AI ÉCRIS, NAGALÏÉW
ET à VOUS, TOUS MES AMIS ET AMIES...

LE GARDIEN DU PHARE...

COMME J'AIMERAI QUE LES EAUX ME PORTENT DEVANT LES PORTES
DU PHARE. J'EN SORTIRAI LE GARDIEN ET REFERMERAIT LA PORTE
à DOUBLE TOUR... ALORS, JE MONTERAI EN HAUT DE LA TOUR,
CETTE CITADELLE PRÉNOMMÉE LE PHARE AFIN D'Y ALLUMER LA
LUMIÈRE: DE FLAMME OU D'ÉLECTRICITÉ.

LA MER, MAINTENANT, JE VEUX LA VOIR M'AVALER; JE GUIDERAI
LES VOYAGEURS DEPUIS MON PHARE ET DANS MON RIEN. DANS
LES CIRCONSTANCES DES MOUVEMENTS DE MARÉES, JE VERRAI
LE CONFLIT ET LA PAIX DE LA COLÈRE ET DE LA SÉRÉNITÉ.
JAMAIS, JE NE L’ÉTEINDRAI MURMURANT MA SOIF ET MA FOI
EN L'EXISTENCE ET AU VERBE.

JE NE SUIS PAS EMPRISONNÉE CAR J'AI UNE LUMIÈRE:
CELLE DE PRONONCER LIBERTÉ ET DE VOIR LA TEMPÊTE DÉBOUSSOLER
LES ESPRITS DES GRANDES GUEULES... DANS LA FRATERNITÉ,
LE GARDIEN DU PHARE VOGUE SUR LA MER... "

NAGALÏÉW REGARDE SON PARRAIN ET DIT:
" UN RÊVE FOU QUE JÉRUSALEM ET LA RÉPUBLIQUE...
UN RÊVE AUX HAUTEURS DU SOUFFLE, DE LA FRATERNITÉ ET DU PEUPLE."

" POUR LE RAYON VERT OU CHANTECLERC, LE COQ " DISENT LE RENARD ET
LE LOUP... LE CANARI PORTE UN CHANT DE JUSTICE VERS LA NATURE.

" POUR LA CONSCIENCE, LA VÉRITÉ, L’ESPÉRANCE ET L’ÂME..."
S'EXCLAME LA CIGOGNE ET MERLIN LE ROUGE GORGE DU NÉPAL.

ECRIT
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MessageSujet: Re: TÉMOIGNAGES DE L'ODYSSÉE, AUX HARMONIES SUR SOURCE D'OSMOSE.   

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TÉMOIGNAGES DE L'ODYSSÉE, AUX HARMONIES SUR SOURCE D'OSMOSE.
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