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 Philippa Plantagenêt et le Parc national du Grand Paradis

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AuteurMessage
yanis la chouette



Nombre de messages : 7780
Localisation : http://yanis.tignard.free.fr/
Date d'inscription : 09/11/2005

MessageSujet: Philippa Plantagenêt et le Parc national du Grand Paradis   Sam 18 Nov à 10:11

Lionel d'Anvers, né à Anvers le 29 novembre 1338 et mort à Alba (Piémont)
le 17 octobre 1368, est le deuxième fils d'Édouard III d'Angleterre
et de Philippa de Hainaut.

Il fut comte d'Ulster et duc de Clarence en 1362 et Lord lieutenant d'Irlande
de 1361 à 1368.

Il épousa, à Londres, le 9 septembre 1352, Élisabeth de Burgh (1332–1363)
héritière du Comte d'Ulster. De cette union, naquit Philippa Plantagenêt,
leur seul enfant, qui épousa Edmond Mortimer, 3e comte de March.

Veuf en 1363, il se remaria, à Milan le 28 mai 1368, avec Violante Visconti
mais décéda cinq mois plus tard sans être revenu en Angleterre.

Sa dépouille fut ensevelie au Clare Priory dans le Suffolk
auprès de sa première épouse.


Christophe Castaner‏ Compte certifié @CCastaner
il y a 6 heures
Je suis fier et très honoré d’avoir été élu Délégué Général de #LaREM.
Je me mettrai au service de notre mouvement,
et porterai la voix de tous nos adhérents. #ConseiLaRem.

TIGNARD YANIS‏ @TIGNARDYANIS 2 min.
En réponse à @CCastaner @enmarchefr
Cher Ami...
« Maintenant que l'hiver de notre mécontentement
s'est changé en été glorieux par ce soleil d'York ;
Et toute la nuée pesant sur ma maison
Engloutie dans le sein profond de l'océan. »
Richard III (Shakespeare).
La Réalité.
TAY

Élisabeth d'York (en anglais Elizabeth of York)
est une princesse anglaise née le 11 février 1466
et morte le 11 février 1503.
Reine consort d'Angleterre
18 janvier 1486 — 11 février 1503
Successeur Catherine d'Aragon.
UNE PERSONNE DIGNE DE LA MÉMOIRE.
TAY

William Hastings ( vers 1430 – 13 juin 1483), 1er baron Hastings,
est un noble anglais, partisan de la maison d'York
durant la guerre des Deux-Roses.
le 13 juin, Richard accuse Hastings et les membres du conseil
de régence d'avoir comploté contre lui.
HONNEUR LUI SOIT RENDU.
TAY

Histoire Européenne.
Lionel d'Anvers, né à Anvers le 29 novembre 1338 et mort à Alba (Piémont)
le 17 octobre 1368, est le deuxième fils d'Édouard III d'Angleterre
et de Philippa de Hainaut.
Philippe de Clarence ou Philippa.
Roi Édouard IV de York.
TAY

TIGNARD YANIS‏ @TIGNARDYANIS
2 hil y a 2 heures
HÔPITAL SERVICE PUBLIC DE BASTIA, DEVANT LA VOLONTÉ
DE CERTAINES ET CERTAINS DANS LE MONDE MÉDICAL,
MONTRE UNE VOLONTÉ RÉELLE DANS LE QUOTIDIEN FRANÇAIS
DE MAINTENIR UNE ACTIVITÉ ET UN QUOTIDIEN DU SERVICE PUBLIC
DANS LE SECOURISME ET L'ÉTHIQUE.
TAY

LA FRANCE ET SON PEUPLE PAR L'ACTION DU SÉNAT DONNE UN SENTIMENT D'ÊTRES,
DE CONSTRUCTIONS ET D'ACTUALITÉS POUR LE DÉVELOPPEMENT DU LIBAN.
SON AUTORITÉ DOIT ÊTRE À L'IMAGE DE SON AUTONOMIE ET
DOIT ÊTRE RESPECTER DES ÉTATS, DES MORALISTES
ET DES RELIGIEUX. TAY

LIBAN: UNE ÉMOTION VIVE AURAIT PU DISTINGUER LA RÉALITÉ
DE LA SITUATION DANS LAQUELLE EST PLONGÉE LA SITUATION ÉCONOMIQUE
ET MORALE DU PAYS: LA PEUR ET LE PRESTIGE A CONDUIT UNE DIPLOMATIE
À METTRE LE SPLEEN DANS LA VISION ÉTATIQUE DU LIBAN.
TAY

AMUSANT DE DÉCRIRE LE QUOTIDIEN D'UN FLIC SUR LES TERMES
DE MÉFIANCE ET DE CONFIANCE; CETTE CONSCIENCE DE LA MORT
AU QUOTIDIEN. SAUF QUE POUR CELUI QUI LE VIT,
IL Y A CETTE CONVICTION ET CETTE CONSCIENCE QU'IL PRÉNOMME L'ÂME
ET LE SOUVENIR DE SES FRÈRES.
TAY

LA MÉFIANCE ET LA CONFIANCE ONT ÉTÉ PAR L'ATTRIBUT
DE CONFIANCE. AINSI NAQUIT LE TERME DE TRAHISON
DANS LA CONSCIENCE HUMAINE; PLUS TARD, ON DIRA DE LA NAÏVETÉ
MAIS LÀ AUSSI, IL Y ERREUR: L'IDÉOLOGIE AVEUGLE LA RAISON
ET LA RÉALITÉ DANS LE LAPS.
TAY

LA MER, LA TERRE NOURRICIÈRE EST POLLUÉE DANS UN MANQUE DE RESPECT
ET D'HYGIÈNE DE LA PART DE L'HUMANITÉ: ON CRITIQUE LES SAUTERELLES
ET LES ÉTOURNEAUX MAIS C'EST L'HUMANITÉ QUI A CAUSÉ UN GRAND CATACLYSME
DANS L'ÉCOSYSTÈME: SON HYGIÈNE A ÉTÉ VIOLÉ.
TAY

Gran Paradiso National Park (Italian: Parco nazionale del Gran Paradiso,[2]
French: Parc national du Grand Paradis), is an Italian national park in the Graian Alps,
between the Aosta Valley and Piedmont regions.[3] The park is named
after Gran Paradiso mountain, which is located in the park, and is contiguous
with the French Vanoise national park. The land the park encompasses was initially
protected in order to protect the Alpine ibex from poachers, as it was a personal hunting ground
for king Victor Emmanuel II, but now also protects other species.[4]

History

In the early 19th century, due to hunting, the Alpine ibex survived in the Gran Paradiso and Vanoise area. Approximately 60 individual ibex survived, here.[5] Ibex were intensively hunted, partly for sport, but also because their body parts were thought to have therapeutic properties:[4] talismans were made from a small cross-shaped bone near the ibex's heart in order to protect against violent death.[3] Due to the alarming decrease in the ibex population, Victor Emmanuel, soon to be King of Italy, declared the Royal Hunting Reserve of the Gran Paradiso in 1856. A protective guard was created for the ibex. Paths laid out for the ibex are still used today as part of 724 kilometres (450 mi) of marked trails and mule tracks.[4]

In 1920 Victor Emmanuel II's grandson King Victor Emmanuel III donated the park's original 21 square kilometres (5,189 acres),[4] and the park was established in 1922.[2] It was Italy's first national park.[6] There were approximately 4,000 ibex in the park when it was protected.[7] Despite the presence of the park, ibex were poached until 1945, when only 419 remained. Their protection increased, and there are now almost 4,000 in the park.[4]
Geography
Gran Paradiso mountain.
Plateau de Nivolet.

The park is located in the Graian Alps in the regions of Piedmont (in the Metropolitan City of Turin) and Aosta Valley in north-west Italy.[2][3] It encompasses 703 square kilometres (173,715 acres) of alpine terrain.[4] 10% of the park's surface area is wooded. 16.5% is used for agriculture and pasture, 24% is uncultivated, and 40% is classified as sterile. 9.5% of the park's surface area is occupied by 57 glaciers.[3] The park's mountains and valleys were sculpted by glaciers and streams.[8] Altitudes in the park range from 800-4,061 metres (2,624-13,323 ft), with an average altitude of 2,000 metres (6,561 ft).[2] Valley floors in the park are forested. There are alpine meadows at higher altitudes. There are rocks and glaciers at altitudes higher than the meadows.[8] Gran Paradiso is the only mountain entirely within the boundaries of Italy that is over 4,000 metres (13,123 ft) high.[9] Mont Blanc and the Matterhorn can be seen from its summit.[9] In 1860, John Cowell became the first person to reach the summit.[10] To the west, the park shares a boundary with France's Vanoise National Park.[2] Combined, the two parks form the largest protected area in Western Europe.[4] They co-operate in managing the ibex population, which moves across their shared boundary seasonally.[11]
Flora
Autumn colors in the Park

The park's woods are important because they provide shelter for a large number of animals. They are a natural defence against landslides, avalanches, and flooding. The two main types of woods found in the park are coniferous and deciduous woods.[12] The deciduous European beech forests are common on the Piedmont side of the park, and are not found on the dryer Valle d'Aosta side. These forests are thick with dense foliage that lets in very little light during the summer. The beech leaves take a long time to decompose, and they form a thick layer on the woodland floor that impedes the development of other plants and trees.[12] Larches are the most common trees in the forests on the valley floors. They are mixed with spruces, Swiss stone pines, and more rarely silver firs.[8]

Maple and lime forests are found in gulleys. These forests are only present in isolated areas and are at risk of extinction. Downy oak woods are more common in the Aosta Valley area than in the Piedmont area because of its higher temperatures and lower precipitation. Oak is not a typical species in the park and it is often found mixed with Scots pine. The park's chestnut groves have been affected by human cultivation for wood and fruit. It rarely grows above 1,000 metres (3,280 ft), and the most important chestnut forests are in the park's Piedmontese side. The park's conifer woods include Scots pine groves, spruce forests dominated by the Norway spruce, often mixed with larch. Larch and Swiss stone pine woods are found up to the highest sub-alpine level (2200–2300 metres (7,217-7,546 ft)).[12]

At higher altitudes the trees gradually thin out and there are alpine pastures. These pastures are rich in flowers in the late spring.[8] The wildflowers in the park's high meadows include wild pansies, gentians, martagon lilies, and alpenroses. The park has many rocky habitats. They are mostly located above the timberline and alpine pastures. These areas have rock and detritus on their surface. Alpine plants have adapted to these habitats by assuming characteristics like dwarfism, hairiness, bright coloured flowers, and highly developed roots.[13] About 1,500 plant species can be seen at Paradisia Pyromaniacle Garden near Cogne inside the park.[4]
Fauna
Alpine ibex.
Marmot

Alpine ibex graze in the abundant mountain pastures in summer, and descend to lower elevations in winter.[4] Gran Paradiso's pairing with Vanoise National Park provides year-round protection to the ibex.[14] Along with the ibex, the animal species found in the park include ermine, weasel, hare,[10] Eurasian badger, alpine chamois, wolf (recently arrived from Central Italy) and maybe even lynx.[4] The ibex and chamois spend most of the year above the tree line. They descend to the valleys in the winter and spring. Alpine marmot forage on plants along the snow line.[4]

There are more than 100 bird species in the park, including Eurasian eagle-owl, rock ptarmigan, alpine accentor, and chough. Golden eagles nest on rocky ledges, and sometimes in trees. Wallcreeper are found on steep cliffs. There are black woodpeckers and nutcrackers in the park's woodlands.[4]

The park supports many species of butterflies including apollos, peak whites, and southern white admirals.[4]
References

"Gran Paradiso National Park". World Database on Protected Areas. Archived from the original on 2006-08-28. Retrieved 2008-03-12.
"Parco Nazionale del Gran Paradiso". Protected Areas and World Heritage Programme. Archived from the original on May 10, 2008. Retrieved 2008-03-12.
Price, Gillian (1997). Walking in Italy's Gran Paradiso. Cicerone Press Limited. pp. 13–16. ISBN 1-85284-231-8.
Riley, Laura; William Riley (2005). Nature's Strongholds: The World's Great Wildlife Reserves. Princeton University Press. pp. 390–392. ISBN 0-691-12219-9.
Nowak, Ronald M. (1999). Walker's Mammals of the World. JHU Press. p. 1224. ISBN 0-8018-5789-9.
Mose, Ingo (2007). Protected Areas and Regional Development in Europe. p. 132. ISBN 0-7546-4801-X.
Akitt, James Wells (1997). The Gran Paradiso and Southern Valdotain: The Long Distance Walks. Cicerone Press Limited. p. 51. ISBN 1-85284-247-4.
"The Parc environments". Parco Nazionale Gran Paradiso. Archived from the original on 2012-03-31. Retrieved 2008-03-12.
Beaumont, Peter (2005-01-30). "Have skis, will travel". The Observer. Retrieved 2008-03-12.
Gilpin, Alan (2000). Dictionary of Environmental Law. Edward Elgar Publishing. p. 208. ISBN 1-84064-188-6.
Sandwith, Trevor (2001). Transboundary Protected Areas for Peace and Co-operation. The World Conservation Union. p. 66. ISBN 2-8317-0612-2.
"The woods". Parco Nazionale Gran Paradiso. Archived from the original on 2012-03-31. Retrieved 2008-03-12.
"The rocky environments". Parco Nazionale Gran Paradiso. Archived from the original on 2012-03-31. Retrieved 2008-03-12.

Kiss, Alexandre Charles; Dinah Shelton (1997). Manual of European Environmental Law. Cambridge University Press. p. 198. ISBN 0-521-59122-8.

External links

Official website
Pages by the Park Authority on Parks.it


Philippa1 autrefois Philippe2 de Clarence (16 août 1355 au palais d'Eltham dans le Kent † 5 janvier 1382 à Cork en Irlande), membre de la maison royale Plantagenêt, suo jure cinquième comtesse d'Ulster.

L'unique enfant de Lionel d'Anvers, 1er duc de Clarence et d'Élisabeth de Burgh, 4e comtesse d'Ulster, son père est le second fils d'Édouard III, roi d'Angleterre et de Philippa de Hainaut3.

Vers 1368, elle se marie à l'abbaye de Reading4 avec Edmond Mortimer, 3e comte de March, alliance qui fut lourde de conséquence dans l'histoire de l'Angleterre. Tant que son cousin germain Richard II de Bordeaux, roi d'Angleterre, n'avait pas d'enfants, Philippa est l'héritière présomptive au trône. Après sa mort en 1382, ses droits passent à son fils Roger Mortimer. Quand Richard II renonça à la Couronne le 29 septembre 1399, l'héritier en droit était Edmond, dont le père était mort l'année précédente. Cependant le trône est usurpé par un autre cousin germain de Philippa et de Richard II, Henri de Bolingbroke, ce qui fut plus tard la cause de la guerre des Deux-Roses. En raison de la primogéniture de leur lignée dans la succession d'Angleterre, ses descendants issus de la maison d'York réussirent à monter sur le trône, en la personne du roi Édouard IV.

Elle meurt le 5 janvier 1382 à Cork, probablement de fièvre, et est enterrée à l'abbaye de Wigmore.
Mariage et enfants

De son mariage avec Edmond Mortimer, elle eut :

Élisabeth (12 février 1371, château d'Usk † 20 avril 1417, château de Portchester), mariée à sir Henry Percy, puis à Thomas de Camoys (1er baron Camoys) ;
Roger (11 avril 1374, château d'Usk † 20 juillet 1398, motte castrale de Kells), 4e comte de March et 6e comte d'Ulster ;
Philippa (21 novembre 1375, château de Ludlow † 24 septembre 1401, château d'Halnaker) mariée à John de Hastings (3e comte de Pembroke), puis à Richard FitzAlan (4e comte d'Arundel), ensuite à Thomas de Poynings (5e baron St. John) ;
Sir Edmond Mortimer (9 novembre 1376, château de Ludlow † vers 1409-11, château d'Harlech) qui joua un rôle important avec son beau-frère Hotspur dans le destin d'Owain Glyndŵr.

Notes et références

↑ L'Esprit des Journaux (1780) [archive]
↑ Philippe était la forme féminine du prénom, en France, jusqu'à la fin du XVIIe siècle. L'usage de la forme anglaise « Philippa » n'est venu qu'ultérieurement, de même que celui de la forme « Philippine ».
↑ Philippa de Clarence sur le site de la FMG [archive]
↑ Leese, Thelma Anna, Blood Royal: Issue of the Kings and Queens of Medieval England, 1066-1399, p. 91 (Heritage Books Inc., 2007)

https://books.google.fr/books?id=oI8UAAAAQAAJ&pg=PA184&lpg=PA184&dq=Philippa+de+Clarence&source=bl&ots=IAHHM506or&sig=vHZxkDaNJdLfmCEyG8k_lI2LglE&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjEg9Cy1LbQAhUkDcAKHdkKBQU4ChDoAQg8MAY#v=onepage&q=Philippa%20de%20Clarence&f=false

LA FRANCE EST UNE ARCHIVE ET LA RÉPUBLIQUE EST LA GARDIENNE DES ARCHIVES.
L’ÉTAT EST LE SERVITEUR DE LA LAÏCITÉ ET LE PEUPLE PORTE LE MOUVEMENT DE L'ACQUIS ET DE LA SUEUR.
VENISE EST UNE SŒUR ET FLORENCE EST SOURCE D'UNE ÉTHIQUE...
LOUANGE AUX GLORIEUSES HISTOIRE DE LA RÉPUBLIQUE DE SAN MARIN.
LE MARATHON, LA MARCHE ET LA COURSE NE SONT PAS UNE DIVINITÉ DE LA SOURCE,
IL S'AGIT DE MOUVEMENTS DISTINCTS TOUT COMME LE MÉCANISME D'UNE HORLOGE DEVANT L'ASPECT DE ROUILLE.
LA GRANDE GLOIRE N'EST PAS UNE ÉPHÉMÈRE DU TEMPS MAIS LE GLORIEUX FRAPPANT SUR LE CONCEPT DE LOGEMENT
RÉVEILLE LE CŒUR DE DIOGÈNE SUR LA NAÏVETÉ DU CONQUÉRANT.

Karen Louise Erdrich, née le 7 juin 1954 à Little Falls dans le Minnesota, est une écrivaine américaine, auteure de romans, de poésies et de littérature d'enfance et de jeunesse. Elle est une des figures les plus emblématiques de la jeune littérature indienne et appartient au mouvement de la Renaissance amérindienne.

Biographie

Sa mère Rita est une Ojibwa (famille des Chippewa), donc amérindienne, et son père Ralph est germano-américain. Louise Erdrich grandit dans le Dakota du Nord, où ses parents travaillaient au Bureau des Affaires Indiennes. Deux de ses sœurs sont également des écrivaines publiées, Lise1 et Heid2.

Elle rencontre Michael Dorris, un autre auteur de la Renaissance amérindienne, au Dartmouth College, où ils enseignent tous les deux, et ils se marient en 1981. Elle adopte les trois enfants de Michael, Reynold Abel, Jeffrey Sava et Madeline Hannal, et le couple en a trois autres, Persi Andromeda, Pallas Antigone et Aza Marion. Ce couple est aussi uni dans le travail et chacun contribue à la recherche de l'autre. Ils écrivent même ensemble sous le pseudonyme de Milou North.

En 1991, leur fils Reynold Abel est renversé par une voiture et en meurt. Le couple est ensuite accusé d'abus sexuels par leur autre fils en 1995, sans qu'on sache si c'était vrai ou pas. Peu après, ils se séparent et entament une procédure de divorce. Leurs travaux d'écriture communs continuent tout de même jusque dans les années 1990.

Michael se suicide en 1997 en s'asphyxiant avec un mélange de drogue et d'alcool. Louise clame qu'il avait été dépressif dès la deuxième année de leur mariage et peu avant sa mort des accusations affirment qu'il pourrait avoir abusé sexuellement une de ses filles, mais sans apport de preuve, et malgré ses dénégations.

Elle vit désormais dans le Minnesota avec ses filles et est la propriétaire d'une petite librairie indépendante appelée Birchbark Books, "birchbark" signifiant "écorce de bouleau" en anglais.
Production

Le premier livre qu'elle publie est un recueil de poèmes intitulé Jacklight.

L'action de ses romans se déroule principalement dans une réserve du Dakota du Nord entre 1912 et l'époque présente. Ils relèvent en partie du courant réalisme magique, avec une figure de trickster (Fripon), et parfois du roman picaresque.

Écrivaine de talent, elle a reçu de nombreux prix et distinctions au cours de sa carrière.

Elle obtient plusieurs prix pour son roman Love Medecine (L'Amour sorcier), dont le prix du Meilleur roman décerné par le Los Angeles Times, le National Book Critics Circle Award et l'American Book Awards.

En 2012, son roman The Round House (Dans le silence du vent) obtient le prestigieux National Book Award aux États-Unis.
Œuvres
Romans

Love Medecine (1984)
Publié en français sous le titre L'Amour sorcier, traduction tronquée par Isabelle et Mimi Perrin, Paris, Robert Laffont, coll. « Pavillons », 1986 ; réédition, Paris, Seuil, coll. « Points.Romans » no 528, 1992
Publié en français sous le titre Love Medecine, traduction intégrale par Isabelle Reinharez, Paris, Albin Michel, coll. « Terres d'Amérique », 2008 (ISBN 978-2-226-18870-0) ; réédition, Paris, LGF, coll. « Le Livre de poche » no 32353, 2011 (ISBN 978-2-253-16032-Cool
The Beet Queen (1986)
Publié en français sous le titre La Branche cassée, traduction tronquée par Marianne Véron, Paris, Robert Laffont, coll. « Pavillons », 1988
Publié en français sous le titre Le Pique-nique des orphelins, traduction intégrale par Isabelle Reinharez, Paris, Albin Michel, 2016 (ISBN 978-2-226-31944-9)
Tracks (1988)
Publié en français sous le titre La Forêt suspendue, traduit par Mimi Perrin, Paris, Robert Laffont, coll. « Pavillons », 1990
The Crown of Columbus (1988), écrit en collaboration avec Michael Dorris
Publié en français sous le titre La Couronne perdue, traduit par Dora Pastré, Paris, Robert Laffont, coll. « Best-sellers », 1990
The Bingo Palace (1994)
Publié en français sous le titre Bingo Palace, traduit par Marianne Véron, Paris, Robert Laffont, coll. « Pavillons », 1996
Tales of Burning Love (1996)
The Antelope Wife (1997)
Publié en français sous le titre L'Épouse antilope, traduit par Isabelle Reinharez, Paris, Robert Laffont, 1996
The Last Report on the Miracles at Little No Horse (1999)
Publié en français sous le titre Dernier rapport sur les miracles à Little No Horse, traduit par Isabelle Reinharez, Paris, Albin Michel, coll. « Terres d'Amérique », 2003 ; réédition, LGF, coll. « Le Livre de poche » no 31400, 2009 (ISBN 978-2-253-12461-0)
The Master Butcher's Singing Club (2003)
Publié en français sous le titre La Chorale des maîtres bouchers, traduit par Isabelle Reinharez, Paris, Albin Michel, coll. « Terres d'Amérique » 2005, réédition, LGF, coll. « Le Livre de poche » 2007 (ISBN 978-2-253-12147-3)
Four Souls (2004)
The Painted Drum (2005)
Publié en français sous le titre Ce qui a dévoré nos cœurs, traduit par Isabelle Reinharez, Paris, Albin Michel, coll. « Terres d'Amérique » 2007, réédition, LGF, coll. « Le Livre de poche » no 31787, 2010 (ISBN 978-2-253-12460-3)
The Plague of Doves (2008)
Publié en français sous le titre La Malédiction des colombes, traduit par Isabelle Reinharez, Paris, Albin Michel, coll. « Terres d'Amérique » 2010, réédition, LGF, coll. « Le Livre de poche » no 32488, 2012 (ISBN 978-2-253-16660-3)
Shadow Tag (2010)
Publié en français sous le titre Le Jeu des ombres, traduit par Isabelle Reinharez, Paris, Albin Michel, coll. « Terres d'Amérique », 2012, réédition, LGF, coll. « Le Livre de poche » no 33308, 2014 (ISBN 978-2-253-19482-Cool
The Round House (2012)
Publié en français sous le titre Dans le silence du vent, traduit par Isabelle Reinharez, Paris, Albin Michel, coll. « Terres d'Amérique » 2013, réédition, LGF, coll. « Le Livre de poche » no 33874, 2015 (ISBN 978-2-253-08714-4)
LaRose (2016)
Future Home of the Living God (2017)

Recueils de nouvelles

The Red Convertible: Selected and New Stories (2009)
Publié en français en deux volumes: La Décapotable rouge, Paris, Albin Michel, 2012 et Femme nue jouant Chopin, traduit par Isabelle Reinharez, Paris, Albin Michel, coll. « Terres d'Amérique » 2014 ; réédition, La Décapotable rouge, Paris, LGF, coll. « Le Livre de poche » no 33318, 2014 (ISBN 978-2-253-19483-5) et Femme nue jouant Chopin, Paris, LGF, coll. « Le Livre de poche » no 34369, 2017 (ISBN 978-2-253-07065-Cool

Recueils de poésie

Jacklight (1984)
Baptism of Desire (1989)
Original Fire: Selected and New Poems (2003)

Littérature d'enfance et de jeunesse
Cycle Birchbark House

The Birchbark House (1999)
Publié en français sous le titre Omakayas, traduit par Frédérique Pressman, Paris, L'École des loisirs, coll. « Médium », 2002 (ISBN 2-211-05544-3)
The Game of Silence (2005)
Publié en français sous le titre Le Jeu du silence, traduit par Frédérique Pressman, Paris, L'École des loisirs, coll. « Médium », 2008 (ISBN 978-2-211-08360-7)
The Porcupine Year (2008)
Chickadee (2012)
Makoons (2016)

Autres ouvrages de littérature d'enfance et de jeunesse

Grandmother's Pigeon (1996)
The Range Eternal (2002)

Autres publications

Imagination (1982)
Route Two (1990), écrit en collaboration avec Michael Dorris
The Falcon (1995)
The Blue Jay’s Dance: A Birthyear (1995)
Books and Islands in Ojibwe Country (2003)

Récompenses notables

National Book Critics Circle Award : 1984 : Love Medecine
Los Angeles Times Book Prize : 1985 : Love Medecine
American Book Awards : 1985 : Love Medecine
O. Henry Award : 1987 : "Fleur”, Esquire magazine, août 1986
Prix World Fantasy du meilleur roman : 1999 : The Antilope Wife
National Book Award : 2012 : The Round House

Notes et références

http://coffeehousepress.org/authors/lise-erdrich/ [archive]
https://www.poetryfoundation.org/poets/heid-e-erdrich [archive]

Articles connexes

List of writers from peoples indigenous to the Americas (en)
Heid E. Erdrich (en) (1963-), écrivaine ojibwe, sœur de Louise

Liens externes

Notices d'autoritéVoir et modifier les données sur Wikidata : Fichier d’autorité international virtuel • International Standard Name Identifier • Bibliothèque nationale de France (données) • Système universitaire de documentation • Bibliothèque du Congrès • Gemeinsame Normdatei • Service bibliothécaire national • Bibliothèque nationale de la Diète • Bibliothèque nationale d’Espagne • Bibliothèque royale des Pays-Bas • Bibliothèque universitaire de Pologne • Bibliothèque nationale de Suède • WorldCat
Biographie et bibliographie [archive]
Page officielle de Louise Erdrich [archive]

Nom de naissance Karen Louise Erdrich
Naissance 7 juin 1954 (63 ans)
Little Falls, Minnesota, Drapeau des États-Unis États-Unis
Activité principale
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MessageSujet: Re: Philippa Plantagenêt et le Parc national du Grand Paradis   Sam 18 Nov à 10:46

Le Spleen de Paris, also known as Paris Spleen or Petits Poèmes en prose, is a collection of 51 short prose poems by Charles Baudelaire. The collection was published posthumously in 1869 and is associated with the modernist literary movement.

Baudelaire mentions he had read Aloysius Bertrand's Gaspard de la nuit (considered the first example of prose poetry) at least twenty times before starting this work. Though inspired by Bertrand, Baudelaire's prose poems were based on Parisian contemporary life instead of the medieval background which Bertrand employed. He told about his work: "These are the flowers of evil again, but with more freedom, much more detail, and much more mockery." Indeed, many of the themes and even titles from Baudelaire's earlier collection Les Fleurs du mal are revisited in this work.

These poems have no particular order, have no beginning and no end and they can be read like thoughts or short stories in a stream of consciousness style. The point of the poems is "to capture the beauty of life in the modern city," using what Jean-Paul Sartre has labeled as being his existential outlook on his surroundings.

Published twenty years after the fratricidal June Days that ended the ideal or "brotherly" revolution of 1848, Baudelaire makes no attempts at trying to reform society he has grown up in but realizes the inequities of the progressing modernization of Paris. In poems such as "The Eyes of the Poor" where he writes (after witnessing an impoverished family looking in on a new cafe): "Not only was I moved by that family of eyes, but I felt a little ashamed of our glasses and decanters, larger than our thirst...", showing his feelings of despair and class guilt.

The title of the work refers not to the abdominal organ (the spleen) but rather to the second, more literary meaning of the word, "melancholy with no apparent cause, characterised by a disgust with everything".

Pleasure

Le Spleen de Paris explores the idea of pleasure as a vehicle for expressing emotion. Many of the poems refer to sex or sin explicitly (i.e. "Double Bedroom," "A Hemisphere in a Head of Hair", "Temptations"); others use subtle language and imagery to evoke sensuality (i.e. "the Artist’s Confiteor"). In both cases, the diction is undeniably sexual; for example, in "Double Bedroom," “Muslin rains abundantly over the windows and around the bed in a snowy cascade. Within this bed is ensconced the Idol, queen of dreams.”[2] Baudelaire’s obsession with pleasure reflects his love for scandal and wickedness, as well as his philosophy that by seeking pleasure, man taps into his authentic “evil” self.[3]
Sobriety and intoxication

Many of Baudelaire’s prose poems openly advocate drinking and intoxication, such as "Be Drunk." Intoxication (or any equal pleasure such as creative work, sex, virtue, etc.) creates a euphoria and timelessness that allows you to transcend the limitations of time and truly live "in the moment." In "Be Drunk," the speaker commands the reader to engage in something intoxicating: "You must be drunk always... Time crushes your shoulders and bends you earthward, you must be drunk without respite."[4] Sobriety, in contrast, forces you to address the harsh realities of the world around you. However, this interpretation has recently been challenged by some critics, who claim that Baudelaire was actually being ironic in his advocacy for drunkenness. Maria Scott, a literary scholar, claims that Baudelaire believed "artificial toxication was... far inferior to 'successive work' and the 'regular exercise of will,' that artificial stimulants... actually amplify time."[5] Thus, it is debatable whether intoxication refers to literal drunkenness as an escape or if symbolizes the pleasure found in writing and expressing oneself.
The artist/poet

In Le Spleen de Paris, the concept of artist and poet intermingle. Baudelaire saw poetry as a form of art, and thus in many of the prose poems the artist is a substitute for a traditional poet or speaker. In "the Desire to Paint," the artist attempts to depict his beautiful muse with images, just as the poet attempts to express his emotions with language. The relationship between the artist and poet reflects the need to evoke a particular feeling or idea, and this thread is carried through almost every single poem in the text. Ultimately, the artist and the poet become one, since they share the same purpose - to describe beauty. In this sense, the work itself (and every individual poem within) is beautiful, a "work of art" due to its innovative, interesting form. Thus, the poem, according to Baudelaire, is as much an "aesthetic experience" as it is a literary one.[6]
Women

Women are both admired and ridiculed in Le Spleen de Paris. Some poems, such as "the Desire to Paint," reflect female power and sexuality in a somewhat positive manner. However, a larger portion of the poems in Baudelaire's work debase women as evil, gaudy, and cold. Many are represented as prostitutes, and according to scholars, "the courtesan would seem to be a virtual incarnation, for Baudelaire, of all that is artificial and misleading."[7] In "the Rope," the speaker's apprentice hangs himself, and his mother comes to collect the rope. The speaker is shocked to discover that she did so not to "preserve them as horrible and precious relics," but to sell them for a morbid profit.[8] Baudelaire rejects the concept of maternal love and replaces it with a cold economic reality. Still, women are inherently sexual, and in some regards, Baudelaire admires their sensual beauty (connects back to themes of intoxication, pleasure).
Mortality and the passage of time

Many of Baudelaire's prose poems are dominated by the concept of time, usually negatively. The speaker in Le Spleen de Paris fears the passage of time and his/her own mortality. As a result, intoxication, women, pleasure, and writing are all forms of escape from this unavoidable hell. "Be Drunk" and "Already!" exemplify Baudelaire's infatuation with the idea of time. In "Already!" the speaker is incapable of matching the infiniteness and simplicity of nature, and at the end, comes face to face with his own death: "I felt pulled down deathwards; which is why, when companions said, 'At last!' I could only cry, 'Already!"[9] Also, this theme supports Baudelaire's admiration of art and poetry because although man cannot defeat time and death, a work of art can. Art, poetry, life, and death are inextricably linked within Baudelaire's poems, and perhaps reflect a personal obsession with mortality.
The city

For Baudelaire, the setting of most poems within Le Spleen de Paris is the Parisian metropolis, specifically the poorer areas within the city. Notable poems within Le Spleen de Paris whose urban setting is important include “Crowds” and “The Old Mountebank.” Within his writing about city life, Baudelaire seems to stress the relationship between individual and society, frequently placing the speaker in a reflective role looking out at the city. It is also important to note that Baudelaire’s Paris is not one of nice shops and beautiful streets. Instead, Baudelaire focuses on dirty, poverty-stricken areas of Paris with social problems rather than the Paris of the upper class.
Poverty/class

In connection with the theme of the Parisian metropolis, Baudelaire focuses heavily on the theme of poverty and social class within Le Spleen de Paris. Important poems from the collection which embody these themes include “The Toy of the Poor,” “The Eyes of the Poor,” “Counterfeit Money,” and “Let’s Beat Up the Poor.” In these poems Baudelaire introduces slightly differing views of the urban poor. In “The Toy of the Poor” Baudelaire heavily stresses the need for equality between social classes in Paris. In comparison, “Counterfeit Money” and “Let’s Beat Up the Poor” seem to use a sarcastic tone to instil empathy in the reader for those people in poverty. In Michael Hamburger’s introduction to his translation, Twenty Prose Poems of Baudelaire, the scholar notes a highly sympathetic view of the poor in Le Spleen de Paris. Baudelaire seems to relate to the poor and becomes an advocate for them in his poetry.
Religion/good vs. evil

Many poems in Le Spleen de Paris incorporate a central theme of religion or the relationship between good and evil in human nature. “Cake,” which centers on a moral battle addressing the question of whether humans are inherently good or evil stands out as an especially important poem within the collection. “Loss of a Halo” also incorporates similar themes, literally discussing the role of angels as well as the relationship between mankind and religious ideology, questioning the goodness of Christian ideals. Along these lines, Baudelaire repeatedly addresses the theme of sin within his poetry as well as questioning how the hierarchy of class could affect the hierarchy of goodness, implying that those of higher social class tend not to be morally superior to those of lower classes. Many critics of Baudelaire address the prominent role of religion in the poet’s life and how that might have affected his writing. Some suspect that since Baudelaire internalized Christian practices, he thought himself capable of accurately portraying God in his writing. Yet by representing God’s message within his poetry, Baudelaire placed himself in a position of patriarchal authority, similar to that of the God depicted in Christianity.
Poet/reader relationship

The following passage is taken from the preface to the 2008 Mackenzie translation of Le Spleen de Paris, entitled “To Arsène Houssaye”

My dear friend, I send you here a little work of which no one could say that it has neither head nor tail, because, on the contrary, everything in it is both head and tail, alternately and reciprocally. Please consider what fine advantages this combination offers to all of us, to you, to me, and to the reader. We can cut whatever we like—me, my reverie, you, the manuscript, and the reader, his reading; for I don’t tie the impatient reader up in the endless thread of a superfluous plot. Pull out one of the vertebrae, and the two halves of this tortuous fantasy will rejoin themselves painlessly. Chop it up into numerous fragments, and you’ll find that each one can live on its own. In the hopes that some of these stumps will be lively enough to please and amuse you, I dedicate the entire serpent to you. (Mackenzie 3)

While writing Le Spleen de Paris, Baudelaire made very conscious decisions regarding his relationship with his readers. As seen in the preface to the collection, addressed to his publisher, Arsène Houssaye, Baudelaire attempted to write a text that was very accessible to a reader while pulling the most appealing aspects of both prose and poetry and combining them into the revolutionary genre of prose poetry. For Baudelaire, the accessibility of the text and ability for a reader to set down the book and pick it up much later was crucial, especially considering his implied opinions of his readers. Baudelaire’s tone throughout the preface, “The Dog and the Vial” as well as other poems throughout Le Spleen de Paris seem to illustrate Baudelaire’s opinions of superiority over his readers. In “The Dog and the Vial,” a man offers his dog a vial of fancy perfume to smell and the dog reacts in horror, instead wishing to sniff more seemingly unappealing smells, specifically excrement. The poem concludes with the frustration of the speaker with his dog, expressed as the speaker states: “In this respect you, unworthy companion of my sad life, resemble the public, to whom one must never present the delicate scents that only exasperate them, but instead give them only dung, chosen with care” (Mackenzie 14). One can extrapolate this poem to apply more figuratively to the larger themes of the poet-reader relationship, in which Baudelaire deprecates his readers, viewing them as unintelligent and incapable of appreciating his work.
Style

Le Spleen de Paris represents a definitive break from traditional poetic forms. The text is composed of "prose poems," which span the continuum between "prosaic" and "poetic" works. The new, unconventional form of poetry was characteristic of the modernist movement occurring throughout Europe (and particularly in Paris) at the time.[10] In the preface to Le Spleen de Paris, Baudelaire describes that modernity requires a new language, "a miracle of a poetic prose, musical without rhythm or rhyme, supple enough and striking enough to suit lyrical movements of the soul, undulations of reverie, the flip-flops of consciousness," and in this sense, Le Spleen de Paris gives life to modern language.[11] Baudelaire's prose poetry tends to be more poetic in comparison to later works such as Ponge's Le parti pris des choses, but each poem varies. For an example of a more poetic poem, see "Evening Twilight"; for a prosaic example, see "The Bad Glazier."
Publication history, influences, and critical reception

Baudelaire’s Le Spleen de Paris is unique in that it was published posthumously by his sister in 1869, two years after Baudelaire died. In fact, it was not until his waning years, plagued by physical ailments and the contraction of syphilis that he created a table of contents for the book. Baudelaire spent years 1857-1867 working on his book of poems that chronicled daily life in the city of Paris. These poems aimed at capturing the times in which they were written, from the brutally repressed upheavals of 1848 (after which the government censored literature more than ever), the 1851 coup d’état of Louis Bonaparte and generally Paris of the 1850s, demolished and renovated by Napoleon III’s prefect, Baron Haussman. In displaying the social antagonisms of the age, Baudelaire drew influence from many great artists of the time. In fact, an active critical essayist himself, his critical reviews of other poets “elucidate the recesses of the mind that created Les Fleurs du Mal and Le Spleen de Paris.”

Influence: While there is much speculation regarding direct influence and inspiration in the creation of Le Spleen de Paris, the following colleagues seem to have clearly influenced the book of small poems:

Edgar Allan Poe: “Indeed, Poe illustrates his claim with several examples which seem to summarize with uncanny precision the temperament of Baudelaire himself (Poe 273-4). The affinity between the two writers in this regard seems beyond dispute…Moreover, ‘Le Démon de la perversité is less a tale than a prose poem, and both its subject-matter and its movement from general considerations to specific examples leading to an unexpected conclusion may have influenced Baudelaire in his creation of Le Spleen de Paris.”

Aloysius Betrand’s “Gaspard de la nuit”: Baudelaire himself is quoted as citing this work as an inspiration for Paris Spleen

Gustave Flaubert: Magazine article “No ideas but in Crowds: Baudelaire’s Paris Spleen” cites similarities between the writers in that like Baudelaire, Flaubert held the same motives and intentions in that he too wanted “ to write the moral history of the men of my generation--or, more accurately, the history of their feelings."

Critical Reception:

The way in which the poem was received certainly lends to understanding the climate in which Baudelaire created Le Spleen de Paris, in that “It appears to be almost a diary entry, an explicit rundown of the day’s events; those events seem to be precisely the kind that Charles Baudelaire would have experienced in the hectic and hypocritical world of the literary marketplace of his day.”

Notable Critical Reception: In order to truly understand how Le Spleen de Paris was received, one must first be acquainted with Baudelaire’s earlier works. The repressions and upheavals of 1848 resulted in massive censorship of literature, which did not bode well for Baudelaire’s perhaps most famous work, Les Fleurs du Mal. Society was so shocked by the satanic references and sexual perversion in the book that at the time it was a critical and popular failure. This put the anticipated reception of Le Spleen de Paris at a disadvantage. Like “Flowers of Evil,” it wasn’t until much later that Paris Spleen was fully appreciated for what it was, a masterpiece that “brought the style of the prose poem to the broader republics of the people.” That being said, just four years after Arthur Rimbaud used Baudelaire’s work as a foundation for his poems, as he considered Baudelaire a great poet and pioneer of prose.

Appearance in Media: A 2006 film "Spleen," written by Eric Bomba-Ire, borrowed its title from Baudelaire's book of prose poems. Baudelaire expressed a particular feeling that he called Spleen which is a mixture of melancholy, rage, eros, and resignation, which ties in well with the movie's darkly woven tale of love, betrayal and passion.[12]
Notable quotations
This section contains information of unclear or questionable importance or relevance to the article's subject matter. Please help improve this article by clarifying or removing superfluous information. (April 2013)

In “Let us beat up the poor,” Baudelaire makes up a parable about economic and social equality: no one is entitled to it; it belongs to those who can win it and keep it. And he taunts the social reformer: “What do you think of that, Proudhon?” (Hill, 36.)

"At One in the Morning" is like a diary entry, a rundown of the day's events. In it, Baudelaire recognizes that he is part of a society full of hypocrites. His individual self becomes "blurred...by a hypocrisy and perverseness which progressively undermine the difference between the self and others." This is at least partly what Baudelaire meant by "a modern and more abstract life."[13]

"The Thyrsus" is a piece addressed to composer Franz Liszt. The ancient Greek thyrsus had connotations of "unleashed sexuality and violence, of the profound power of the irrational." Baudelaire believed the thyrsus to be an acceptable object of representation for Liszt's music.

In "The Bad Windowpane Maker" Baudelaire speaks of a "kind of energy that springs from ennui and reverie" that manifests itself in a particularly unexpected way in the most inactive dreamers. Doctors and moralists alike are at a loss to explain where such mad energy so suddenly comes from to these lazy people, why they suddenly feel the need to perform such absurd and dangerous deeds. (Hill, 56.)

The prefatory letter Baudelaire wrote to Arsene Houssaye, the editor of La Presse, was not necessarily intended to be included in the publication. When Baudelaire drew up his table of contents for the projected book form, he did not include the letter. It is possible, then, that the letter only appeared in La Presse as a means of flattery to ensure that Houssaye would publish the poems. (Mackenzie, xiii) Nevertheless, it allows us to understand Baudelaire's thinking about the genre of prose poetry:

Who among us has not dreamed, in his ambitious days, of the miracle of a poetic prose, musical without rhythm or rhyme, supple enough and jarring enough to be adapted to the soul's lyrical movements, the undulations of reverie, to the twists and turns that consciousness takes?

Table of contents (from Raymond N. Mackenzie's 2008 translation)

To Arsène Houssaye
1. The Foreigner
2. The Old Woman's Despair
3. The Artist's Confession
4. A Joker
5. The Double Room
6. To Each His Chimera
7. The Fool and Venus
8. The Dog and the Vial
9. The Bad Glazier
10. At One in the Morning
11. The Wild Woman and the Little Mistress
12. Crowds
13. The Widows
14. The Old Mountebank
15. Cake
16. The Clock
17. A Hemisphere in Her Hair
18. Invitation to the Voyage
19. The Toy of the Poor
20. The Fairies' Gifts
21. The Temptations: Or, Eros, Plutus, and Fame
22. Evening Twilight
23. Solitude
24. Plans
25. Beautiful Dorothy
26. The Eyes of the Poor
27. A Heroic Death
28. Counterfeit Money
29. The Generous Gambler
30. The Rope
31. Vocations
32. The Thyrsus
33. Get Yourself Drunk
34. Already!
35. Windows
36. The Desire to Paint
37. The Favors of the Moon
38. Which is the Real One?
39. A Thoroughbred
40. The Mirror
41. The Port
42. Portraits of Mistresses
43. The Gallant Marksman
44. The Soup and the Clouds
45. The Firing Range and the Graveyard
46. Loss of a Halo
47. Mademoiselle Bistouri
48. Any Where Out of the World
49. Let's Beat Up the Poor!
50. Good Dogs
References
This article includes a list of references, but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. Please help to improve this article by introducing more precise citations. (April 2013) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

[13][14][15][16] [17][18][19][20][21][22][23]

Definition from Le Nouveau Petit Robert 2009
Baudelaire, Charles. Paris Spleen. Trans. Keith Waldrop. Middleton: Wesleyan University Press, 2009. 9.
Richardson, Joanna. Baudelaire. St. Martin's Press: New York, 1994. 50.
Baudelaire, Charles. Paris Spleen. Trans. Keith Waldrop. Middleton: Wesleyan University Press, 2009. 71.
Scott, Maria C. Baudelaire’s Le Spleen de Paris: Shifting Perspectives. Burlington: Ashgate Publishing Company, 2005. 196-197.
Hiddleston, J.A. Baudelaire and Le Spleen de Paris. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1987. 10-11.
Scott, Maria C. Baudelaire’s Le Spleen de Paris: Shifting Perspectives. Burlington: Ashgate Publishing Company, 2005. 54.
Baudelaire, Charles. Paris Spleen. Trans. Keith Waldrop. Middleton: Wesleyan University Press, 2009. 62-64.
Baudelaire, Charles. Paris Spleen. Trans. Keith Waldrop. Middleton: Wesleyan University Press, 2009. 73.
Berman, Marshall. “Baudelaire: Modernism in the Streets.” All that is solid melts into air. New York: Penguin Group Inc., 1988. 148. Google Books. 2009. 21 May 2009, books.google.com
Baudelaire, Charles. Paris Spleen. Trans. Keith Waldrop. Middleton: Wesleyan University Press, 2009. 3.
IMDb.com
Hill, Claire Ortiz. Roots and flowers of evil in Baudelaire, Nietzsche, and Hitler. Chicago: Open Court, 2006.
Baudelaire, Charles. Paris Spleen and La Fanfarlo. Trans. Raymond N. Mackenzie. Indianapolis: Hackett Pub. Co., 2008.
Aggeler, William, Roy Campbell, Robert Lowell, Edna St. Vincent Millay, and Lewis P. Shanks. "Fleurs du mal." Charle's Baudelaire's Flowers of Evil. 20 May 2009 fleursdumal.org
St. Vincent Millay, Edna. Fleurs du mal. 1936.
Bopsecrets.org
Bennett, Joseph D. Baudelaire: A Criticism. Princeton, N.J: Princeton UP, 1944.
Rabbitt, Kara M. "Reading and Otherness: The Interpretative Triangle in Baudelaire's Petits poèmes en prose." Nineteenth Century French Studies 33.3&4 (2005). Project MUSE.
Hamburger, Michael. "Introduction." Introduction. Twenty Prose Poems of Baudelaire. London: Poetry London, 1946. Vii-Xii.
Evans, Margery A. Baudelaire and Intertextuality: Poetry at the Crossroads. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1993.
Emmanuel, Pierre. Baudelaire: The Paradox of Redemptive Satanism. Trans. Robert T. Cargo. University, AL: The University of Alabama P, 1967.

Ruff, M. A. "Prose Poems." Baudelaire. Trans. Agnes Kertesz. New York, NY: New York UP, 1966. 149-58.

External links

Charles Baudelaire—Largest site dedicated to Baudelaire's poems and prose, containing Fleurs du mal, Petit poemes et prose, Fanfarlo and more in French.

French Wikisource has original text related to this article:
Petits Poèmes en prose

Le Spleen de Paris: Full online downloadable text
Lo Spleen di Parigi: Italian translation online
No ideas but in Crowds: Baudelaire's Paris Spleen
Beaudelaire, Charles (1869). Paris Spleen. Louise Varèse. ISBN 978-0-8112-0007-3. (Translation: Louise Varèse, 1970)

Categories:

1869 booksFrench poetry collectionsWorks by Charles BaudelairePoems about citiesBooks published posthumously


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TIGNARD YANIS‏ @TIGNARDYANIS
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HÔPITAL SERVICE PUBLIC DE BASTIA, DEVANT LA VOLONTÉ
DE CERTAINES ET CERTAINS DANS LE MONDE MÉDICAL,
MONTRE UNE VOLONTÉ RÉELLE DANS LE QUOTIDIEN FRANÇAIS
DE MAINTENIR UNE ACTIVITÉ ET UN QUOTIDIEN DU SERVICE PUBLIC
DANS LE SECOURISME ET L'ÉTHIQUE.
TAY

LA FRANCE ET SON PEUPLE PAR L'ACTION DU SÉNAT DONNE UN SENTIMENT D'ÊTRES,
DE CONSTRUCTIONS ET D'ACTUALITÉS POUR LE DÉVELOPPEMENT DU LIBAN.
SON AUTORITÉ DOIT ÊTRE À L'IMAGE DE SON AUTONOMIE ET
DOIT ÊTRE RESPECTER DES ÉTATS, DES MORALISTES
ET DES RELIGIEUX. TAY

LIBAN: UNE ÉMOTION VIVE AURAIT PU DISTINGUER LA RÉALITÉ
DE LA SITUATION DANS LAQUELLE EST PLONGÉE LA SITUATION ÉCONOMIQUE
ET MORALE DU PAYS: LA PEUR ET LE PRESTIGE A CONDUIT UNE DIPLOMATIE
À METTRE LE SPLEEN DANS LA VISION ÉTATIQUE DU LIBAN.
TAY

AMUSANT DE DÉCRIRE LE QUOTIDIEN D'UN FLIC SUR LES TERMES
DE MÉFIANCE ET DE CONFIANCE; CETTE CONSCIENCE DE LA MORT
AU QUOTIDIEN. SAUF QUE POUR CELUI QUI LE VIT,
IL Y A CETTE CONVICTION ET CETTE CONSCIENCE QU'IL PRÉNOMME L'ÂME
ET LE SOUVENIR DE SES FRÈRES.
TAY

LA MÉFIANCE ET LA CONFIANCE ONT ÉTÉ PAR L'ATTRIBUT
DE CONFIANCE. AINSI NAQUIT LE TERME DE TRAHISON
DANS LA CONSCIENCE HUMAINE; PLUS TARD, ON DIRA DE LA NAÏVETÉ
MAIS LÀ AUSSI, IL Y ERREUR: L'IDÉOLOGIE AVEUGLE LA RAISON
ET LA RÉALITÉ DANS LE LAPS.
TAY

LA MER, LA TERRE NOURRICIÈRE EST POLLUÉE DANS UN MANQUE DE RESPECT
ET D'HYGIÈNE DE LA PART DE L'HUMANITÉ: ON CRITIQUE LES SAUTERELLES
ET LES ÉTOURNEAUX MAIS C'EST L'HUMANITÉ QUI A CAUSÉ UN GRAND CATACLYSME
DANS L'ÉCOSYSTÈME: SON HYGIÈNE A ÉTÉ VIOLÉ.
TAY

L'ALHAMBRA, L'ABEILLE, LA FEMME, Y'BECCA ET LA RÉPUBLIQUE.
http://leclandesmouettes.bbflash.net/t592-l-alhambra-l-abeille-la-femme-y-becca-et-la-republique
Le suicide, la Raison, La morale, La Vie et Y'becca
http://leclandesmouettes.bbflash.net/t158-le-suicide-la-raison-la-morale-la-vie-et-y-becca

DANS LE SILENCE DU VENT,
JE SUIS LE MOUVEMENT ET IL EST LE DÉCLIN....

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