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 Cancer vaccine for youth is effective et Pittsburgh Pirates

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Nombre de messages : 7497
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Date d'inscription : 09/11/2005

MessageSujet: Cancer vaccine for youth is effective et Pittsburgh Pirates   Ven 27 Oct à 10:18

Cancer vaccine for youth is effective, safe .

The HPV vaccine is safe and nearly 100-percent effective, health care experts say. But only about half of the target youth population – in either the civilian sector or among Military Health System beneficiaries – have received it.

“Health care providers need to help parents understand the value of the vaccine,” said Air Force Lt. Col. Heather Halvorson, deputy chief of the Defense Health Agency Immunization Health Care Branch.

“HPV can cause many different types of cancer,” she said. “People need to get the vaccine before they’re exposed to the virus. That’s why we recommend the vaccine for younger age groups.”

“It’s a great vaccine,” said Dr. Bruce McClenathan, medical director of the DHA immunization regional office at Fort Bragg, North Carolina. “Widespread vaccination for HPV would have huge potential to reduce many types of cancer.”

HPV, or human papillomavirus, is very common, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. About 1 in 4 people in the United States has at least one of about 120 different HPV strains. The virus spreads through intimate skin-on-skin contact.

Nearly 14 million new cases of HPV infections occur every year, McClenathan said, adding that about half are among 15 to 24 year olds.

Usually, there are no signs or symptoms of an HPV infection. Most people don’t develop health problems, and the virus typically goes away on its own after a couple of years. But there’s no way to predict who will clear the virus and who won’t, McClenathan said.

If an HPV infection persists, it can eventually cause genital warts and many types of cancer. Almost all cervical cancer is HPV related; about 17,600 cases of cervical cancer are diagnosed in the United States annually, McClenathan said.

“At least we have the Pap smear as a good test for cervical cancer,” he said. “With other HPV-related cancers, there really aren’t any good screening tests.”

About 90 percent of all anal cancers, 72 percent of all throat cancers, and 1 percent of all vaginal and vulvar cancers are also linked to HPV, he said. So are about 71 percent of penile cancers.

The target age for the HPV vaccine is 11 or 12. The vaccine is approved for girls and boys as young as 9, and women and men up to age 26. Only one HPV vaccine, Gardasil 9, is now used.

Nine to 14 year olds receive two doses of the vaccine. They get the second dose six months after the first. Those 15 and older receive three doses. The second dose is two months after the first, and the third dose is six months after the first.

For routine HPV vaccination of younger service members, the Department of Defense follows guidelines from the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices. “We’re catching people at the tail end of the age recommendation,” Halvorson said. “Hopefully, they were vaccinated when they were growing up, before they joined the military.”

According to a study published in the most recent issue of Medical Surveillance Monthly Report, the number of active-duty service members diagnosed with HPV declined from 2007 to 2016, with a 75 percent decrease among women in uniform. Researchers say the decline may be related to the introduction of the HPV vaccine for civilian girls and young women in 2006.

The vaccine is very safe, and most people don’t have any problems or side effects, McClenathan said. And studies have shown the vaccine caused HPV rates to decline 64 percent among teenaged girls ages 14 to 19, and 34 percent among women ages 20 to 24. “So we clearly know the vaccine is not only safe, it’s also effective in preventing HPV,” he said.

https://health.mil/News/Articles/2017/10/25/Cancer-vaccine-for-youth-is-effective-safe

“This is a cancer-preventing vaccine,” Halvorson said. “But we have to get people vaccinated early.”

Trophées et honneurs individuels
Pirates au Hall of Fame
Bill McKechnie

Cette liste présente l'ensemble des joueurs ayant joué pour les Pirates et faisant partie du temple de la renommée du baseball*14.

Jake Beckley (1888–1889, 1891–1896)
Jim Bunning (1968–1969)
Max Carey (1910–1926)
Jack Chesbro (1899–1902)
Fred Clarke (Joueur/manager 1900–1915)
Roberto Clemente (1955–1972)
Joe Cronin (1926–1927)
Kiki Cuyler (1921–1927)
Frankie Frisch (Manager 1940–1946)
Pud Galvin (1887–1889, 1891–1892)
Hank Greenberg (1947)
Burleigh Grimes (1916–1917, 1928–1929, 1934)
Ned Hanlon (1889, 1891)
Billy Herman (1947)
Waite Hoyt (1933–1937)
Joe Kelley (1891–1892)
George Kelly (1917)
Ralph Kiner (1946–1953)
Chuck Klein (1939)



Freddie Lindstrom (1933–1934)
Al Lopez (1940–1946)
Connie Mack (1894–1896)
Heinie Manush (1938–1939)
Rabbit Maranville (1921–1924)
Bill Mazeroski (1956–1972)
Bill McKechnie (1907, 1910–1912, 1918, 1920 ; Manager 1922–1926)
Bob Prince (Announcer, 1948–1975)
Willie Stargell (1962–1982)
Casey Stengel (1918–1919)
Pie Traynor (1920–1934 ; Joueur/manager 1934–1939)
Dazzy Vance (1915)
Arky Vaughan (1932–1941)
Rube Waddell (1900–1901)
Honus Wagner (1900–1917 ; Manager, 1917)
Lloyd Waner (1927–1941, 1944–1945)
Paul Waner (1926–1940)
Vic Willis (1906–1909)

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Date d'inscription : 09/11/2005

MessageSujet: Re: Cancer vaccine for youth is effective et Pittsburgh Pirates   Ven 27 Oct à 10:18

Numéros retirés
Honus Wagner

1 Billy Meyer, Manager 1948–1952
4 Ralph Kiner, champ extérieur 1946–1953
8 Willie Stargell, champ extérieur/1re base 1962–1982, instructeur 1985
9 Bill Mazeroski, 2e base 1956–1972, instructeur 1973
11 Paul Waner, champ extérieur 1926–1940
20 Pie Traynor, 3e base 1920–1934, Manager 1934–1939
21 Roberto Clemente, champ extérieur 1955–1972
33 Honus Wagner, arrêt-court 1900–1917, Manager 1917, instructeur 1933–1951
40 Danny Murtaugh, champ intérieur 1948–51, instructeur 1956–57, Manager 1957–1964, 1967, 1970–1973, 1973–1976
42 Jackie Robinson, retiré par la MLB

Honus Wagner n'arborait pas de numéro à l'époque où il était joueur. Le numéro 33 est celui qu'il portait en tant qu'instructeur15.
Autres trophées et honneurs

MVP de la saison (depuis 1911) :
Paul Waner (1927)
Dick Groat (1960)
Roberto Clemente (1966)
Dave Parker (1978)
Willie Stargell (1979)
Barry Bonds (1990 et 1992)
Andrew McCutchen (2013)



Trophée Cy Young (depuis 1956) :
Vern Law (1960)
Doug Drabek (1990)

Prix Roberto Clemente (depuis 1971) :
Willie Stargell (1974)

Recrue de l'année (depuis 1947) :
Jason Bay (2004)

Manager de l'année (depuis 1983) :
Jim Leyland (1992)
Clint Hurdle (2013)

Les managers des Pirates
Guy Hecker, manager des Pirates en 1890.
Connie Mack, manager des Pirates de 1894 à 1896.
Patsy Donovan, manager des Pirates en 1897 et 1899.
American Association
Nom Saisons Vic.-déf. Pct.
Al Pratt 1882–1883 51-59 0,464
Ormond Butler 1883 17-36 0,321
Joe Battin 1883, 1884 8-18 0,308
Denny McKnight 1884 4-8 0,333
Bob Ferguson 1884 11-31 0,262
George Creamer 1884 0-8 0,000
Horace Phillips 1885–1886 145-136 0,516
Ligue nationale
Nom Saisons Vic.-déf. Pct.
Horace Phillips 1887–1889 149-180 0,453
Fred Dunlap 1889 7-10 0,412
Ned Hanlon 1889, 1891 57-65 0,467
Guy Hecker 1890 23-113 0,169
Bill McGunnigle 1891 24-33 0,421
Tom Burns 1892 27-32 0,458
Al Buckenberger 1892–1894 187-144 0,565
Connie Mack 1894–1896 149-134 0,527
Patsy Donovan 1897, 1899 129-129 0,500
Bill Watkins 1898–1899 79-91 0,465
Fred Clarke 1900–1915 1422-969 0,595
Nixey Callahan 1916–1917 85-129 0,397
Honus Wagner 1917 1-4 0,200
Hugo Bezdek 1917–1919 166-187 0,470
George Gibson 1920–1922, 1932–1934 401-330 0,549
Bill McKechnie 1922–1926 409-293 0,583
Donie Bush 1927–1929 246-178 0,580
Jewel Ens 1929–1931 176-167 0,513
Pie Traynor 1934–1939 457-406 0,530
Frankie Frisch 1940–1946 539-528 0,505

Nom Saisons Vic.-déf. Pct.
Spud Davis 1946 1-2 0,333
Billy Herman 1947 61-92 0,399
Bill Burwell 1947 1-0 1,000
Billy Meyer 1948–1952 317-452 0,412
Fred Haney 1953–1955 163-299 0,353
Bobby Bragan 1956–1957 102-155 0,397
Danny Murtaugh 1957–64, 1967,
1970–71, 1973–76 1115-950 0,540
Harry Walker 1965–1967 224-184 0,549
Larry Shepard 1968–1969 164-155 0,514
Alex Grammas 1969 4-1 0,800
Bill Virdon 1972–1973 163-128 0,560
Chuck Tanner 1977–1985 711-685 0,509
Jim Leyland 1986–1996 851-863 0,496
Gene Lamont 1997–2000 295-352 0,456
Lloyd McClendon 2001–2005 336-446 0,430
Pete Mackanin 2005 12-14 0,462
Jim Tracy 2006–2007 135-189 0,417
John Russell 2008-2010 186-299 0,384
Clint Hurdle depuis 2011 245-241 0,504

More women are winning the battle against breast cancer

FALLS CHURCH, Va. — Thanks to improvements in detection and treatment, “more and more breast cancer patients are becoming breast cancer survivors,” said Army Col. Craig Shriver, director of the John P. Murtha Cancer Center at Walter Reed National Military Medical Center in Bethesda, Maryland. “We’re making strong progress in decreasing death from breast cancer.”

Citing a study that was published this month in the American Cancer Society’s “CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians,” Shriver said breast cancer deaths declined 40 percent from 1989 to 2015. “That’s dramatic,” said Shriver, who’s also an oncology surgeon and a surgery professor at the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences in Bethesda.

Shriver credits the Cancer Genome Atlas for other promising developments. Begun in 2008, the atlas was a collaboration among the nation’s top scientists and practitioners to collect and analyze genetic mutations that are responsible for various cancers. Understanding the genetic materials in cancer cells and their order – called genome sequencing – leads to treatments that can be adapted to each patient, and, perhaps one day, to prevention.

The Murtha Cancer Center partnered with the National Institutes of Health’s National Cancer Institute on breast cancer genome sequencing for the atlas. Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. It’s the No. 1 cause of cancer deaths among Hispanic women, and the second most common cause of cancer deaths among white, black, Asian, and Native women.

According to the CDC’s most recent statistics, almost 237,000 women in the United States were diagnosed with breast cancer in 2014.

Shriver said the study showed the number of women diagnosed with breast cancer during the 15-year period didn’t change much. “But our screening programs are better, so we’re able to detect the cancers at an earlier stage, when they’re treatable.”

Also, oncologists have fine-tuned traditional treatment approaches. Genetic testing of breast cancer tumors allows oncologists to treat with chemotherapy only those patients who are most likely to respond to it. Those who aren’t can be given other treatments, or put into clinical trials.

“In the past, we’d spend a year or two giving chemotherapy, only to find out the cancer came back anyway,” Shriver said. “Now, we’re not wasting that time.”

Shriver said less-invasive breast cancer surgeries are also on the horizon. For example, in a traditional lumpectomy – also known as a breast-conserving therapy – surgeons remove the tumor and some surrounding normal tissue. Researchers are conducting clinical trials to determine if instead of surgical removal, the tumor can be destroyed while it’s still in the breast with directed laser technology.

“We’re moving more and more toward a day, maybe five years from now, when women with breast cancer will be treated almost exclusively without surgery,” Shriver said. “That would be a great advance.”

Meantime, he stresses early detection. So does Air Force Lt. Col. Michelle Nash, a branch chief in the Air Force Research Laboratory at Wright Patterson Air Force Base in Ohio. Nash had a double mastectomy after being diagnosed with breast cancer earlier this year at the age of 40. The cancer was discovered after Nash had a routine mammogram, her first.

“The whole thing was so shocking and unexpected,” she said. “I had no family history. I breastfed all four of my children, and that’s a protective factor. I didn’t have any lumps or any symptoms that would cause me to think, ‘I should go get that checked out.’ So I’ve become an even firmer believer of preventive medicine and getting screenings done, and not delaying them.”

All women over the age of 20 should do a self-exam monthly and get a clinical breast exam annually, Shriver said. For mammograms, women ages 40 to 44 who are at average risk for breast cancer can choose an annual mammogram after consulting with their health care provider. For women 45 to 55 years old, an annual mammogram is recommended. Women 55 and older can get mammograms annually or every two years, based on provider recommendation.

“We can treat breast cancer patients with fewer side effects and with better, targeted therapies,” Shriver said, “and survival rates are better. But early detection is still the best thing.”

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ALIAS
TAY
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MessageSujet: Re: Cancer vaccine for youth is effective et Pittsburgh Pirates   Ven 27 Oct à 10:19

METC graduates first international student from Liberia...

By: Lisa Braun, Medical Education and Training Campus Public Affairs
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Building Partner Capacity and Interoperability

FORT SAM HOUSTON, TEXAS – Private First Class Yardy Collins holds the distinction of being the first international student from Liberia to graduate from the preventive medicine specialist program at the Medical Education and Training Campus on Joint Base San Antonio-Fort Sam Houston October 20.

Collins, from Monrovia, joined the Liberian army because of his desire to save lives, and provide care and treatment to his country and the army. His career goal is to further himself in the medical field, and the preventive medicine course has brought him a step closer.

“I chose to become a preventive medicine specialist because I want to provide good sanitation services to my country,” explained Collins. “My career goal is to be a professional nurse and a public health specialist in line with this unique course.”

According to Mr. Oscar Ramos, director of the U.S. Army Medical Department Center & School, International Programs Division, Collins is one of a selected few Liberian enlisted soldiers to attend METC- hosted programs and the only one to have completed the preventive medicine specialist course from his country and U.S. Africa Command.

The International Programs Division provides direct support to the international military students attending [joint] training under the auspices of the Department of State/ Department of Defense Security Cooperation Education and Training Program.

“The Armed Forces of Liberia enlisted medical personnel train alongside their U.S. counterparts in support of the U.S. Army Surgeon General’s global mission to promote standardization and interoperability throughout the military spectrum, while enhancing partner nations’ medical capabilities,” said Ramos.

In addition to the formal training, Collins also participated in several DoD Field Study Program trips throughout the state of Texas exposing him to U.S. culture, government institutions and human rights, stated Ramos.

Lt. Col. Paul Lang, Army Service Lead for the preventive medicine specialist program, knows first-hand the hardships Liberia faces with regard to adequate sanitation.

“Because of my time working at U.S. Army Africa and, specifically, taking part in the Ebola response in Liberia, I have a deep admiration and respect for the people of Liberia and its army,” said Lang.

“When I learned we would have a Liberian student in the class I was very excited. Pfc. Collins embodies the hard work and spirit of the Liberian people,” Lang continued. “He is a natural leader whose quiet confidence and high standards were infectious to the rest of his peers and improved the experience for others in the class. I know that he will take the knowledge and skills he learned here back to Liberia and make an immediate impact.”

Collins admitted having to overcome some challenges in the course, such as his fear of speaking in front of an audience, learning how to use the computer for on-line research, and anxiety about different teaching methods. However, he was not without support.

“My instructors and the staff were great and helped me overcome my limitations,” Collins said. “When I needed help, they were there for me.”

Les Pirates de Pittsburgh (Pittsburgh Pirates en anglais) sont une franchise de baseball basée à Pittsburgh (Pennsylvanie, États-Unis) évoluant dans la Ligue majeure de baseball.

Palmarès

Champion de Série mondiale (World Series) (5) : 1909, 1925, 1960, 1971, 1979.
Champion de la ligue nationale (9) : 1901, 1902, 1903, 1909, 1925, 1927, 1960, 1971, 1979.
Titres de division (9) : 1970, 1971, 1972, 1974, 1975, 1979, 1990, 1991, 1992.
Meilleur deuxième (3) : 2013, 2014, 2015.

XIXe siècle

Cette franchise fondatrice de l'American Association est fondée en 1882 par Horace Philips sous le nom de Pittsburgh Alleghenys. La première saison est moyenne (39 victoires pour 39 défaites), puis les deux saisons suivantes sont catastrophiques : 31-67 en 1883 puis 30-78 en 1884. Troisième à 22,5 victoires des St. Louis Browns en 1885, les Alleghenys signent leur meilleure saison en American Association en 1886 en accrochant la deuxième place à 12 victoires derrière les intouchables St. Louis Browns. La situation financière de la franchise est alors florissante avec un bénéfice de 160 000 dollars sur la seule saison 1886. La Ligue nationale admet la formation dans ses rangs le 18 novembre 1886.

Après l'effondrement de la Players League à l'automne 1890, la franchise reçoit le soutien financier des anciens propriétaires des Pittsburgh Burghers. L'équipe adopte alors un temps le surnom de Pittsburgh Innocents avant se fixer en 1891 sur Pirates. Ce surnom est hérité d'une affaire où la direction du club fut accusée d'avoir volé le joueur de deuxième but Lou Bierbauer aux Philadelphia Athletics1.

Les Pirates absorbent de nombreux clubs en faillite, ce qui leur permet d'aligner plusieurs excellents joueurs comme l'arrêt-court Honus Wagner et le joueur de champ extérieur Fred Clarke2. Ces joueurs ont d'ailleurs permis à Pittsburgh de remporter plusieurs titres de la Ligue nationale, en 1901, 1902 et 19033.
Les cinq titres
Roberto Clemente

Les Pirates finissent en 1903 à la première place de la Ligue nationale et participent ainsi à la toute première édition de la World Series. Ils sont alors défaits par les Americans de Boston sur le score 5 matchs à 34. Cependant, Pittsburgh se qualifie une nouvelle fois pour la Série mondiale en 1909 et cette fois va remporter son premier titre en défaisant les Tigers de Détroit en sept parties5.

Les Pirates connaissent une période plus noire, après la Seconde Guerre mondiale ne connaissant seulement qu'une saison gagnante jusqu'en 1958, lorsque Danny Murtaugh fut embauché au poste de manager6. Murtaugh est considéré comme l'inventeur de la position de releveur au baseball, car il utilisait fréquemment le lanceur Roy Face pour sauvegarder une avance, lors de parties serrées7. L'édition 1960 de l'équipe contenait huit joueurs invités au Match des étoiles, et elle a avancé en Série mondiale contre les puissants Yankees de New York. Bien que les Pirates aient connu une excellente campagne cette saison-là, les experts prédisaient une victoire de New York. Dans une série des plus relevées, les Pirates s'imposent sur les Yankees en sept matches8.

Dans les années 1960, les Pirates sont guidés par le premier grand joueur portoricain, Roberto Clemente9. Cependant, l'équipe connaît des difficultés, et Murtaugh est remplacé par Harry Walker en 1965.

Après une victoire en 197110, les Pirates remportent leur dernière Série mondiale en 1979.

Hissons nos couleurs Pirates des Caraibes
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ooHfBzps33Q

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Date d'inscription : 09/11/2005

MessageSujet: Re: Cancer vaccine for youth is effective et Pittsburgh Pirates   Ven 27 Oct à 10:19

News | October 26, 2017
Dawn Finds Possible Ancient Ocean Remnants at Ceres.

Minerals containing water are widespread on Ceres, suggesting the dwarf planet may have had a global ocean in the past. What became of that ocean? Could Ceres still have liquid today? Two new studies from NASA's Dawn mission shed light on these questions.

The Dawn team found that Ceres' crust is a mixture of ice, salts and hydrated materials that were subjected to past and possibly recent geologic activity, and that this crust represents most of that ancient ocean. The second study builds off the first and suggests there is a softer, easily deformable layer beneath Ceres' rigid surface crust, which could be the signature of residual liquid left over from the ocean, too.

"More and more, we are learning that Ceres is a complex, dynamic world that may have hosted a lot of liquid water in the past, and may still have some underground," said Julie Castillo-Rogez, Dawn project scientist and co-author of the studies, based at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California.

What's inside Ceres? Gravity will tell.

Landing on Ceres to investigate its interior would be technically challenging and would risk contaminating the dwarf planet. Instead, scientists use Dawn's observations in orbit to measure Ceres' gravity, in order to estimate its composition and interior structure.

The first of the two studies, led by Anton Ermakov, a postdoctoral researcher at JPL, used shape and gravity data measurements from the Dawn mission to determine the internal structure and composition of Ceres. The measurements came from observing the spacecraft's motions with NASA's Deep Space Network to track small changes in the spacecraft's orbit. This study is published in the Journal of Geophysical Research.

Ermakov and his colleagues' research supports the possibility that Ceres is geologically active -- if not now, then it may have been in the recent past. Three craters -- Occator, Kerwan and Yalode -- and Ceres' solitary tall mountain, Ahuna Mons, are all associated with "gravity anomalies." This means discrepancies between the scientists' models of Ceres' gravity and what Dawn observed in these four locations can be associated with subsurface structures.

"Ceres has an abundance of gravity anomalies associated with outstanding geologic features," Ermakov said. In the cases of Ahuna Mons and Occator, the anomalies can be used to better understand the origin of these features, which are believed to be different expressions of cryovolcanism.

The study found the crust's density to be relatively low, closer to that of ice than rocks. However, a study by Dawn guest investigator Michael Bland of the U.S. Geological Survey indicated that ice is too soft to be the dominant component of Ceres' strong crust. So, how can Ceres' crust be as light as ice in terms of density, but simultaneously much stronger? To answer this question, another team modeled how Ceres' surface evolved with time.

A 'Fossil' Ocean at Ceres

The second study, led by Roger Fu at Harvard University in Cambridge, Massachusetts, investigated the strength and composition of Ceres' crust and deeper interior by studying the dwarf planet's topography. This study is published in the journal Earth and Planetary Science Letters

By studying how topography evolves on a planetary body, scientists can understand the composition of its interior. A strong, rock-dominated crust can remain unchanged over the 4.5-billion-year-old age of the solar system, while a weak crust rich in ices and salts would deform over that time.

By modeling how Ceres' crust flows, Fu and colleagues found it is likely a mixture of ice, salts, rock and an additional component believed to be clathrate hydrate. A clathrate hydrate is a cage of water molecules surrounding a gas molecule. This structure is 100 to 1,000 times stronger than water ice, despite having nearly the same density.

The researchers believe Ceres once had more pronounced surface features, but they have smoothed out over time. This type of flattening of mountains and valleys requires a high-strength crust resting on a more deformable layer, which Fu and colleagues interpret to contain a little bit of liquid.

The team thinks most of Ceres' ancient ocean is now frozen and bound up in the crust, remaining in the form of ice, clathrate hydrates and salts. It has mostly been that way for more than 4 billion years. But if there is residual liquid underneath, that ocean is not yet entirely frozen. This is consistent with several thermal evolution models of Ceres published prior to Dawn's arrival there, supporting the idea that Ceres' deeper interior contains liquid left over from its ancient ocean.

The Dawn mission is managed by JPL for NASA's Science Mission Directorate in Washington. Dawn is a project of the directorate's Discovery Program, managed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. UCLA is responsible for overall Dawn mission science. Orbital ATK Inc., in Dulles, Virginia, designed and built the spacecraft. The German Aerospace Center, Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Italian Space Agency and Italian National Astrophysical Institute are international partners on the mission team. For a complete list of mission participants, visit:

https://dawn.jpl.nasa.gov/mission

More information about Dawn is available at the following sites:

https://www.nasa.gov/dawn

https://dawn.jpl.nasa.gov

News Media Contact
Elizabeth Landau
Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif.
(818) 354-6425
Elizabeth.Landau@jpl.nasa.gov

Written by Elyssia Widjaja
NASA-JPL News Office

2017-277

Cette liste présente l'ensemble des joueurs ayant joué pour les Pirates et faisant partie du temple de la renommée du baseball14.

Jake Beckley (1888–1889, 1891–1896)
Jim Bunning (1968–1969)
Max Carey (1910–1926)
Jack Chesbro (1899–1902)
Fred Clarke (Joueur/manager 1900–1915)
Roberto Clemente (1955–1972)
Joe Cronin (1926–1927)
Kiki Cuyler (1921–1927)
Frankie Frisch (Manager 1940–1946)
Pud Galvin (1887–1889, 1891–1892)
Hank Greenberg (1947)
Burleigh Grimes (1916–1917, 1928–1929, 1934)
Ned Hanlon (1889, 1891)
Billy Herman (1947)
Waite Hoyt (1933–1937)
Joe Kelley (1891–1892)
George Kelly (1917)
Ralph Kiner (1946–1953)
Chuck Klein (1939)



Freddie Lindstrom (1933–1934)
Al Lopez (1940–1946)
Connie Mack (1894–1896)
Heinie Manush (1938–1939)
Rabbit Maranville (1921–1924)
Bill Mazeroski (1956–1972)
Bill McKechnie (1907, 1910–1912, 1918, 1920 ; Manager 1922–1926)
Bob Prince (Announcer, 1948–1975)
Willie Stargell (1962–1982)
Casey Stengel (1918–1919)
Pie Traynor (1920–1934 ; Joueur/manager 1934–1939)
Dazzy Vance (1915)
Arky Vaughan (1932–1941)
Rube Waddell (1900–1901)
Honus Wagner (1900–1917 ; Manager, 1917)
Lloyd Waner (1927–1941, 1944–1945)
Paul Waner (1926–1940)
Vic Willis (1906–1909)

Numéros retirés
Honus Wagner

1 Billy Meyer, Manager 1948–1952
4 Ralph Kiner, champ extérieur 1946–1953
8 Willie Stargell, champ extérieur/1re base 1962–1982, instructeur 1985
9 Bill Mazeroski, 2e base 1956–1972, instructeur 1973
11 Paul Waner, champ extérieur 1926–1940
20 Pie Traynor, 3e base 1920–1934, Manager 1934–1939
21 Roberto Clemente, champ extérieur 1955–1972
33 Honus Wagner, arrêt-court 1900–1917, Manager 1917, instructeur 1933–1951
40 Danny Murtaugh, champ intérieur 1948–51, instructeur 1956–57, Manager 1957–1964, 1967, 1970–1973, 1973–1976
42 Jackie Robinson, retiré par la MLB

Honus Wagner n'arborait pas de numéro à l'époque où il était joueur. Le numéro 33 est celui qu'il portait en tant qu'instructeur15.
Autres trophées et honneurs

MVP de la saison (depuis 1911) :
Paul Waner (1927)
Dick Groat (1960)
Roberto Clemente (1966)
Dave Parker (1978)
Willie Stargell (1979)
Barry Bonds (1990 et 1992)
Andrew McCutchen (2013)



Trophée Cy Young (depuis 1956) :
Vern Law (1960)
Doug Drabek (1990)

Prix Roberto Clemente (depuis 1971) :
Willie Stargell (1974)

Recrue de l'année (depuis 1947) :
Jason Bay (2004)

Manager de l'année (depuis 1983) :
Jim Leyland (1992)
Clint Hurdle (2013)

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Date d'inscription : 09/11/2005

MessageSujet: Re: Cancer vaccine for youth is effective et Pittsburgh Pirates   Ven 27 Oct à 10:20

26 October 2017

Last year, a fountain of dust was spotted streaming from Rosetta’s comet, prompting the question: how was it powered? Scientists now suggest the outburst was driven from inside the comet, perhaps released from ancient gas vents or pockets of hidden ice.

The plume was seen by ESA’s Rosetta spacecraft on 3 July 2016, just a few months before the end of the mission and as Comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko was heading away from the Sun at a distance of almost 500 million km.

“We saw a bright plume of dust blowing away from the surface like a fountain,” explains Jessica Agarwal of the Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research in Göttingen, Germany, and lead author of the new paper.

“It lasted for roughly an hour, producing around 18 kg of dust every second.”

Alongside a steep increase in the number of dust particles flowing from the comet, Rosetta also detected tiny grains of water-ice.

The images showed the location of the outburst: a 10 m-high wall around a circular dip in the surface.

Previous plumes, collapsing cliffs and similar features have been seen on the comet, but spotting this one was especially fortunate: as well as imaging the location in detail, Rosetta also sampled the ejected material itself.

“This plume was really special. We have great data from five different instruments on how the surface changed and on the ejected material because Rosetta was, by chance, flying through the plume and looking at the right part of the surface when it happened,” adds Jessica.

“Rosetta hasn’t provided such detailed and comprehensive coverage of an event like this before.”

Initially, scientists thought that the plume might have been surface ice evaporating in the sunlight. However, Rosetta’s measurements showed there had to be something more energetic going on to fling that amount of dust into space.

“Energy must have been released from beneath the surface to power it,” says Jessica. “There are evidently processes in comets that we do not yet fully understand.”
Water ice in Imhotep region

How such energy was released remains unclear. Perhaps it was pressurised gas bubbles rising through underground cavities and bursting free via ancient vents, or stores of ice reacting violently when exposed to sunlight.

“One of Rosetta’s major goals was to understand how a comet works. For example, how does its gaseous envelope form and change over time?” says Matt Taylor, ESA’s Rosetta project scientist.

“Outbursts are interesting because of this, but we weren’t able to predict when or where they would occur – we had to be lucky to capture them.

“Having full, multi-instrument coverage of an outburst like this and its effect on the surface is really valuable for revealing how these events are driven.

“Rosetta scientists are now combining measurements from the comet with computer simulations and laboratory work to find out what drives such plumes on comets.”



Title Comet plume
Released 26/10/2017 11:00 am
Copyright ESA/Rosetta/MPS for OSIRIS Team MPS/UPD/LAM/IAA/SSO/INTA/UPM/DASP/IDA
Description

A plume of dust from Comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko, seen by the OSIRIS wide-angle camera on ESA’s Rosetta spacecraft on 3 July 2016. The shadow of the plume is cast across the basin, in the Imhotep region.

This plume was especially useful from a scientific perspective. As well as observing the site of the plume and the plume itself, Rosetta’s trajectory took it through the ejected material, allowing instruments to collect valuable in situ measurements. Analysis of these data indicates that some as-yet-undetermined source of subsurface energy helped to power the plume.

Full story: Rosetta finds comet plume powered from below
Id 385647


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Pittsburgh, Juneau, San Francisco, Houston, Portland du Maine et de L'Oregon, New York, Honolulu, Washington et The Others.

Surnom
« The Last Frontier » et « the Land of the Midnight Sun »
En français : « La dernière frontière » et « la terre du soleil de minuit ».

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WE ARE UNITED STATE OF AMERICA AND IN GOD WE TRUST...

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L'arrivée Du Rohan En Aide Au Gondor
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q1zbyzAA1pk

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Date d'inscription : 09/11/2005

MessageSujet: Re: Cancer vaccine for youth is effective et Pittsburgh Pirates   Ven 27 Oct à 10:20

A small, recently discovered asteroid -- or perhaps a comet -- appears to have originated from outside the solar system, coming from somewhere else in our galaxy. If so, it would be the first "interstellar object" to be observed and confirmed by astronomers.

This unusual object - for now designated A/2017 U1 - is less than a quarter-mile (400 meters) in diameter and is moving remarkably fast. Astronomers are urgently working to point telescopes around the world and in space at this notable object. Once these data are obtained and analyzed, astronomers may know more about the origin and possibly composition of the object.

A/2017 U1 was discovered Oct. 19 by the University of Hawaii's Pan-STARRS 1 telescope on Haleakala, Hawaii, during the course of its nightly search for near-Earth objects for NASA. Rob Weryk, a postdoctoral researcher at the University of Hawaii Institute for Astronomy (IfA), was first to identify the moving object and submit it to the Minor Planet Center. Weryk subsequently searched the Pan-STARRS image archive and found it also was in images taken the previous night, but was not initially identified by the moving object processing.

Weryk immediately realized this was an unusual object. "Its motion could not be explained using either a normal solar system asteroid or comet orbit," he said. Weryk contacted IfA graduate Marco Micheli, who had the same realization using his own follow-up images taken at the European Space Agency's telescope on Tenerife in the Canary Islands. But with the combined data, everything made sense. Said Weryk, "This object came from outside our solar system."

"This is the most extreme orbit I have ever seen," said Davide Farnocchia, a scientist at NASA's Center for Near-Earth Object Studies (CNEOS) at the agency's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California. "It is going extremely fast and on such a trajectory that we can say with confidence that this object is on its way out of the solar system and not coming back."

The CNEOS team plotted the object's current trajectory and even looked into its future. A/2017 U1 came from the direction of the constellation Lyra, cruising through interstellar space at a brisk clip of 15.8 miles (25.5 kilometers) per second.

The object approached our solar system from almost directly "above" the ecliptic, the approximate plane in space where the planets and most asteroids orbit the Sun, so it did not have any close encounters with the eight major planets during its plunge toward the Sun. On Sept. 2, the small body crossed under the ecliptic plane just inside of Mercury's orbit and then made its closest approach to the Sun on Sept. 9. Pulled by the Sun's gravity, the object made a hairpin turn under our solar system, passing under Earth's orbit on Oct. 14 at a distance of about 15 million miles (24 million kilometers) -- about 60 times the distance to the Moon. It has now shot back up above the plane of the planets and, travelling at 27 miles per second (44 kilometers per second) with respect to the Sun, the object is speeding toward the constellation Pegasus.

"We have long suspected that these objects should exist, because during the process of planet formation a lot of material should be ejected from planetary systems. What's most surprising is that we've never seen interstellar objects pass through before," said Karen Meech, an astronomer at the IfA specializing in small bodies and their connection to solar system formation.

The small body has been assigned the temporary designation A/2017 U1 by the Minor Planet Center (MPC) in Cambridge, Massachusetts, where all observations on small bodies in our solar system -- and now those just passing through -- are collected. Said MPC Director Matt Holman, "This kind of discovery demonstrates the great scientific value of continual wide-field surveys of the sky, coupled with intensive follow-up observations, to find things we wouldn't otherwise know are there."

Since this is the first object of its type ever discovered, rules for naming this type of object will need to be established by the International Astronomical Union.

"We have been waiting for this day for decades," said CNEOS Manager Paul Chodas. "It's long been theorized that such objects exist -- asteroids or comets moving around between the stars and occasionally passing through our solar system -- but this is the first such detection. So far, everything indicates this is likely an interstellar object, but more data would help to confirm it."

The Panoramic Survey Telescope and Rapid Response System (Pan-STARRS) is a wide-field survey observatory operated by the University of Hawaii Institute for Astronomy. The Minor Planet Center is hosted by the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics and is a sub-node of NASA's Planetary Data System Small Bodies Node at the University of Maryland (http://www.minorplanetcenter.net/ ). JPL hosts the Center for Near-Earth Object Studies (CNEOS). All are projects of NASA's Near-Earth Object Observations Program, and elements of the agency's Planetary Defense Coordination Office within NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

More information about asteroids and near-Earth objects can be found at:

https://cneos.jpl.nasa.gov

https://www.jpl.nasa.gov/asteroidwatch

For more information about NASA's Planetary Defense Coordination Office, visit:

https://www.nasa.gov/planetarydefense

For asteroid and comet news and updates, follow AsteroidWatch on Twitter:

twitter.com/AsteroidWatch

News Media Contact
DC Agle
Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif.
818-393-9011
agle@jpl.nasa.gov

Laurie Cantillo / Dwayne Brown
NASA Headquarters, Washington
202-358-1077 / 202-358-1726
laura.l.cantillo@nasa.gov / dwayne.c.brown@nasa.gov

Roy Gal
University of Hawaii, Institute for Astronomy
301-728-8637
roygal@hawaii.edu

2017-278

https://www.jpl.nasa.gov/news/news.php?feature=6983&utm_source=iContact&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=NASAJPL&utm_content=comet20171026

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Nombre de messages : 7497
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Date d'inscription : 09/11/2005

MessageSujet: Re: Cancer vaccine for youth is effective et Pittsburgh Pirates   Ven 27 Oct à 10:20

Smārde est un village au centre du novads d'Engure, en Lettonie. Située dans la partie nord de la région de Sémigalie (Zemgale en letton), la commune est en lisière des grandes forêts de pin de la partie ouest du parc national de Ķemeri.

Histoire

Le nom du village est mentionné pour la première fois en 1253.
Transports

La commune comporte une gare sur la ligne ferroviaire reliant Tukums à Riga.
Liens internes

Village de Lettonie

Liens externes

Portail administratif du canton d'Engure [archive]

Administration
Pays Drapeau de la Lettonie Lettonie
Novads Engures novads
Pagasts Pagasts de Smārde
Code postal LV-3129
Démographie
Population 789 hab.1 (2015)
Géographie
Coordonnées 56° 57′ 18″ nord, 23° 20′ 17″ est
Altitude 20 m

AINSI QUE,

Le lac d'Engure ou Engures ezers est le troisième plus grand lac de Lettonie, après le lac Lubans et le lac Rāzna. Situé entre les régions Zemgale et Kurzeme il s'étend sur 40,46 km21.

Géographie

Le plan d'eau se trouve sur la pleine Maritime (Piejūras zemiene) datant de l'Holocène, qui s'étend sur toute la zone côtière de la Lettonie. Un cordon littoral d'1,5-2,5 km le sépare du golfe de Riga. Le lac comporte douze îles dont la plus importante est la Lielā sala (Grande île).
Hydrologie

L'alimentation du lac est assurée par les cours d'eau, la Dzedrupe, la Dursupe et la Jurģupe. Son émissaire Mērsraga kanāls, créé dans les années 1850, se jette dans le Golg de Riga2. La superficie du bassin du lac s'étend sur 644 km².
Milieu naturel

Le site du lac représente une zone humide avec les rives planes, couvertes en grande partie par la végétation hélophyte. La profondeur moyenne est seulement de 0,4 m et la maximale n'excède 2,1 m. Le fond est constitué de sable mélangé avec les sédiments organiques et les morceaux de dolomite. On y dénombre 800 espèces de plantes et 16 espèces de poissons3.
Protection

Le lac se trouve sur le territoire du parc naturel d'Engure (en letton: Engures ezera dabas parks). La zone humide d'environ 19,7 ha autour est protégée par la Convention de Ramsar, particulièrement comme habitat des oiseaux d'eau. Du côté est se trouve le centre d'étude ornithologique et son observatoire d'oiseaux. La pêche est autorisée sur une partie de l'étendue d'eau3.
Notes et références

↑ (lv) « Engures ezers. » [archive], sur upes.lv (consulté le 11 décembre 2015)
↑ (lv) « Mērsraga kanāls. » [archive], sur vietas.lv (consulté le 11 décembre 2015)
↑ a et b (en) « Lake Engure. » [archive], sur ramsar.org (consulté le 11 décembre 2015)

When it comes to space exploration, many believe America must make a choice between having human "Astros" exploring the solar system or using robotic probes as planet or asteroid "Dodgers."

NASA sees both approaches as essential to expanding the human presence in the universe. But that doesn't mean that two of NASA's centers can't engage in a little friendly rivalry when it comes to their hometown baseball teams competing in the 2017 World Series.

Houston is home to both the American League's Houston Astros and NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC), the hub of human spaceflight, while the Los Angeles area is home to both the National League's L.A. Dodgers and NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in Pasadena, California, one of the pillars of robotic space and planetary missions.

On behalf of their respective centers, JSC Director Ellen Ochoa, who actually is a native Californian, and JPL Director Michael Watkins, who actually is a University of Texas at Austin alumnus, have decided the World Series deserves to be the subject of a little bragging rights wager.

So, here's the contest: If the Houston Astros win the best-of-seven series, Watkins will have to wear an Astros jersey for a day. If the series goes the L.A. Dodgers' way, Ochoa will wear a Dodgers jersey.

"JSC is proud to be a citizen of Houston, and, as such, we are proud of all the city's accomplishments and its great spirit," Ochoa said. "And our team is actually named after our space center, so I'm happy to be able to show support for that, and glad to have a little fun in challenging a center that, except for this week, is our close partner in exploration. I am looking forward to seeing a little bit of Houston at JPL soon."

"JPLers are proud to work and live in the Los Angeles area here in beautiful Southern California," Watkins said. "We love the chance to show our support for this great city, and for the great baseball tradition of the Dodgers. This is a nice way to have a little fun with our good friends at JSC and we hope to see some Dodger blue there shortly."

When it comes to the reality of spaceflight, the two centers have collaborated and compared notes on a variety of space projects for nearly half a century. NASA understands that robotic exploration has always been a precursor to human space exploration and that more and more, we see robots and humans flying together, helping each other explore. Rather than rivals, JSC and JPL are close teammates in expanding our knowledge of the universe and increasing the limits humanity explores.

But in the meantime, JSC invites all Astros fans to "Orange Out" and JPL invites all Dodgers fans to "Bleed Blue." May the best team win!

Follow along on Twitter with the hashtag #OutOfThisWorldSeries and on the JSC and JPL social media accounts as the two baseball teams go head to head:

https://twitter.com/NASA_Johnson

https://twitter.com/NASAJPL

News Media Contact
News media contacts:

Veronica McGregor
Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif.
818-354-9452
veronica.mcgregor@jpl.nasa.gov

Kelly O. Humphries
News Chief / NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston
281-244-5050
kelly.o.humphries@nasa.gov

2017-278

ECRIT DE
TAY LA CHOUETTE EFFRAIE

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Nombre de messages : 7497
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Date d'inscription : 09/11/2005

MessageSujet: Re: Cancer vaccine for youth is effective et Pittsburgh Pirates   Ven 27 Oct à 10:24

Title Cloudy with a chance of protons
Released 26/10/2017 9:27 am
Copyright ESA / E. Serpell
Description

ESA’s Gaia mission, in orbit since December 2013, is surveying more than a thousand million stars in our Galaxy, monitoring each target star about 70 times over a five-year period and precisely charting their positions, distances, movements and brightness.

Although Gaia is not equipped with a dedicated radiation monitor, it can provide information about the space weather – and the solar particles and radiation – that it encounters at its unique orbital position, 1.5 million km from Earth towards the Sun.

In September, Gaia unexpectedly detected a large quantity of protons – subatomic particles – emitted by a solar flare.

In this image, captured by Gaia’s Wave Front Sensor – a sort of ‘camera within a camera’ in its main star-sensing instrument – the streaks of ‘snow’ are trails of individual protons. During normal space weather conditions, the image would only include one or two proton trails. The long trail running horizontally across the image indicates a particularly energetic proton.

This proton storm was also reported by NASA’s GOES weather satellite, which is equipped with a particle-sensing instrument.

The solar flare that gave rise to these protons took place on 10 September 2017, and the peak flow of protons streaming past Gaia occurred at about midnight on 11 September.

“Gaia is designed to withstand these space weather storms and it was able to continue as normal throughout the period of increased radiation,” says spacecraft operations engineer Ed Serpell.

“During the days of the increased radiation, the amount of ground contact with the ESA deep-space network was increased to provide more realtime information about the spacecraft performance. This additional visibility confirmed how well Gaia was performing and no intervention was necessary.”

The storm had some minor, temporary effect on Gaia’s attitude and orbit control system. The excess protons also caused the main science instrument to generate much more data than usual, which had to be offloaded from the onboard memory.

More information

Gaia

Space Situational Awareness

Space Weather Service Network
Id 385695

Le parc national de Ķemeri est un parc national situé en Lettonie. Il est notamment connu pour ses forêts et tourbières.

Il est recouvert à 57% par les forêts, et 24% par des zones humides.

Parc national de Ķemeri
Liela Kemeru taka 5jul03.JPG
Type
National park of Latvia (d)Voir et modifier les données sur Wikidata
Catégorie UICN
II (parc national)
Adresse
Jurmala
Drapeau de la Lettonie Lettonie
Coordonnées
56° 57′ 06″ N, 23° 30′ 45″ E
Superficie
381,65 km2
Création
1997

Arrivée de Dain pied d'acier le hobbit la bataille des cinq armées
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5GcEEQDFgwI

Surnom
« The Last Frontier » et « the Land of the Midnight Sun »
En français : « La dernière frontière » et « la terre du soleil de minuit ».

Devise
North to the Future
« Le Nord vers l'avenir ».

WE ARE UNITED STATE OF AMERICA AND IN GOD WE TRUST...

The Hobbit Battle Of The Five Armies - LA RÉSISTANCE DES RUSSES ET DES AMÉRICAINS DEVANT L’ADVERSITÉ DE LA CONNAISSANCE OU Dwarfs.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5hJ01jEdyeQ

ECRIT DE
TAY LA CHOUETTE EFFRAIE

Lord Of The Rings
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BhjDnrw34QA

Surnom
« The Last Frontier » et « the Land of the Midnight Sun »
En français : « La dernière frontière » et « la terre du soleil de minuit ».

Devise
North to the Future
« Le Nord vers l'avenir ».

NOUS SOMMES LA RÉSISTANCE DE LA LIBERTÉ DEVANT INACCEPTABLE...
NOUS SOMMES LA RÉBELLION CONTRE LE TYRAN ET SON ORGUEIL...
NOUS SOMMES LA DÉMOCRATIE ET SES PARTIS...

PAROLES DU
CITOYEN TIGNARD YANIS
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