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 SolarSystem's First Interstellar, Berne 1191 et Agnés Favrel

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Localisation : http://yanis.tignard.free.fr/
Date d'inscription : 09/11/2005

MessageSujet: SolarSystem's First Interstellar, Berne 1191 et Agnés Favrel   Mar 21 Nov à 3:01

News | November 20, 2017
Solar System's First Interstellar Visitor Dazzles Scientists

› Larger view

Astronomers recently scrambled to observe an intriguing asteroid that zipped through
the solar system on a steep trajectory from interstellar space-the first confirmed object
from another star.

Now, new data reveal the interstellar interloper to be a rocky, cigar-shaped object
with a somewhat reddish hue. The asteroid, named 'Oumuamua by its discoverers,
is up to one-quarter mile (400 meters) long and highly-elongated-perhaps 10 times
as long as it is wide. That aspect ratio is greater than that of any asteroid
or comet observed in our solar system to date. While its elongated shape
is quite surprising, and unlike asteroids seen in our solar system, it may provide
new clues into how other solar systems formed.

The observations and analyses were funded in part by NASA and appear
in the Nov. 20 issue of the journal Nature. They suggest this unusual object
had been wandering through the Milky Way, unattached to any star system,
for hundreds of millions of years before its chance encounter with our star system.

"For decades we've theorized that such interstellar objects are out there, and now -
for the first time - we have direct evidence they exist," said Thomas Zurbuchen,
associate administrator for NASA's Science Mission Directorate in Washington.
"This history-making discovery is opening a new window to study formation
of solar systems beyond our own."

Immediately after its discovery, telescopes around the world, including
ESO's Very Large Telescope in Chile, were called into action to measure
the object's orbit, brightness and color. Urgency for viewing from ground-based telescopes
was vital to get the best data.

Combining the images from the FORS instrument on the ESO telescope using
four different filters with those of other large telescopes, a team of astronomers
led by Karen Meech of the Institute for Astronomy in Hawaii found
that 'Oumuamua varies in brightness by a factor of 10 as it spins
on its axis every 7.3 hours. No known asteroid or comet from
our solar system varies so widely in brightness, with such a large ratio
between length and width. The most elongated objects we have seen
to date are no more than three times longer than they are wide.

"This unusually big variation in brightness means that the object is highly elongated:
about ten times as long as it is wide, with a complex, convoluted shape," said Meech.
"We also found that it had a reddish color, similar to objects in the outer solar system,
and confirmed that it is completely inert, without the faintest hint of dust around it."

These properties suggest that 'Oumuamua is dense, composed of rock and possibly metals,
has no water or ice, and that its surface was reddened due to the effects of irradiation
from cosmic rays over hundreds of millions of years.

A few large ground-based telescopes continue to track the asteroid, though
it's rapidly fading as it recedes from our planet. Two of NASA's space telescopes
(Hubble and Spitzer) are tracking the object the week of Nov. 20.
As of Nov. 20, 'Oumuamua is travelling about 85,700 miles per hour
(38.3 kilometers per second) relative to the Sun. Its location is approximately
124 million miles (200 million kilometers) from Earth -- the distance between Mars
and Jupiter - though its outbound path is about 20 degrees above the plane of planets
that orbit the Sun. The object passed Mars's orbit around Nov. 1 and will pass
Jupiter's orbit in May of 2018. It will travel beyond Saturn's orbit in January 2019;
as it leaves our solar system, 'Oumuamua will head for the constellation Pegasus.

Observations from large ground-based telescopes will continue until the object
becomes too faint to be detected, sometime after mid-December. NASA's Center
for Near-Earth Object Studies (CNEOS) continues to take all available tracking measurements
to refine the trajectory of 1I/2017 U1 as it exits our solar system.

This remarkable object was discovered Oct. 19 by the University
of Hawaii's Pan-STARRS1 telescope, funded
by NASA's Near-Earth Object Observations (NEOO) Program,
which finds and tracks asteroids and comets in Earth's neighborhood.
NASA Planetary Defense Officer Lindley Johnson said, "We are fortunate
that our sky survey telescope was looking in the right place at the right time
to capture this historic moment. This serendipitous discovery is bonus science enabled
by NASA's efforts to find, track and characterize near-Earth objects
that could potentially pose a threat to our planet."

Preliminary orbital calculations suggest that the object came
from the approximate direction of the bright star Vega,
in the northern constellation of Lyra. However, it took so long for the interstellar object
to make the journey - even at the speed of about 59,000 miles per hour
(26.4 kilometers per second) -- that Vega was not near that position
when the asteroid was there about 300,000 years ago.

While originally classified as a comet, observations from ESO and elsewhere
revealed no signs of cometary activity after it slingshotted past the Sun
on Sept. 9 at a blistering speed of 196,000 miles per hour
(87.3 kilometers per second).

The object has since been reclassified as interstellar asteroid 1I/2017 U1
by the International Astronomical Union (IAU), which is responsible
for granting official names to bodies in the solar system and beyond.
In addition to the technical name, the Pan-STARRS team dubbed it
'Oumuamua (pronounced oh MOO-uh MOO-uh), which is Hawaiian
for "a messenger from afar arriving first."

Astronomers estimate that an interstellar asteroid similar
to 'Oumuamua passes through the inner solar system about once
per year, but they are faint and hard to spot and have been missed
until now. It is only recently that survey telescopes, such as Pan-STARRS,
are powerful enough to have a chance to discover them.

"What a fascinating discovery this is!" said Paul Chodas, manager
of the Center for Near-Earth Object Studies at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory,
Pasadena, California. "It's a strange visitor from a faraway star system,
shaped like nothing we've ever seen in our own solar system neighborhood."

For more on NASA's Planetary Defense Coordination Office:

https://www.nasa.gov/planetarydefense

To watch a NASA Planetary Defense video on International Asteroid Day:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VYO-mpoC8_s

Click here for interstellar asteroid FAQs:
https://www.nasa.gov/planetarydefense/faq/interstellar

News Media Contact
DC Agle
Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif.
agle@jpl.nasa.gov

Dwayne Brown / Laurie Cantillo
NASA Headquarters, Washington
202-358-1726 / 202-358-1077
dwayne.c.brown@nasa.gov / laura.l.cantillo@nasa.gov

Roy Gal
University of Hawaii Institute for Astronomy
301-728-8637
roygal@hawaii.edu

2017-300

Daft Punk - Instant Crush ft. Julian Casablancas
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=a5uQMwRMHcs

SENTIMENTS DE
TAY
La chouette effraie.

On en revient toujours là. L'argent. Même les plus industrieux ne peuvent se contenter de leur énergie.
Au revoir la-haut - Pierre Lemaitre

Il faut une infinité de temps devant soi pour commencer à réfléchir, une énergie infinie pour prendre la plus petite décision.
1980-1985, édition editions galilee, 1987 - Jean Baudrillard

La France, mes chers compatriotes, je l'aime passionnément. J'ai mis tout mon cœur, toute mon énergie, toute ma force, à son service, à votre service. Servir la France, servir la paix, c'est l'engagement de toute ma vie.
Si nous ne parvenons pas à concilier les besoins de croissance de l'humanité et la souffrance d'une planète à bout de souffle, nous courons à la catastrophe. C'est une révolution dans nos esprits tout autant qu'à l'échelle mondiale qu'il faut mener. Pour concevoir un nouveau mode de relation avec la nature et inventer une autre croissance. Avec sa recherche, avec ses entreprises, avec son agriculture, avec l'avance qu'elle a prise dans le nucléaire et les choix résolus qu'elle a faits dans les énergies renouvelables, la France a tous les atouts pour relever ce défi majeur du XXIe siècle et des Siecles à venir et, aux devenir des plus scrupuleux aux plus crapuleux...

Déclaration de Jacques Chirac dit Le Chacal sous l'égide de Y'becca et dans l'amitié de TAY La chouette effraie ou Citoyen Tignard Yanis.
INSCRIT DANS LE
DOSSIER PUBLIC PN386 DE LA COUR EUROPÉENNE DES DROITS DE LA CITOYENNE ET DES CITOYENS DANS LE DROIT JURIDIQUE DU TRIBUNAL PÉNAL INTERNATIONAL DE LA HAYE...


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Date d'inscription : 09/11/2005

MessageSujet: Re: SolarSystem's First Interstellar, Berne 1191 et Agnés Favrel   Mar 21 Nov à 3:11

Berne [70] (German: Bern), the capital of Switzerland, is a small to medium sized city with a population of about 130,000 in the city proper and roughly 350,000 in the agglomeration area. It sits on a peninsula formed by the meandering turns of the river Aare. The remarkable design coherence of the Berne's old town has earned it a place on the UNESCO World Heritage List. It features 4 miles of arcaded walkways along streets decked out with fountains and clock-towers. Bern was one of the eight host cities in the 2008 European Football Championships.
Understand
Views of the old-town.

Berne was founded in 1191 by Duke Berthold V von Zähringen and was part of the Holy Roman Empire. It was made a free imperial city by the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II in 1218 after Berthold died without an heir.

In 1353, Berne joined the Swiss confederation. After several successful conquests, Berne became the largest independent city state north of the Alps. It was occupied by French troops in 1798 during the French Revolutionary Wars, and was stripped of a large part of its territory. The city became the Swiss capital in 1848.
High technology for the 13th century. The 'Zytglogge' clock tower is found in the center of the old-town.
Talk

The main language spoken in Berne is Bernese-German, a local Swiss-German dialect, although most people also speak Standard German. The dialect is mostly spoken, but also used in text messages etc. In official publications and announcements, Standard German is used.

English seems to be supplanting French as the favorite second language of the Bernese, even though the canton of Berne is a bilingual German and French speaking canton. However, many people you encounter as a tourist will be able to speak both so it's certainly worth a try.
Get in

Berne is in the center of Switzerland and is very well connected with the rest of the country.
By plane

Berne's small international airport Bern-Belp (BRN) [71] with direct flights from Cologne Munich, Barcelona,Paris, London via LCY (city airport) as well as several seasonal destinations in Europe lies just a few kilometers south of the city. A taxi ride into the city costs approx. CHF 45.-

Bus 160 and 334 go from the airport to Belp in 8 minutes, from where S-Bahn suburban trains (lines S3, S31, S4 and S44) connect to Berne in 13 (S4, S44) to 21 (S3, S31) minutes. The ticket for the whole journey (bus + train) costs CHF 6.40

Berne is connected to Zurich Airport (ZRH) in 75 minutes by IC train routes St. Gallen - Winterthur - Zürich Hbf - Berne - Genève Aéroport or Romanshorn - Winterthur - Zürich Hbf - Berne - Brig. From Geneva Airport (GVA) there are direct IC trains to Bern which take approx. 2 hours.
By train

Bern is conveniently located in the vast network of Swiss Federal Railway between Geneva, Basel and Zurich and is served twice per hour by express (InterCity) trains from each of these cities as well as Zürich and Geneva airports. Hourly express trains take you into all directions, including Interlaken, Brig, and Lucerne.

For more information:

Swiss Federal Railway, ☎ +41 (0)900 300 300 (CHF 1.19/min), [1]. Provides a useful online travel planner which includes information about local bus and tram services as well as rail services and can plan your journey from door to door. edit

Swiss Travel System, [2]. is a great source of information for finding the best ticket as a tourist. It is a must to visit, as regular, full fare tickets are expensive. This site tells you what is the best option for your needs. edit

By car

Berne is easily reachable with the national motorway network from all directions and has several exits from motorways A1, A12 and A6.
By bus
Get around
The church Münster seen from Kirchenfeldbruecke

Berne has an excellent public transportation system, with frequent local city services provided by trams, trolleybuses and buses, together with an S-Bahn rail system for longer journeys into the surrounding suburbs.
By foot

The city center of Berne is easily accessible by foot. You can get around the main shopping area and restaurants simply by walking. But if you are going to go outside of the city center in areas like Guisanplatz, it's better to go by tram unless you want to be walking for 45 minutes.
By tram and bus

Bernmobil, ☎ +41 (0)31 321 88 88, [3]. The operator of the local tram and bus services, providing timetables and other information on its web site or by telephone. edit
Bern Ticket, [4]. If you stay overnight in a Hotel in the city of Berne, you receive a free Bern Ticket for your whole stay, which lets you travel for free on public transport in zones 100/101. edit

By rail

Berne's S-Bahn rail system will take you to many places in the suburbs and even to other nearby cities like Biel, Thun, Fribourg or Solothurn.

S-Bahn Bern, ☎ +41 (0)31 327 27 27, [5]. Web site in German only. edit

By car

As in most Swiss cities, free parking space is rare and the paying ones in the city center are quite expensive. As the center is quite small and all of the major attractions are within a mile walking distance it's a good choice to park in a "park and ride" and take public transport to the center of town.

Paying Car Parks in Bern, ☎ 0800 727 536, [6]. (Web site in German only.) edit

By bike

You can get a free bike for four hours at "Bern rollt" [72]. All you need is a passport or an ID and 20 CHF for deposit, and you can explore Berne by bike. After four hours, you'll have to pay 1 CHF for each additional hour. There are three places where you can get bikes (see map [73]): Milchgässli/Hauptbahnhof (main station), open all year. Hirschengraben and Zeughausgasse, open from May to October.
By taxi

There are taxi stands next to the main station and a few more taxi stands in the inner city. Some major taxi companies are:

Nova-Taxi, ☎ +41 (0)31 331 33 13, [7]. (Web site in German only.) edit
Bären-Taxi, ☎ +41 (0)31 371 11 11, [8]. (Web site in German only.) edit
BETAX, ☎ 0800 90 30 90, [9]. Transport for the disabled, people in a wheelchair etc. (Web site in German only.) edit

See
The Federal Palace of Switzerland
Zentrum Paul Klee

Berne is full of history and museums. It also has quite a bit of public art, all of which is marked on a walking map which is available from the tourist office in the train station for free.

Berne Historical Museum, Helvetiaplatz 5, ☎ +41 (0)31 350 77 11, [10]. Monday closed. Switzerland's second largest historic museum, combining under one roof one of the country's most important ethnographic collections together with the Bernese historical collections from prehistory to the present day. It includes the Einstein Museum. CHF 13 for permanent exhibition, CHF 18 for Einstein Museum. edit

Bundeshaus (Federal Palace of Switzerland), Bundesplatz 3, [11]. The Swiss House of Parliaments is a representative building dominating the Square. Constructed by the end of 19th century. Free guided tour when the Parliament is not in session. During session only access to the spectators ranks. Free. edit

Einsteinhaus, Kramgasse 49, ☎ +41 (0)31 312 00 91 (webmaster@einstein-bern.ch), [12]. 10AM to 5PM (4PM Saturdays) March to October, 1PM to 5PM (Noon to 4PM Sat) March and February. Einsteinhaus is closed on Sundays in March and February. It's completely closed in January. Albert Einstein rented this small flat with his wife during his years working at the Swiss patent office. Their first child, Hans Albert, and the special and general theories of relativity were born here, where Einstein's writing desk overlooked the busy street and its lovely clock-tower. There are numerous photos and original documents from Einstein's life, work, and speeches. CHF 6/4.5 Adults/Students.. edit

Invasion of Berne -- successful!, [13]. As you explore, you may notice these small alien graffiti mosaics. GAME NOT OVER was declared by the anonymous Parisian artist "Invader" in 1998. Since then, space invaders have been reappearing on the walls, bridges and roofs of cities across the world, most famously on the Hollywood sign and in several locations in the Louvre. Two additional Swiss cities have been invaded: Geneva and Lausanne. Those with 10 EUR, a longer visit, and a weird sense of humor might consider ordering a map and doing the space invader tour. edit

Kunstmuseum (Museum of fine Arts), Hodlerstrasse 12, ☎ +41 (0)31 328 09 44, [14]. Closed on Mondays. The Museum of Fine Arts Berne is known for its collection of works of painters such as Pablo Picasso, Ferdinand Hodler and Meret Oppenheim. It is the oldest art museum in Switzerland with a permanent collection and houses works covering eight centuries. edit

Swiss Alpine Museum, Helvetiaplatz 4, ☎ +41 (0)31 350 04 40, [15]. A museum showing the full variety of the Swiss mountains. edit

Tierpark Dählhölzli (Zoo), Tierparkweg 1, ☎ +41 (0)31 357 15 15, [16]. Summer: 8AM - 6:30PM, Winter: 9AM - 5PM. Berne's zoo is located along the Aare river, with many outdoor enclosures that actually integrate the river. edit

Zentrum Paul Klee, Monument im Fruchtland 3 (Bus No. 12 to the end of the line), ☎ +41 (0)31 359 01 01, [17]. 10-17 except closed Mon.. The Paul Klee centre which is in a modern wave-shaped building presents the world's most important collection of works by Paul Klee (rotating exhibition drawn from 4000 works, or 40% of his oeuvre). If you plan on visiting, then the CHF20 "Berne card" validated for that day (show it at the ticket counter to receive a complimentary pass) is totally worth its price - you'll spend about that for bus round trip and the ticket alone. CHF 20.- (in 2013). edit

Zytglogge, [18]. The Clock Tower near the center of the old town, built around the turn of the 13th century, is a great thing to see. On the hour, every hour throughout the day, there is a stunning display of early animatronic technology. The locals are proud to tell you it's "the longest running act in show business". A few minutes before the hour, it begins with a little song and some drumming by a jester on top. On the hour, bears and an old bearded king get into the act. It's great for kids to see. The clock tells time too, as well as the month, day, sign of the zodiac and phase of the moon. There are guided tours inside the tower that will let you have a look at the clockwork while the show is displayed outside. It can be booked at the tourist office and is definitely worth it if you love mechanics. Free. edit

Do
The View from Gurten Hill

Bear Park, [19]. Open all day. Berne is inseparably linked with bears. According to legend the city’s founder, Duke Berchtold V von Zähringen, named the city after the first animal to be caught here. The saga lives on in the form of the real-live bears in the Bear Park and the heraldic bear in the Bernese coat of arms. Members of the RSPCA have found the former bear pits quite depressing. The site was recently (2009) enlarged into a park, and the bears can now go for a swim in the river. They also have a cave for hibernation, but this is all still far from enough for such large mammals, and is still considered cruel and unnecessary. The Bear Park can be reached by bus number 12 from the railway station in Berne in direction Zentrum Paul Klee and getting off at "Bärengraben" bus stop. Free. edit
Gurten, [20]. The Gurten is a lovely hill just outside the city. It features a park and great view over the city on one side and a nice panorama of the Bernese alps on the other. The park is visited heavily by locals to play ball, to barbecue or to just lie in the sun. Tourists are not an unusual sight, though this little attraction is missed by most of the many that visit the city. Hiking paths lead in all directions and you will almost certainly stumble across some cows when walking around. A wooden look-out tower allows an even better panorama than that you would already have. If you get hungry or thirsty, a good budget restaurant service and self-service provides you with all you need. Families with children should not miss the cool playground. The Gurten can be easily reached with tram number 9 from the railway station in Berne in direction Wabern. Exit the tram at station Gurtenbahn and walk a few steps up the hill. Then take the Gurtenbahn [21], a panorama train that will bring you on top in just 5 minutes, round-trip tickets are CHF 9 for adults or CHF 4.50 for children (BernCard is valid), departure usually every 20 minutes depending on daytime. A club called up-town features various cultural events on weekends and once a year in summer national, European and a few international music stars (among others Alanis Morisette, Skin, Moloko and Jimmy Cliff in 2003) visit it for the Gurtenfestival, an open-air music festival [22]. Gurten is a must see for everybody visiting the city for longer than a day. Free. edit
Rosengarten, [23]. Little park with a splendid view over the old town. Situated close to the bear pits (follow the path that goes up the hill opposite the bear-pit-roundabout. Quite popular (and populated) during lunchtime. The Rosengarten can be easily reached by bus number 10 from the railway station in Berne in direction of Ostermundigen Rüti. edit
SC Bern. The SCB is Berne's ice-hockey team. The stadium is the second largest in Europe and is regularly sold out, producing an impressive atmosphere in the arena. It is also mentionable that the SC Bern boasts the highest average attendance outside the NHL. To get there, just take Tram Nr. 9 towards Guisanplatz and get off at the terminal stop. edit
Swimming in the river Aare. On hot summer days, let yourself drift for some kilometers in the river Aare. Good (and safe) stretches are between the Kornhausbridge and the public pool of the Lorraine (old fashioned swimming pool just next to the river) and between the Eichholz and the public pool of the Marzili. Other stretches such as swimming the bend around the old town (starting at the "Englische Anlagen" to the Lorraine) or the "Bremgartenschlaufe" are only to be done by good swimmers accompanied by experienced locals. Note: Some sections of the river cannot be passed by swimmers due to barriers of hydraulic power stations (e.g. downstream of Marzili and downstream of Lorraine). An overview is provided by the Aarekarte [24] (a map showing dangerous areas related to water activities along the river Aare). Up-to-date information about the water level and the water temperature can be found on [25].
BTW: Entrance to public pools is free of charge. This makes it a good idea to choose a swim that ends at a public pool so you can have a shower afterwards. edit
Tramdepot, [26]. Just next to the bear pits you'll find the tram depot, the old final station of Berne's first tramway. The building now houses the town's most popular brewpub, and the tourist office, with free shows on the city's history at regular intervals. edit


Events

Gurtenfestival, [27]. In July the Gurten hill is host for an open air festival with many national and international music acts. During these four days you will find a party crowd of up to 25'000 people on the hill day and night. 1 day pass CHF 75, 2 days 115, 3 days 155, 4 days 195. edit

shnit International Shortfilmfestival, [28]. Since 2003 the annual festival celebrates every October in Bern the art of short films. shnit is one of the largest short film festivals in the world, playing in 10 different cities simultaneously - attracting in Bern 25.000 attendances. edit

International Jazzfestival Bern, [29]. A jazz festival with international reputation is held in Berne every year since 1976. edit

Buskers Bern, [30]. Since a few years the annual street musician festival is taking place in the picturesque old town streets. You don't need to buy a ticket but are encouraged to buy a festival pin or give donations to the musicians which come from all around the world. edit

Learn

Berne is home to the prestigious University of Berne [74] which currently enrolls approximately 13,000 students. In addition, the city has the University of Applied Science also known as Berner Fachhochschule. There are also many vocational schools and an office of the Goethe Institut.
Work
Buy
Marktgasse lies right in the centre of the 6km long shopping arcades

As with most other cities in Switzerland, store opening and closing hours in Berne are strictly regulated. All stores, including grocers, close by 7PM or 7.30pm from Monday to Friday, except on Thursdays when they remain open until 9.30PM. Aldi supermarkets are an exception, closing at 8PM during the week. On Saturdays everything must close by 5PM. On Sundays, all stores are closed, except for those in the main railway station, which are open 7 days a week until about 10PM, and which include Migros and Coop supermarkets.

Rathausgasse and the streets parallel to it have any number of cute shops with an amazing range of handicraft and luxury goods. This is not the normal range of swiss souvenir stuff, but really interesting things. There are a couple of worthy examples below, but the real pleasure is in spending a few hours (or days) exploring the arcades and vitrines.

Yamatuti, Aarbergergasse 16-18, ☎ +41 (0)31 318 26 56. Open M,Tu,W,F 10AM-6:30PM, Th 10AM-9PM, and Sa 10AM-5PM. Unique toys and kitsch collectibles pack the walls of this cramped space. edit

There are several used book stores that carry cheap books in German, English and French:

Bücherbergwerk Monbijou, Monbijoustrasse 16 (on the street through which tram line 9 descends from Hirschengraben near the main station, in the basement of the building marked ''SWICA''), ☎ +41 (0)31 381 71 25. Open Tu-F 10AM-5PM and Sa 11AM-3PM. The used books store of the Swiss Workers' Aid Society. edit
Bücher-Brockenhaus Bern, Rathausgasse 34 (in the old city between the Zytglogge and the Rathaus), ☎ +41 (0)31 311 44 59, [31]. Open Di-Fr 2PM-6.30PM, Sa 9AM-12PM, 2PM-4PM. edit

Eat
This guide uses the following price ranges for a typical meal for one, including soft drink:
Budget Under CHF 25
Mid-range CHF 25 to CHF 50
Splurge Over CHF 50

Eating in Berne (or almost anywhere in Switzerland for that matter) can be an expensive proposition for foreign tourists. Be sure to "shop around" before deciding on a restaurant as many of them cater to foreign tourists (especially those serving traditional Swiss food) and have inflated their prices accordingly. Most Bernese natives prefer Italian, Asian, or other non-local cuisine so finding a traditional Swiss restaurant with acceptable prices can often be a daunting experience. Be patient and you will persevere without breaking the bank.


Budget

Äss-Bar Bern, Marktgasse 19, 3011 Bern (In a lovely Cellar), [32]. Bakery-Store that sells good quality produce from local bakeries. They sell 'fresh from yesterday' which means products that could not be sold in other bakeries are sold in Äss-Bar instead of being thrown away. Therefore all is about half price from local bakeries.Sandwiches up to 3 Swiss Francs, Pastry only 2 Swiss Francs. So basically you get good food for good price and fight food waste at the same time.[www.facebook.com/aessbarbern] Budget. edit
Suan Long, Rail City, underneath main station, Bern, ☎ +41 (0)31 311 87 88. Low-priced Chinese meals, wide variety of dishes, including good vegetarian selection. Quick service and ideal if you're waiting for a train. Especially recommended if you enjoy spicy food! 17-25 francs. edit
Beaulieu, Erlachstrasse 3, ☎ +41 (0)31 331 25 25 (fax: +41 (0)31 305 86 55), [33]. Mon-Fri 8:30AM-11:30PM, Sa 9AM-11:30PM, Son 11AM-10PM. Old-fashioned restaurant serving traditional Swiss and Bernese cuisine at very affordable prices. Popular amongst students due to its situation close to the university; equally popular amongst the local workers. Definitely not a tourist restaurant—go here if you want to meet the Bernese amongst themselves. edit
Wäbere, Gerechtigkeitsgasse 68, ☎ +41 (0)31 311 42 58 (fax: +41 (0)31 312 20 67). 11AM to 11PM except Sun. Excellent soups, a good rendering of Swiss standards, such as cheese fondue, and an decent number of veggie choices. Many items available in half portions. CHF 14-24. edit

Mid-range

Altes Tramdepot, Grosser Muristalden, Bern. (Across bridge at east end of city centre, by bear pit.), ☎ 031 368 14 15, [34]. 11:00 - 23:00. Authentic Swiss restaurant based, as its name suggests, in a former tram depot. Good, hearty Swiss food. Range of dishes from budget price rösti to higher-priced meat specialities. On-site brewery with traditional beers available. Bench seating with great atmosphere. CHF 20 - 40. edit
Café Fédéral, Bärenplatz 31, ☎ +41 (0)31 311 16 24, [35]. Stylish, modern atmosphere and international cuisine. Situated in front of the Bundeshaus, its popularity amongst politicians during the "Session" is legendary. Specializes in Entrecôtes (a kind of steak), but has other dishes, including vegetarian ones. edit
Casino Restaurant, Herrengasse 25, ☎ +41 (0)31 328 03 28 (info@casinobern.ch), [36]. Centrally located, with a view over the river and mountains on the South. Dishes include excellent pasta with mushrooms, fish, and meats, served throughout the day. CHF 25-45 for a main dish. edit
Kornhaus, Kornhausplatz 18, ☎ +41 (0)31 327 72 70 (fax: +41 (0)31 327 72 71), [37]. The room alone is worth a stop at this fabulously appointed mostly Italian restaurant. As one might guess from the name, the building was originally built for grain storage, but now features fresco paintings of traditional swiss scenes, events from local history, and related characters. CHF 26-45 for the main dish. CHF 9-14 for appetizers.. edit
Lötschberg, Zeughausgasse 16, ☎ +41 (0)31 311 34 55, [38]. A centrally located restaurant with rustic interior, serving typical Swiss food like rösti or cheese fondue and raclette, as well as a large range of Swiss wines. CHF 25-40 for a main dish. edit
Schmiedstube, Schmiedenplatz 5, ☎ +41 (0)31 311 34 61, [39]. Open Mon to Sat 8:30AM - 11:30PM. German, French, Italian, English and Spanish spoken. This traditional Swiss restaurant is well known for its typical dishes, such as Röschti, Cordon Bleu, Älplermakkaronen. Its location in the heart of Berne (300 ft from the clock tower "Zytglogge") makes it an ideal resting stop while you're enjoying the city of Berne. edit
Schwellenmätteli, Dalmaziquai 11, ☎ +41 (0)31 350 50 01 (info@schwellenmaetteli.ch), [40]. Terrace Open Mon to Sun 8:00AM - 24:00PM. A very nice restaurant at the side of the river Aare with a nice view on the Cathedral. CHF 20-40 for a main dish. edit

Splurge

Bellevue Palace, Kochergasse 3-5, ☎ +41 (0)31 320 45 45 (fax: +41 (0)31 47 43), [41]. Berne's N° 1 address. Stylish hotel and restaurant; has its price. Go there when the Parliament is in session, and you may very well see the president of Switzerland having lunch. edit
Kornhauskeller, Kornhausplatz 18, ☎ +41 (0)31 327 72 72 (kornhaus@bindella.ch), [42]. Restaurant in the city center with many great menus, wines and drinks. edit
Restaurant Rosengarten, Alter Aargauerstalden 31b, ☎ +41 (0)31 331 32 06, [43]. Upscale Swiss restaurant with amazing view over the city edit

Drink

Many Bernese will tell you that nightlife in Berne is not exactly what you might call spectacular, but they're probably comparing it to Zurich or Paris. There are quite a few good spots to hang out at.

For a drink or two, there's a wide choice of bars all over town. However, you might be disappointed with most central options as they tend to be annoyingly conventional, though there are an ample number of exceptions:

Café Kairo, Dammweg 43, 3013 Bern, [44]. Another nice choice in the same area as Du Nord. edit
Kornhaus Café, Kornhausplatz 18, ☎ +41 (0)31 327 72 70. Posh but nice and near the center. edit
Kornhausbar. Located in the basement, one floor over the restaurant. It serves the best drinks in Berne, but is always crowded with overdressed people. edit
Cuba, Kornhausplatz 14, ☎ +41 (0)31 311 64 86. with Latin-influenced Cuba Bar next door edit
Brasserie Lorraine, Quartiergasse 17, ☎ +41 (0)31 332 39 29 (info@brasserie-lorraine.ch), [45]. Alternative restaurant with a cute garden to sit in. Located in the Lorraine area of town, although a bit hidden. edit

Most of the towns cooler bars are located around the main clubbing venues though. In the ancient Matte neighborhood, which is well worth a daytime visit too, you'll find nightlife options for almost every taste.

Dampfzentrale, Marzilistrasse 47, ☎ +41 (0)31 310 05 40, [46]. In this former electricity facility you'll find an excellent restaurant and bar, along with lots of cultural pearls. They specialize in urban, jazzy, electronic music and dance performances. Definitely a gem! edit
PROGR_center for cultural production, Waisenhausplatz 30/ Speichergasse 4, ☎ +41 (0)31 318 82 70, [47]. Close to the Reithalle and even closer to the city center, you will find the PROGR. More than 100 artists, dancers, actors and musician have their studios here. It's large courtyard with the CaféBar Turnhalle is a real oasis. From September to June, they offer a cultural program with exhibitions of experimental and contemporary art, theater, performance, lectures and regular concerts on Sunday nights (jazz- connected, world women voices). edit
Reitschule, Neubrückstrasse 8, ☎ +41 (0)31 306 69 69, [48]. Next to the central train station is Berne's most important center for alternative culture. The huge brick building is visible from far, easy to recognize by its abundant graffiti art on the façade and roof. Reitschule has the status of an autonomous cultural center, which means in firm language that it's a no-police zone. This of course gives it a bit of an anarchist touch, a touch of "anything goes". And indeed, anything does go: Reitschule features a theater, a cinema, a women's room and two concert/dancing venues, all dedicated entirely to alternative culture. Recent concerts included rjd2, Metalheadz or DJ Babu. The center as a whole is a unique experience and a must-see for anyone who has an interest in contemporary urban culture. edit
Silo Bar, Mühlenplatz 11, ☎ +41 (0)31 311 54 12, [49]. Also in the Matte, this is a popular student hangout and disco. Admission is free and the place gets really packed on weekend nights. A nice place if you don't mind the sound (a mix of mainstream hits). edit
Wasserwerk Club, ""Wasserwerkgasse, [50]. This is one of Berne's traditional clubbing and concert venues for urban music. It actually features two parts: Sportwerk The very welcoming, smaller "Sportwerk", which is open all week and free of charge, offers drinks, music, pool, snooker, darts, table soccer and flipper games as well as sport events on TV in a laid back, greenish atmosphere. The bigger part of the club, the actual "Wasserwerk" is open on weekends and features excellent djs and live concerts. edit
Kursaal-Bern (Meridiano), Kornhausstrasse 3 3000 Bern 25, ☎ +41 (0)31 339 55 00, [51]. Tuesday to Friday 11.30 – 14.00 and 18.00 – 24.00 hrs. Saturday 18.00 – 24.00 hrs. Sunday & Monday closed. The Meridiano is renowned far beyond the borders of Bern for its welcoming hospitality. And for its innovative cuisine - prepared to perfection by our Chef de Cuisine Markus Arnold and his team. The restaurant has been awarded 16 GAULT-MILLAU points and one MICHELIN star, testifying to the Meridiano's superior standards of service and gastronomy. Dishes of distinction are enhanced by the restaurant's refined and elegant interior. Guests are also offered fine views extending over Switzerland's captivating capital to the surrounding scenic countryside Markus Arnold describes his culinary style as "light contemporary cuisine of the highest quality, created exclusively from market-fresh ingredients of the finest quality. Authentic aromas and products of purity are my paramount priority." 20-76 CHF. edit

Sleep
This guide uses the following price ranges for a standard double room:
Budget Under CHF 150
Mid-range CHF 150 to CHF 300
Splurge Over CHF 300

The main train station has a tourist office on the west side on the ground floor. They'll try to help you find a hotel room, if you arrive without booking. However, it is better to book ahead if you can, as Berne is a capital city; the budget hotels do tend to fill up on the weekends.
Budget

Landhaus, Altenbergstrasse 4 (near the bear pit), ☎ +41 (0)31 331 41 66 (landhaus@spectraweb.ch, fax: +41 (0)31 332 69 04), [52]. checkout: Reception is open until 10. A cute, friendly, and well-kept place with a good restaurant and bar downstairs. (If they are fully booked ask to crash in the TV room, CHF 34) CHF 90-160. edit
Berne backpackers - Hotel Glocke, Rathausgasse 75, ☎ +41 (0)31 311 37 71 (info@bernbackpackers.com, fax: +41 (0)31 311 10 08), [53]. A member of Swiss Backpackers Association, and Located in the center of the old town this highly favored backpacker's hotel is only a 10 or 15 min. walk from the central train station they have Internet, games and laundry facilities, solid security and no more than six beds in a room. There are also kitchen facilities, a big common room with TV, a pool table, games, movies at night, and gift shop. Prices from CHF 31.- per person, per night. edit
Youth Hostel, Weihergasse 4, ☎ +41 (0)31 311 63 16, [54]. 187 beds in all, consisting of two, four, five and six-bed rooms and two group rooms, one with eighteen and one with 20 beds. Shower and WC on each floor, the security is lacking though, and theft is common in the dorms, given the area the hostel is located in. edit

Mid-range

Astoria Swiss Quality Hotel, Zieglerstrasse 66, [55]. Tastefully renovated 3*-hotel with a friendly and informal atmosphere, close to the city centre on the “Eigerplatz” (motorway exit “Berne Forsthaus”). Awarded Swiss Tourism’s Quality Award I, the hotel has 62 spacious and comfortable rooms, a restaurant with bar, conference rooms, w-lan and parking for cars and coaches. edit

Bern Swiss Quality Hotel, Zeughausgasse 9, CH-3011, (hotelbern@hotelbern.ch, fax: +41 (0)31 329 22 99), [56]. Charming hotel in the city center of Bern, only 600m from the main station away and 10km from the airport Bern Belp. Single room from 245CHF, double room from 280CHF edit

Kreuz, Zeughausgasse 41, CH-3011, (info@hotelkreuz-bern.ch, fax: +41 (0)31 329 95 96), [57]. Member of Swiss Quality Hotels International. Located 500m from the railway station directly in the city center. Single room from 144CHF, double room from 208CHF (rates from low season 2009). edit

Metropole, Zeughausgasse 26, CH-3000, (info@hotelmetropole.ch, fax: +41 (0)31 329 94 95), [58]. Member of Swiss Quality Hotels International. Located 600m from the railway station directly in the city center. Single room from 132CHF, double room from 184CHF (rates of 2009). edit

Splurge

Bellevue Palace, Kochergasse 3 - 5, ☎ +41 (0)31 320 45 45, [59]. This five star hotel provides exquisite rooms and amazingly attentive service. It is situated right next to the Federal Council building, which is appropriate, as it belongs to the state and frequently houses visiting dignitaries and heads of state. The bathrooms alone make this place worth the price, if you can afford it. There is a public bar with tons of old world charm (and a dress code - no shorts, no trainers) on the ground floor, which is usually nice for a quiet drink. Doubles from CHF 350 per night, presidential suite from CHF 2500 a night.. edit
Hotel Bern, Zeughausgasse 9, ☎ +41 (0)31 329 22 22 (fax: +41 (0)31 329 22 99), [60]. A good value nearing the upper end the Hotel Bern has a great location, near perfect service and impeccable rooms for somewhat less money than the five star options. The hotel mainly caters to business travelers, which means that they are more likely to be booked up during the week, and more likely to give you a deal on the weekend. Ask for room 508, not just because it's named for the only Swiss astronaut to date, but also because it has a lovely bay window with a view of the cathedral and of course of neighboring rooftops, offering an especially nice view when it snows. Doubles start at CHF 180.. edit

Contact
Stay safe

Berne has very little violent crime. However, as it is the capital, political demonstrations occur every few weeks on a variety of subjects, occasionally leading to police intervention.

The central railway station often hosts drunks and vagrants at night, but they are rarely dangerous.

The real problem is groups of drunkards, who should be avoided as they sometimes look for a fight.

While police officers in Berne will happily help you out if you are in trouble or need information, they are also known for approaching "suspicious" persons to check their papers. This procedure is less annoying if you carry a photocopy of your passport and your onward ticket with you and stay calm and polite.
Cope
Embassies

Ca-flag.png Canada, Kirchenfeldstrasse 88, ☎ +41 31 357 32 00 (bern@international.gc.ca, fax: +41 31 357 32 10), [61]. edit
Ch-flag.png China, Lombachweg 23, ☎ +41 31 351 45 93 (fax: +41 31 351 82 56), [62]. edit
Ja-flag.png Japan, Engestrasse 53, ☎ +41 31 300 22 22 (eojs@br.mofa.go.jp, fax: +41 31 300 22 55), [63]. edit
Ru-flag.png Russia, Brunnadernstrasse 53, ☎ +41 31 352 05 67 (rusbotschaft@bluewin.ch, fax: +41 31 352 64 60), [64]. edit
Sp-flag.png Spain, Kalcheggweg 24, ☎ +41 31 350 52 52 (emb.berna@maec.es, fax: +41 31 350 52 55), [65]. edit
Uk-flag.png United Kingdom, Thunstrasse 50, ☎ +41 31 359 77 00 (info.berne@fco.gov.uk, fax: +41 31 359 77 01), [66]. edit
Us-flag.png United States, Sulgeneckstrasse 19, ☎ +41 31 357 70 11 (BernACS@state.gov, fax: +41 31 357 73 20), [67]. edit
Ve-flag.png Venezuela, Schwarzenburgstrasse 73, ☎ +41 31 350 57 57 (embajada.suiza@mppre.gob.ve, fax: +41 31 371 64 69), [68]. edit
Br-flag.png Brazil, Monbijoustrasse 68, ☎ +41 31 371 85 15 (brasemb.berna@itamaraty.gov.br, fax: +41 31 371 05 25), [69]. edit

Get out

Berne is an ideal gateway to the Bernese Highlands. You can make day trips to many famous and/or beautiful locations, like Spiez, Interlaken, Grindelwald, Jungfraujoch or Gstaad.

Biel
Interlaken
Thun


On en revient toujours là. L'argent. Même les plus industrieux ne peuvent se contenter de leur énergie.
Au revoir la-haut - Pierre Lemaitre

Il faut une infinité de temps devant soi pour commencer à réfléchir, une énergie infinie pour prendre la plus petite décision.
1980-1985, édition editions galilee, 1987 - Jean Baudrillard

La France, mes chers compatriotes, je l'aime passionnément. J'ai mis tout mon cœur, toute mon énergie, toute ma force, à son service, à votre service. Servir la France, servir la paix, c'est l'engagement de toute ma vie.
Si nous ne parvenons pas à concilier les besoins de croissance de l'humanité et la souffrance d'une planète à bout de souffle, nous courons à la catastrophe. C'est une révolution dans nos esprits tout autant qu'à l'échelle mondiale qu'il faut mener. Pour concevoir un nouveau mode de relation avec la nature et inventer une autre croissance. Avec sa recherche, avec ses entreprises, avec son agriculture, avec l'avance qu'elle a prise dans le nucléaire et les choix résolus qu'elle a faits dans les énergies renouvelables, la France a tous les atouts pour relever ce défi majeur du XXIe siècle et des Siecles à venir et aux devenir des plus scrupuleux aux plus crapuleux...

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Nombre de messages : 7780
Localisation : http://yanis.tignard.free.fr/
Date d'inscription : 09/11/2005

MessageSujet: Re: SolarSystem's First Interstellar, Berne 1191 et Agnés Favrel   Mar 21 Nov à 3:14

REGARDS SUR LUTHER ET SON ÉPOQUE.
LE PAIN DU DIMANCHE, CLIN D'OEIL À LA PETITE BOUGIE QUI RÉCHAUFFE LA PETITE FILLE
AUX ALLUMETTES: L'ORPHELIN'E' ET LE PHARE... TOUTE LUMIÈRE A BESOIN D'UNE BOUGIE
ET D'UNE BOUTEILLE D'EAU POUR RÉCHAUFFER LA SOLITUDE DE L'ÊTRE SANS SOUILLÉ
L'ÉTHIQUE DE L'EXISTENCE ET DE SON ÉVOLUTION SPIRITUELLE.
ECRIT DU CITOYEN TIGNARD YANIS

"Les mots hurlés tombent en cascade tonitruante dans le néant. Le mot juste, même s'il n'est que murmuré, illumine le monde." -- Le Mahambharata.

L’exobiologie (aussi appelée astrobiologie par les Anglo-Saxons) est une science interdisciplinaire qui a pour objet l'étude des facteurs et processus, notamment géochimiques et biochimiques, pouvant mener à l'apparition de la vie, d'une manière générale, et à son évolution1.

Ceci s’applique aussi bien à l'émergence de la vie sur Terre, il y a 3 à 4 milliards d'années, qu'à la possibilité de vie ailleurs dans le Système solaire, voire sur d'éventuelles exoplanètes (ou planètes extrasolaires) ou autre. Elle s'attache à rechercher d'éventuels processus présidant à l’évolution de la matière organique simple (biomolécules : chaînes peptidiques, nucléiques ou lipidiques) vers des structures plus complexes (premières cellules, premiers systèmes génétiques, etc.) autant que d'éventuelles traces ou possibilité de vie sur d'autres astres connaissant des environnements radicalement différents du nôtre.

Une profonde interaction entre des domaines aussi divers que la physique, la chimie organique et inorganique, la biochimie, la biologie cellulaire, la climatologie, la géochimie, la planétologie et la modélisation informatique (pour ne citer que ceux-là) est donc indispensable pour tenter d'appréhender les processus en œuvre dans leur ensemble. Par extension, l'exobiologie concerne également la recherche de vie extraterrestre sous quelque forme que ce soit, y compris intelligente (programme SETI) s'il y a lieu, mais ce domaine reste très marginal, en attendant d'éventuelles avancées significatives.

Conditions préliminaires

Pour que la vie puisse se développer sur une planète, on admet généralement, comme conditions nécessaires, la présence de ces éléments : eau liquide, azote, carbone et éventuellement du silicium.

La stabilité de l'orbite de la planète dans la zone habitable (pour que la vie ait le temps de se développer), et la stabilité de son/ses étoile(s) sont également considérées comme nécessaires. Cependant, une autre hypothèse suggère que la vie peut aussi s'adapter à son environnement sans qu'il y ait nécessairement une "zone habitable" orbitale obligatoire à tous les systèmes. Cela sous-entend qu'une certaine structure biologique pourrait développer des méthodes de survie pour s'acclimater à un environnement hostile complètement hors de la "zone habitable" orbitale que l'on considère.

L'existence de formes de vie sur des planètes dépourvues d'eau ou d'une atmosphère semblable à la nôtre n'est pas exclue, mais demeure hautement spéculative. De plus, compte tenu des connaissances scientifiques actuelles, qui sont limitées à la vie sur notre planète, il est plus facile de bâtir des programmes de recherche à partir de ce que nous savons être de la vie qu'à partir de pures spéculations.
Corps célestes
Sur Terre

Selon les connaissances scientifiques actuelles, la Terre est la seule planète du Système solaire à abriter la vie. Cette singularité contraint l'exobiologie à la considérer comme un modèle unique, donc indispensable. C'est à partir des conditions d'apparition et d'évolution supposées de la vie sur Terre que l'on est conduit à inférer des modèles d'exobiologie dans des conditions plus ou moins semblables. De ce point de vue, et en l'absence de découverte incontestable de vie extraterrestre, l'exobiologie reste une discipline scientifique hypothético-déductive.

Les formes de vie terrestre qui ont le plus influencé les modèles exobiologiques sont sans aucun doute les organismes extrémophiles. En effet, si des bactéries arrivent à se développer, sur Terre, dans des conditions extrêmes de température (organisme thermophile), de pression (piézophile), de pH (acidophile, alcalophile) ou de rayonnement (organisme radiorésistant), là où on n'aurait pas cru trouver de vie il y a quelques décennies, alors on peut supposer que la vie peut ou doit se développer sur n'importe quelle planète où ces conditions sont présentes.
Articles détaillés : Être vivant et Histoire évolutive du vivant.
Sur Mars

On n’a toujours pas établi, en dépit d’une croyance tenace, la preuve de présence de vie sur Mars quand bien même celle, dans le passé, de l'eau liquide (anciens lits de fleuves et interrogation sur l'existence d'un océan unique disparu) ne fait plus de doute. On y trouve du pergélisol, voire du mollisol2.

Plusieurs sondes spatiales ont été envoyées sur cette planète, notamment les sondes du programme Viking, Mars Express, le module Beagle 2 et les robots de la mission Mars Exploration Rover.

On y a retrouvé de l'azote, un des éléments indispensables à la vie. La présence d'eau sous forme solide et même liquide salé a été confirmée sur Mars, mais pas la présence d'une quelconque forme de vie.
Autres corps du Système solaire

Europe est un satellite de la planète Jupiter, recouvert d'une épaisse couche de glace à sa surface. On estime à 10 kilomètres, voire plus encore, l'épaisseur de la couche de glace sous laquelle il serait possible de trouver de l'eau à l'état liquide où auraient pu se développer des piézophiles résistantes à d’énormes pressions (de l'ordre de plusieurs mégapascals), en l'absence de toute lumière solaire et où la rareté des sources de nourriture serait un handicap3. Les scientifiques réfléchissent à différentes méthodes pour atteindre cet océan sous la glace en utilisant comme modèle le lac Vostok, enfoui sous les glaces de l'Antarctique. Deux types de problèmes techniques se posent : comment atteindre cet océan sans forage puisqu'il est économiquement invraisemblable d'envoyer une station traditionnelle de forage jusqu'à Europe, et comment atteindre cet océan sans le contaminer par des formes de vie terrestres.

Titan intéresse les exobiologistes car son atmosphère (1,5 fois la pression terrestre) contient de l'azote, du méthane, et d'autres corps composés. Elle ressemble à celle de la Terre avant l'apparition de la vie. La sonde européenne Huygens, larguée par la sonde américaine Cassini, est devenu le premier engin à s'y poser en janvier 2005. Pendant quatre heures, elle a envoyé une masse de données inédites4 sur l'atmosphère et le sol de cette lune.

En ce qui concerne Ganymède, Callisto ou Encelade, aucune ne semble, à ce jour, aussi prometteuse qu'Europe ; en effet, aucune en semble présenter la possibilité d'un océan d'eau liquide sous la couche de glace de surface. Par contre, la découverte de glace en autant d'endroits, depuis les années 1970, a renforcé la conviction des astronomes selon laquelle l'eau est une espèce chimique très répandue dans l'Univers5.
Sur les astéroïdes et comètes

La découverte[réf. nécessaire] sur Terre d'acides aminés présents sur des météorites d'origine extraterrestre a constitué une révolution majeure qui a contribué à rendre crédible l'exobiologie. La présence dans les comètes d'importantes quantités de composés carbonés qui seraient libérés lors de leurs passages dans le Système solaire interne constitue un autre phénomène intéressant pour la compréhension de l'apparition de la vie sur Terre.
En dehors du Système solaire

Il n'est pas possible aujourd'hui de déterminer directement l'existence de vie extraterrestre en dehors du Système solaire. Néanmoins, plusieurs projets sont en voie d'être créés dans ce but.

Depuis 1995, la découverte d’exoplanètes laisse penser qu'il sera possible un jour de détecter - si elle existe - l'existence de vie extra-terrestre, en analysant l'atmosphère de ces planètes par spectrométrie. L'Agence spatiale européenne avait un projet qui devait voir le jour en 2025, le projet spatial Darwin, qui fut annulé en 2007. Ceci demeure théoriquement hors de portée des instruments actuels, mais plusieurs observations récentes suggèrent toutefois la possibilité, d'ores et déjà, de détecter l'atmosphère autour de telles planètes6.
Exoplanètes habitables

Découverte le 4 avril 2007 par une équipe d'astronomes français, portugais et suisses, Gliese 581 c est une exoplanète en orbite autour de l'étoile Gliese 581, un astre de type naine rouge situé à une vingtaine d'années-lumière du Système solaire. Il s'agirait de la première planète extra-solaire découverte dans la zone habitable de son étoile, et qui devrait donc présenter de grandes similitudes avec la Terre du point de vue de sa température de surface. Gliese 581 étant une étoile considérablement moins lumineuse que le Soleil, la température de Gliese 581 c reste peu élevée malgré le petit rayon de son orbite (environ 11 millions de kilomètres). Sa température moyenne est estimée entre −3 °C (pour un albédo de Bond comparable à celui de Vénus) et 40 °C (pour un albédo similaire à celui de la Terre), ce qui autoriserait la présence d'eau liquide à sa surface.

Le 29 septembre 2010, une équipe d’astronomes américains annonce la découverte de Gliese 581 g. En raison de sa masse (environ 3 à 4 fois celle de la Terre), de ses températures, de sa localisation dans la zone habitable et de sa possibilité de retenir une atmosphère, c’est, au moment de sa découverte, l’exoplanète présentant la plus haute probabilité d’abriter des formes de vie7,8. La découverte de Gliese 581 g reste néanmoins encore à confirmer. Francesco Pepe, un astronome de l'observatoire de Genève qui travaille sur le projet HARPS, a déclaré le 11 octobre 2010 lors du symposium « 276 - The Astrophysics of Planetary Systems: Formation, Structure, and Dynamical Evolution » de l'Union astronomique internationale à Turin (Italie), que, pour l'instant, cette découverte n'avait pas été confirmée par les données que lui et ses collègues avaient obtenues9.
Article détaillé : Exoplanètes.
Xénobiologie
Article détaillé : Xénobiologie.

Il n'existe pas encore de consensus sur la nature et les différentes formes que peuvent prendre d'éventuelles vies extraterrestres. Dans ce domaine, l'esprit créatif et imaginatif des auteurs de science-fiction est plus abondant que les preuves scientifiques. La xénobiologie étudie scientifiquement les possibilité de vie fondée sur d'autres principes biochimiques, ou même physiques, que la vie terrestre.
La Terre est-elle une exception ?

Dès l'année 1950, le physicien italien Enrico Fermi se pose ce paradoxe[Lequel ?], résumé par l'ingénieur anglais David Viewing (en 1975) : « toute notre logique, tout notre anti-isocentrisme, nous assure que nous ne sommes pas uniques — qu'ils[Qui ?] doivent être là. Et pourtant, nous ne les voyons pas. »
Pour Frank Drake, l'astronome américain initiateur du projet SETI, il peut exister aussi bien une seule planète habitée (la Terre) qu'une multitude dans l'univers.
Articles détaillés : Paradoxe de Fermi et Équation de Drake.
Notes et références

↑ François Raulin, « EXOBIOLOGIE », Encyclopædia Universalis [en ligne], consulté le 22 octobre 2012. [lire en ligne [archive]]
↑ Nicolas Mangold, « Rhéologie du pergélisol de Mars : Applications géomorphologiques et structurales. Conséquences sur l'origine des contraintes compressives » [archive] (consulté le 28 juin 2017).
↑ (en) Eric J. Gaidos, Kenneth H. Nealson et Joseph L. Kirschvink, « Life in Ice-Covered Oceans », Science, vol. 284, no 5420,‎ 4 juin 1999, p. 1631-1633 (DOI 10.1126/science.284.5420.1631, lire en ligne [archive]).
↑ Agence Science-Presse, "Une orange et une crème brûlée" [archive], 17 janvier 2005
↑ Agence Science-Presse, "La lune humide" [archive], 20 septembre 1999.
↑ Agence Science-Presse, "Une planète oxygénée" [archive], 9 février 2004.
↑ (en) Dennis Overbye, « New Planet May Be Able to Nurture Organisms », The New York Times,‎ 29 septembre 2010 (lire en ligne [archive])
↑ « Des astronomes découvrent une exoplanète potentiellement habitable », Le Monde,‎ 30 septembre 2010 (lire en ligne [archive])
↑ (en) « Recently Discovered Habitable World May Not Exist » [archive], sur sciencemag.org, 12 octobre 2010

Voir aussi

Sur les autres projets Wikimedia :

Exobiologie, sur Wikimedia Commons exobiologie, sur le Wiktionnaire Exobiologie, sur Wikiversity

Bibliographie

Ouvrages scientifiques ou de vulgarisation :
Pascal Bordé, Y a-t-il d'autres planètes habitées dans l'Univers ?, Paris, Le Pommier, 2004 (ISBN 2-7465-0174-0)
André Brack, Découvrir la vie extraterrestre, Paris, Le Pommier, 2007 (ISBN 978-2-7465-0327-4)
André Brack et Bénédicte Leclercq, La vie est-elle universelle : des premiers êtres vivants à l'exploration spatiale, Les Ulis (Essonne), EDP Sciences, 2003 (ISBN 2-86883-674-7, présentation en ligne [archive])
(en) Steven J. Steven J. et James E. Stick, The Living Univers : NASA and the development of astrobiology, Rutgers University, 2004
Muriel Gargaud et Philippe Claeys, Des atomes aux planètes habitables, Pessac, Presses Universitaires de Bordeaux, 2005 (ISBN 2-86781-364-6, présentation en ligne [archive])
Odile Guérin et Bruno Mauguin, Les planètes extrasolaires, Rennes, Apogée, 2006 (ISBN 2-84398-202-2)
Jean Heidmann, Sommes-nous seuls dans l'univers, Paris, Fayard, 2000 (ISBN 2-213-60554-Cool
Jean Heidmann, Intelligences extra-terrestres, Paris, Odile Jacob, 1996 (1re éd. 1992) (ISBN 2-7381-0434-7)
(en) Gerda Horneck et Petra Rettberg, Complete Course in Astrobiology, Weinheim, Wiley-VCH, 2007 (ISBN 978-3-527-40660-9)
Dominique Proust et Jean Schneider, Où sont les autres ? : A la recherche de la vie dans l'Univers, Paris, Le Seuil, 2007 (ISBN 978-2-02-081712-7)
François Raulin, A la recherche de la vie extraterrestre, Paris, Le Pommier, 2006 (ISBN 2-7465-0304-2)
François Raulin, Florence Raulin-Cerceau et Jean Schneider, La bioastronomie, Paris, PUF, coll. « Que sais-je ? », 1997 (ISBN 2-13-048757-2)
Florence Raulin-Cerceau, Pierre Léna et Jean Schneider, Sur les traces du vivant : de la Terre aux étoiles, Paris, Le Pommier, 2002 (ISBN 2-7465-0089-2)
Florian Roy, Étude des organismes extrêmophiles : applications en exobiologie, Université de Nantes - Faculté des sciences et des Techniques, coll. « Master Sciences de la Terre, de l'Univers et de l'Environnement », 2006
Evry Schatzman, Les Enfants d'Uranie, Paris, Le Seuil, 1986 (ISBN 2-02-009094-5)
« De l’exobiologie à l’astrobiologie » [archive], sur histoire-cnrs.revues.org, 2008

Revues et articles de revues :
« Hors-Série », Science et avenir, no 51,‎ juillet 2007
« Exobiologie », Ciel et espace,‎ juin 2006
« Exoplanètes », Pour la science,‎ juin 2006
« La contamination de Mars par des bactéries terrestres », Science et vie,‎ janvier 2006
« Hors Série - Les Nouveaux Mondes », Science et vie,‎ juin 2007

Filmographie

« Exobiologie - Sommes nous seuls dans l'Univers » [archive], sur le site de l'émission « Ça marche comment ? »

Articles connexes

Équation de Stephen H. Dole (adaptation de l'équation de Drake)
Projet SETI (Search for Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence)
Projet spatial Darwin : projet qui permettrait de détecter des indices de vie en observant le spectre d'une planète extrasolaire, d'ici 2025.

Biochimies hypothétiques
Exobiologiste
Exohydrologie
Exoplanète
Extraterrestres
Extrémophile
Futurobiologie
Habitabilité d'une planète
Origines de la vie
Principe anthropique
Terraformation
Zone habitable

Liens externes

Speaker Icon.svg À écouter « le cycle de quatre conférences consacré à l'astrobiologie » [archive], sur le site de Collège Belgique, 2009
Speaker Icon.svg À écouter « L'astrobiologie, à la recherche d'oasis pour la vie 1, 2 et 3 avec François Raulin Professeur de chimie à l'Université Paris 12 Val de Marne » [archive], sur Ciel et Espace Radio, 2012
(en) « Site de la mission Cassini-Huygens (NASA) » [archive]
« Le site de la Société Française d'Exobiologie » [archive]
Thierry Lombry, « Articles sur la bioastronomie » [archive], sur Astrosurf
« L’hypothèse martienne de l'origine de [[Deinococcus radiodurans]] » [archive], sur ufologie.net

On en revient toujours là. L'argent. Même les plus industrieux ne peuvent se contenter de leur énergie.
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Il faut une infinité de temps devant soi pour commencer à réfléchir, une énergie infinie pour prendre la plus petite décision.
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Si nous ne parvenons pas à concilier les besoins de croissance de l'humanité et la souffrance d'une planète à bout de souffle, nous courons à la catastrophe. C'est une révolution dans nos esprits tout autant qu'à l'échelle mondiale qu'il faut mener. Pour concevoir un nouveau mode de relation avec la nature et inventer une autre croissance. Avec sa recherche, avec ses entreprises, avec son agriculture, avec l'avance qu'elle a prise dans le nucléaire et les choix résolus qu'elle a faits dans les énergies renouvelables, la France a tous les atouts pour relever ce défi majeur du XXIe siècle et des Siecles à venir et aux devenir des plus scrupuleux aux plus crapuleux...

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Nombre de messages : 7780
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Date d'inscription : 09/11/2005

MessageSujet: Re: SolarSystem's First Interstellar, Berne 1191 et Agnés Favrel   Mar 21 Nov à 4:12

Dark features on Mars previously considered evidence for subsurface flowing of water are interpreted by new research as granular flows, where grains of sand and dust slip downhill to make dark streaks, rather than the ground being darkened by seeping water.

Continuing examination of these still-perplexing seasonal dark streaks with a powerful camera on NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) shows they exist only on slopes steep enough for dry grains to descend the way they do on faces of active dunes.

The findings published today in Nature Geoscience argue against the presence of enough liquid water for microbial life to thrive at these sites. However, exactly how these numerous flows begin and gradually grow has not yet been explained. Authors of the report propose possibilities that include involvement of small amounts of water, indicated by detection of hydrated salts observed at some of the flow sites.

These features have evoked fascination and controversy since their 2011 discovery, as possible markers for unexpected liquid water or brine on an otherwise dry planet. They are dark streaks that extend gradually downhill in warm seasons, then fade away in winter and reappear the next year. On Earth, only seeping water is known to have these behaviors, but how they form in the dry Martian environment remains unclear.

Many thousands of these Martian features, collectively called "recurring slope lineae" or RSL, have been identified in more than 50 rocky-slope areas, from the equator to about halfway to the poles.

"We've thought of RSL as possible liquid water flows, but the slopes are more like what we expect for dry sand," said Colin Dundas of the U.S. Geological Survey's Astrogeology Science Center in Flagstaff, Arizona. "This new understanding of RSL supports other evidence that shows that Mars today is very dry."

Dundas is lead author of the report, which is based on observations with the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera on MRO. The data include 3-D models of slope steepness using pairs of images for stereo information. Dundas and co-authors examined 151 RSL features at 10 sites.

The RSL are almost all restricted to slopes steeper than 27 degrees. Each flow ends on a slope that matches the dynamic "angle of repose" seen in the slumping dry sand of dunes on Mars and Earth. A flow due to liquid water should readily extend to less steep slopes.

"The RSL don't flow onto shallower slopes, and the lengths of these are so closely correlated with the dynamic angle of repose, it can't be a coincidence," said HiRISE Principal Investigator Alfred McEwen at the University of Arizona, Tucson, a co-author of the new report.

The seasonal dark streaks have been thought of as possible evidence for biologically significant liquid water -- sufficient water for microbial life -- though explaining how so much liquid water could exist on the surface in Mars' modern environment would be challenging. A granular-flow explanation for RSL fits with the earlier understanding that the surface of modern Mars, exposed to a cold, thin atmosphere, lacks flowing water. A 2016 report also cast doubt on possible sources of underground water at RSL sites. Liquid water on today's Mars may be limited to traces of dissolved moisture from the atmosphere and thin films, which are challenging environments for life as we know it.

However, RSL remain puzzling. Traits with uncertain explanations include their gradual growth, their seasonal reappearance, their rapid fading when inactive, and the presence of hydrated salts, which have water molecules bound into their crystal stucture.

The new report describes possible connections between these traits and how RSL form. For example, salts can become hydrated by pulling water vapor from the atmosphere, and this process can form drops of salty water. Seasonal changes in hydration of salt-containing grains might result in some trigger mechanism for RSL grainflows, such as expansion, contraction, or release of some water. Darkening and fading might result from changes in hydration. If atmospheric water vapor is a trigger, then a question is why the RSL appear on some slopes but not others.

"RSL probably form by some mechanism that is unique to the environment of Mars," McEwen said, "so they represent an opportunity to learn about how Mars behaves, which is important for future surface exploration."

"Full understanding of RSL is likely to depend upon on-site investigation of these features," said MRO Project Scientist Rich Zurek of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California. "While the new report suggests that RSL are not wet enough to favor microbial life, it is likely that on-site investigation of these sites will still require special procedures to guard against introducing microbes from Earth, at least until they are definitively characterized. In particular, a full explanation of how these enigmatic features darken and fade still eludes us. Remote sensing at different times of day could provide important clues."

The University of Arizona operates HiRISE, which was built by Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corp., Boulder, Colorado. JPL, a division of Caltech in Pasadena, California, manages the MRO Project for the NASA Science Mission Directorate in Washington. Lockheed Martin Space Systems of Denver built the orbiter and supports its operations.

Noir Désir - Aux Sombres Heros De L'Amer
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oD3dSXECilg

News Media Contact
Guy Webster
Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif.
818-354-6278
guy.webster@jpl.nasa.gov

Jennifer LaVista
U.S. Geological Survey, Denver
303-202-4764
jlavista@usgs.gov

Laurie Cantillo / Dwayne Brown
NASA Headquarters, Washington
202-358-1077 / 202-358-1726
laura.l.cantillo@nasa.gov / dwayne.c.brown@nasa.gov

2017-299



Fast Facts:

› Seasonal dark streaks on Mars have been described as possible signs of flowing water; a new study shows they are a better fit to dry flow processes.

› The steepness of more than 150 of these features was assessed with a telescopic camera on a NASA Mars orbiter.

› The findings add to evidence that these environments may be too dry for microbes to thrive, despite the presence of water in hydrated salts.

› How seasonal warming triggers these streaks is still a puzzle, and water may be involved.

https://www.jpl.nasa.gov/news/news.php?feature=7005&utm_source=iContact&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=NASAJPL&utm_content=mro20171120

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La chouette effraie.

On en revient toujours là. L'argent. Même les plus industrieux ne peuvent se contenter de leur énergie.
Au revoir la-haut - Pierre Lemaitre

Il faut une infinité de temps devant soi pour commencer à réfléchir, une énergie infinie pour prendre la plus petite décision.
1980-1985, édition editions galilee, 1987 - Jean Baudrillard

La France, mes chers compatriotes, je l'aime passionnément. J'ai mis tout mon cœur, toute mon énergie, toute ma force, à son service, à votre service. Servir la France, servir la paix, c'est l'engagement de toute ma vie.
Si nous ne parvenons pas à concilier les besoins de croissance de l'humanité et la souffrance d'une planète à bout de souffle, nous courons à la catastrophe. C'est une révolution dans nos esprits tout autant qu'à l'échelle mondiale qu'il faut mener. Pour concevoir un nouveau mode de relation avec la nature et inventer une autre croissance. Avec sa recherche, avec ses entreprises, avec son agriculture, avec l'avance qu'elle a prise dans le nucléaire et les choix résolus qu'elle a faits dans les énergies renouvelables, la France a tous les atouts pour relever ce défi majeur du XXIe siècle et des Siecles à venir et, aux devenir des plus scrupuleux aux plus crapuleux...

Déclaration de Jacques Chirac dit Le Chacal sous l'égide de Y'becca et dans l'amitié de TAY La chouette effraie ou Citoyen Tignard Yanis.
INSCRIT DANS LE
DOSSIER PUBLIC PN386 DE LA COUR EUROPÉENNE DES DROITS DE LA CITOYENNE ET DES CITOYENS DANS LE DROIT JURIDIQUE DU TRIBUNAL PÉNAL INTERNATIONAL DE LA HAYE...
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