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 SIRIMA, SETH L'EPOUX DE NEPHTYS, ISIS ET Y'BECCA

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Nombre de messages : 7155
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Date d'inscription : 09/11/2005

MessageSujet: SIRIMA, SETH L'EPOUX DE NEPHTYS, ISIS ET Y'BECCA   Mer 23 Aoû à 2:21

Petar II Petrović-Njegoš, ou en serbe cyrillique Петар II Петровић Његош, né à Njeguši au Monténégro en 1813 et mort à Cetinje en 1851, est un poète, philosophe, souverain et prince-évêque du Monténégro de 1830 à 1851. Son œuvre est lyrique, épique et dramatique notamment sa légendaire épopée Gorski Vijenac (« La Couronne des montagnes ») qui retrace le combat du peuple du Monténégro contre les Turcs. Petar II Petrović-Njegoš est aussi l'une des plus grandes figures politique et penseur de l'histoire du Monténégro.

Enfance

Radivoje «Rade» Tomov Petrović est né le 13 novembre 1813 (le 1er novembre avec l'ancien calendrier) dans le village de Njeguši, la capitale du district du Monténégro Katunska Nahija, ses parents sont Tomo Markov Petrović et Ivana Proroković Petrović. Il a deux frères, Pero et Jovan, ainsi que deux sœurs. Sa famille est la Maison Petrović-Njegoš, une dynastie qui a fourni des Princes-Évêques au Monténégro depuis plus d'un siècle. Au moment de sa naissance, le Monténégro n'existe pas en tant qu'État moderne. Les frontières de son territoire ne sont pas définies et le Monténégro n'est pas reconnu comme étant indépendant de l'Empire ottoman, tandis que son souverain est un gouverneur imposé par la République de Venise. Le pouvoir est distribué à la suite des chamailleries des chefs de clans, qui ont différemment reconnu l'autorité de l'empire d'Autriche, de la république de Venise, de l'empire ottoman ou de la Métropole du Monténégro et du littoral.
Éducation et nomination

Rade a passé ses premières années à Njeguši. En 1825, son oncle, le prince-évêque Petar Ier Petrović-Njegoš, l'envoie au monastère de Cetinje comme son successeur pour être encadré par un moine, Misail Cvetković et le secrétaire du prince-évêque, Jakov Cek. Il écrit ses premiers poèmes là-bas, dont il se sert pour divertir les chefs locaux et les moines. Le plus célèbre d'entre eux était satirique. Au milieu de l'année, Rade est envoyé au monastère de Topla près de Herceg Novi, où il apprend l'italien, les mathématiques, le chant ecclésiastique, le Psautier et d'autres sujets auprès de l'hiéromoine du monastère, Josip Tropović. Il assiste souvent à des services religieux au proche monastère de Savina, consacré à Saint Sava. Il restera à Topla jusqu'en fin 1826, quand il retourne à Cetinje, la capitale du Monténégro.

Le 20 janvier 1827, le prince-évêque Petar Ier propose Rade comme son successeur au lieu de Đorđije Savov, qui est allé en Russie et est devenu officier de cavalerie. Petar Ier avait voulu envoyer Rade en Russie; faute de moyens, il décide d'éduquer son neveu lui-même. Il lui a enseigné l'italien, le russe et l'allemand, ainsi que les bases de l'anglais et du français. Petar Ier lui donne aussi accès à sa riche bibliothèque. Le prince-évêque nomme l'un des plus grands écrivains serbes de l'époque, Sima Milutinović (de Sarajevo, Bosnie-Herzégovine, qui faisait partie à l'époque de l'empire ottoman), en qualité de précepteur personnel du jeune Rade. Celui-ci lui enseigne la littérature antique, les arts, l'histoire, la philosophie et la littérature.

En 1829, Rade remet à Sima de nombreux poèmes populaires recueillis par ses soins. Le plus célèbre est le chant de l'Esprit National sur la guerre entre l'Impératrice russe Catherine II et le sultan ottoman.
Souverain du Monténégro

Rade est devenu l'évêque de Cetinje et vice-roi du Monténégro Metropolitan le 19 octobre 1830 à l'âge de 17 ans après la mort de son oncle.

Le jour suivant, le 20 octobre, Rade enterre son oncle. Le même jour, Rade devient moine sous l'Archimandrite du monastère de Vranjina et prend le rôle de son oncle décédé. Deux jours plus tard, Rade devient lui-même un Archimandrite, devenant ainsi non officiellement le chef suprême des ecclésiastiques du Monténégro. Le 30 octobre 1830 il envoie une lettre à Jeremija Gagić exposant son pouvoir :

« Il me semble que j'ai dit tout ce que j'ai pu. Seulement parce que j'ai réalisé qu'il est inutile de pleurer, que cela était seulement dommageable pour mes yeux, mais toujours mon cœur douloureux ne laisse mes larmes s'arrêter, je me purge de mon père et bienfaiteur. Tout d'abord, parce que j'ai perdu la grâce du bienfaiteur, d'autre part, parce que le peuple a perdu son pasteur et défenseur qui était un bastion inébranlable de la foi chrétienne et de la liberté, le père défenseur de la patrie et un fidèle allié au trône de Russie jusqu'à ses dernières paroles, qu'il m'a dites sur son lit de mort. Je lui ai demandé : « Seigneur, je vois que vous êtes en train de mourir, mais que vais-je faire maintenant ? » Et il s'assit sur son lit, et commença à me parler : « Je ne peux pas vous aider d'aucune manière maintenant, mais entendez ces derniers mots de moi: prier Dieu et persévérer avec la Russie. » »

Statue de Petar II Petrović-Njegoš à Belgrade

Le Prince-Évêque Radivoje a pris la direction à travers les clans serbes de quatre districts : Katunska Nahija, Lješanska Nahija, Riječka Nahija et Crmnica, ainsi que 4 tribus montagnardes : Bjelopavlići, Piperi, Rovčani et Moračani. Il est le chef ecclésiastique seulement des Bouches de Kotor jusqu'à Shkodër. Il est encore jeune, donc son père Tomo et son oncle le capitaine Lazar Proroković l'aide ainsi que certains grands chefs tribaux.

Fin 1830 - début 1831, le gouverneur Vukolaj Radonjić s'oppose à Radivoje souhaitant mettre fin à la domination de la Maison Njegoš sur le Monténégro.

Lors de l'Assemblée nationale tenue le 17 novembre 1831, Vukolaj Radonjić fut destitué de ses fonctions de gouverneur du Monténégro et remplacé par Sima Milutinović, ancien professeur de Rade1.

Le 31 janvier 1831 sur l'île de Kom dans le monastère de Vranjina, l'archevêque de Rascie-Prizren le déclare officiellement Archimandrite. Radivoj reçoit le nom de Petar II en l'honneur de son prédécesseur. Le Prince-évêque Petar II invite deux envoyés de l'Empire russe d'origine monténégrine à venir l'aider dans son règne : Mateja Vučićević, vice-roi du Monténégro en Russie et son oncle, Ivan Vukotić, un sergent dans l'armée russe1.

Les deux arrivent au Monténégro en septembre de la même année et le 27 septembre ils prennent la décision d'assembler une structure gouvernementale au Monténégro. Un Sénat est formé, présidé par le prince-évêque et composée de 16 sénateurs : les chefs les plus éminents du Monténégro. Le devoir du Sénat est d'agir en tant que gouvernement et Cour suprême. Une garde est formée, elle agi comme branche exécutive du gouvernement. Elle représente 164 membres qui servent de police et de juges itinérants dans des conflits mineurs. Le 6 décembre 1831, Petar II écrit à Jeremija Gagić au sujet de ces réformes :

« (sr)...imam čest Vama objaviti kako se Crnogorci nahode u soglasiju među sobom isti kako su bili ovoga prošloga vremena od kako je blaženopočivšeg mitropolita zavješčanije proglašeno, ali sada je suviše stavljeno upravlenije narodnje, koje upravlenije sostovlja 180 ljudih, iz kojijeh su 16 sovjetnici (senatori), a 164 ispolnitelji (polizia), koje sluša narod dobro i kako je dužnost narodnja svoje starije slušati i sobom odabranima povinovat se. Mene se raduje srdce i duša kada ja viđu moje otečestvo tako složno i kada viđu toliko njihovo počitanije k našemu carju i blagodjetelju i k njihovijema starješinama i glavarima, ali kakva će mi jošt i ovo radost biti kada viđu moje otečestvo đe napreduje u naukama i procvjetava prosvješčenijem i kada ga viđu da počne izlezati svoje prosvješčene i vjerne sinove, koji će ga umjeti braniti ne samo oružjem nego i perom umnim. »

« (fr)...J'ai l'honneur de vous informer comment les Monténégrins s'entendent entre eux aujourd'hui ainsi que par le passé, à l'époque où l'Église était à la tête de l'État, à ceci près que de nos jours ce sont des personnes qui dirigent. Elles sont composées de 180 personnes (16 sénateurs, et 164 policiers), à qui les gens obéissent, notamment par devoir d'obéir à ses supérieurs. Je suis heureux dans le cœur et dans l'âme quand je vois les jeunes générations unies, respectueuses et bienveillantes envers leur roi et tous ceux qui l'entourent. Mais combien je serai heureux de voir mon peuple fidèle avancer dans son apprentissage et ainsi de voir comment ils sauront se défendre, non seulement avec les armes mais aussi avec intelligence et diplomatie. »

Ivan Vukotić devient le premier président du Sénat, tandis que Mateja Vučevićević en devient le premier vice-président. Le siège du Sénat est à Cetinje, tandis que le Siège de la garde est à Rijeka Crnojevića. Petar II est présent à toute assemblée du Sénat, sauf pour la peine capitale, pour laquelle il lui est interdit de participer par le droit canonique. Le Prince-évêque Petar II appelle plus tard ses capitaines à surveiller les clans serbes de son domaine et d'agir comme ses représentants pour les clans, et il a également créé les Grenadiers (Perjanici), la garde d'élite personnelle du Prince-évêque. Il crée également une milice spéciale des frontières ((sr) Panduri - Пандури) pour patrouiller les nouvelles frontières du Monténégro.
Petar II Petrovic-Njegoš sur un billet de 20 dinar serbe

Jusqu'en 1832, Petar a totalement annulé les fonctions du gouverneur, s'octroyant les pleins pouvoirs sur le Monténégro.

Le Prince-évêque Petar II veut élever le prestige du Monténégro sur le plan international. Afin d'y parvenir, après une brève escale à Vienne, il visite l'Empire russe en 1833, où il a été accepté dans les services ecclésiastiques comme Prince-évêque du Monténégro à Saint-Pétersbourg, la capitale. En 1833, juste avant son voyage en Serbie, l'évêque orthodoxe serbe de Užice lui donne l'almanach ((sr) Danica) de 1826 écrit par Vuk Stefanović Karadžić.

Petar II a grandement contribué à l'éducation grâce à la fondation de l'école primaire à Cetinje, la capitale du Monténégro en 1834. Cette année-là, il a également ouvert une imprimerie, à Cetinje, spécifiquement pour l'impression de ses œuvres. Il y a premièrement imprimé l'Ermite de Cetinje. En 1835, les forces Monténégrines capture un canon dans Žabljak.

En 1836, il se rend une nouvelle fois en Russie, faisant à nouveau une courte escale à Vienne. La même année, il publie L'ABC de la langue serbe. En 1838, il a également publié La grammaire serbe. Il a aussi réimprimé les manuels scolaires imprimés à l'origine par son oncle Petar I Petrović-Njegoš Le livre de lecture élémentaire serbe.

Les conflits avec les voisins musulmans de l'Empire ottoman ont été insignifiants. Petar ne peut pas atteindre la grande indépendance de son prédécesseur, le monastère orthodoxe serbe de Stanojevići est acheté par les Autrichiens, tandis que Vranjina et Lesandro sont saisis par le pacha de Shkodër. Bien que Petar II ait toujours soutenu les rebelles contre le pouvoir ottoman et s'est prêté à combattre ouvertement les Ottomans, la politique pacifique de la Russie envers l'Empire ottoman voulait dire qu'aucun succès militaire plus importantes ne pourraient être entrepris.

En 1842, le prince-évêque Petar II construit une autre école élémentaire à Dobrsko Selo. Le 11 juin 1842, le Prince de Serbie Michel III Obrenović et la société de Littérature serbe l'ont élu en qualité de «Membre d'honneur» comme une récompense pour ses mérites dans la littérature et l'enseignement des Serbes. Plus tard, en 1845, il est déclaré Métropolite de Cetinje. La même année, Petar II publie la Lumière de Microcosme, un travail d'écrits philosophiques impressionnant et magistral. En 1846, Petar écrit un recueil de poèmes nationales monténégrins : le Miroir serbe en l'honneur de l'un des plus grands écrivains russes, Alexandre Pouchkine.

En 1846 et 1847, Petar II est à Vienne, la capitale de l'Empire Autrichien. Là, il publie en 1847 La Couronne des montagnes, son ouvrage le plus connu. Il décrit la volonté du peuple serbe de se battre pour la liberté en 2 819 versets. La même année, Njegoš écrit Le faux tsar Étienne le Petit, où il décrit la vie du premier souverain du Monténégro moderne, Étienne le Petit du XVIIIe siècle.

En 1848, le gouvernement de la Principauté de Serbie, dirigée par Ilija Garašanin, dont Njegos dira de lui

« Il n'existe pas un seul serbe que le peuple serbe aime sincèrement et respect plus que vous, et il n'existe pas un seul serbe qui vous aime et respecte plus que moi2 »

" (lettre de Petar II à Garašanin, Cetinje 1850), lui envoie la proposition d'unification des Serbes, des Croates et des Bulgares. Petar est convenu, mais il déclare:

« Les Serbes doivent d'abord s'unifier. Je m'en remets, donc, au patriarche de Peć et au prince serbe de Prizren. L'autorité spirituelle pour moi et laïque pour lui, à travers la nation libre et unie. »

Jean-Jacques Goldman - Là-bas - Hommage à Sirima: "GEB ET NOUT"...
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=muMhhNqjb1M

Mausolée Njegoš à Lovćen

À la fin 1848, début 1849, le prince-évêque Petar II aide les luttes révolutionnaires du Ban de Croatie Josip Jelačić et maintient des liens étroits avec la Principauté de Serbie. Bien que la politique extérieure de Petar II est principalement portée sur la Russie, celle-ci maintient de bonnes relations avec l'Empire ottoman, donc une réconciliation avec les Ottomans pourrait être atteint.

En 1851, le prince-évêque Petar II frappe une monnaie monténégrine : le Perun monténégrin. Petar le fait nommer par la Cour suprême comme un dieu de la mythologie slave.

En 1851, Petar II attrape la tuberculose. Il effectue une visite en Italie, la même année, en essayant de trouver un remède. Il publie dans la foulée son dernier gros ouvrage : du faux tsar Étienne le Petit. Petar II Njegoš meurt à Cetinje, de la tuberculose, le 31 octobre 1851 (exactement 21 an après son accession au trône). Il est enterré dans une petite chapelle au-dessus de Mont Lovćen où son mausolée a été construit. Au cours de la période du régime communiste en Yougoslavie, il a été démoli pour des raisons idéologiques par les autorités pour faire place à un monument civil.
L'Écrivain
Petar II Petrović Njegoš
Петар II Петровић Његош
Données clés Naissance 13 novembre 1813
Activité principale
Prêtre orthodoxe, poète, dramaturge
Auteur Mouvement Classicisme, romantisme
Genres
Drame, poésie épique, littérature Philosophique

Compléments

influence : John Milton, Sima Milutinović Sarajlija, la poésie épique Serbe

modifier Consultez la documentation du modèle

Il est aussi l'auteur du Srpski bukvar, «bréviaire de l'alphabet serbe», qui était pour lui, homme de l'Église orthodoxe serbe préférant le cyrillique.

Pour Petar II Petrović-Njegoš, le Monténégro est «le saint temple de la gloire serbe et le nid des Serbes», tandis que les Monténégrins sont «le peuple du Monténégro serbe, le cœur de la liberté serbe».

En 1834, il invita à Cetinje Vuk Stefanović Karadžić pour qu'il livre à l'assemblée des clans, son alphabet et sa réforme de la langue. Les deux hommes de culture devinrent amis.
Principaux ouvrages
Couverture de Gorski Vijenac ((fr) La Couronne des montagnes)

Gorski Vijenac (La couronne des montagnes (en)) (1847, Vienne; (sr)Горскій віенацъ: историческо событіє при свршетку XVII віека)
La lumière du microcosme (1845, Belgrade, (sr)Луча Микрокозма)
Le faux tsar Étienne le Petit (écrit en 1847, 1851, Trieste; (sr)Лажни цар Шћепан Мали: историческо збитије осамнаестога вијека)
Le miroir Serbe (1846, Belgrade; (sr)Огледало Србско)

Autres ouvrages

L'ermite de Cetinje (écrit à Cetinje en 1833; imprimé en 1834 à Cetinje; (sr)Пустиняк Цетински)
Remède pour une fureur Turque (1834, Cetinje; (sr)Ліек Ярости Турске)
La voix du tailleur de pierre (1834, Cetinje; (sr)Глас каменштака)
Un Serbe remerci les Serbes pour l'honneur (1834, Cetinje; (sr)Србин Србима на части захваљује)
Ode à l'affirmation du trône de Ferdinand I comme empereur d'Autriche et roi de Hongrie (1835, Cetinje; (sr)Ода ступлѣня на престолъ Фердинанда I Императора Аустрискога и Краля Маџарскога и пр. и пр. и пр.)
trois jours à Trieste au mois de janvier 1844 (Vienne, Monastère Arménien, 1844; (sr)Три дана у Тріесту у мѣсецу Януарию 1844)
La tour de Đurišić et le château de Aleksić (1850, Vienne; (sr)Кула Ђуришића и Чардак Алексића 1847 године)
Le son de la liberté (1854, Zemun, posthume; (sr)Слободіяда: епійскій спѣвъ у десетъ пѣсама)
Les accords de Njegoš (1956, Cetinje, Institut Historique, posthume; (sr)Његошева биљежница)

Œuvres en français

Édition sur Wikisource Les lauriers de la Montagne (trad. Divna Veković, préf. Henri de Régnier), Paris, éditions Berger-Levrault, 1917 Fac-similé disponible sur Wikisource
La Lumière du microcosme, Lausanne, Suisse, Éditions L'Âge d'homme, 2009 (ISBN 978-2825139714)
La Couronne des montagnes, Vevey, Suisse, Xenia Éditions, 2009 (ISBN 978-2888920298)
La Couronne de montagne, Paris, Non Lieu, 2010. Présentation et traduction d'Antoine Sidoti.
La Couronne de la Montagne, L'Âge d'Homme, 2011, collection des Classiques slaves, édition bilingue, traduction française en décasyllabes de Vladimir André Cejovic et Anne Renoue.
Le Faux tsar Scepan le Petit, L'Âge d'Homme, 2015, collection des Classiques slaves, édition bilingue, traduction de Vladimir André Cejovic et Anne Renoue

Voir aussi

Sur les autres projets Wikimedia :

Petar II Petrović-Njegoš, sur Wikimedia Commons Petar II Petrović-Njegoš, sur Wikisource

Bibliographie

Jean-Paul Besse, Niégoch, un Dante slave, 2014, Via Romana (ISBN 979-10-90029-79-Cool [présentation en ligne [archive]]

Articles connexes

Maison Petrović-Njegoš
Les 100 Serbes les plus éminents

Source externe

Le Monténégro Université de Laval [archive]

Liens externes

Les Lauriers de la montagne [archive], en ligne sur la Bibliothèque russe et slave [archive]
(en) liste des souverains du Monténégro [archive]
(en) Version anglaise de La Couronne de la Montagne, The Mountain Wreath [archive]
(sr-ME-Cyrl)Biographie de Petar II Petrović-Njegoš [archive]

Notes et références

↑ a et b page 219, Histoire du peuple serbe, Dusan T Batakovic et Ljubomir Mihailovic sur google books [archive]
↑ Dusan T.Batakovic, Histoire du peuple serbe 2005, éditions L'Age d'Homme (ISBN 2-8251-1958-X), page 155


La voleuse de livres
Drame - Etats-Unis - Allemagne (2013)


Synopsis
La voleuse de livres
En 1938, la jeune Liesel, dont la mère ne peut plus s'occuper,
est recueillie par les Hubermann, un couple vivant près de Munich.
Si le contact avec sa nouvelle mère est difficile, elle s'entend bien
avec père adoptif, Hans, qui lui apprend à lire. Dans le même temps,
Liesel se lie d'amitié avec le jeune Rudy. Mais alors que le climat politique
se dégrade de plus en plus, Max, un jeune juif, dont le père a jadis
sauvé Hans, trouve refuge chez les Hubermann.

CRITIQUES DE LA RÉDACTION
La jeune Sophie Nélisse livre une superbe interprétation
dans cette adaptation hollywoodienne du best-seller éponyme publié
en 2005 par l'Australien Markus Zusak. Malgré quelques longueurs,
ce film sur l'enfance confrontée à la guerre s'avère émouvant.
Brian Percival signe une belle fable humaniste, servie par une mise
en scène soignée et une interprétation impeccable
(Geoffrey Rush et Emily Watson en têtes).

Jean-Jacques Goldman - Là-bas - Hommage à Sirima
Revenir en haut Aller en bas
Voir le profil de l'utilisateur http://www.atelier-yannistignard.com
yanis la chouette



Nombre de messages : 7155
Localisation : http://yanis.tignard.free.fr/
Date d'inscription : 09/11/2005

MessageSujet: Re: SIRIMA, SETH L'EPOUX DE NEPHTYS, ISIS ET Y'BECCA   Mer 23 Aoû à 2:31

Nephthys (Greek: Νέφθυς) or Nebthet or Neber-Het was a goddess
in ancient Egyptian religion. A member of the Great Ennead of Heliopolis
in Egyptian mythology, she was a daughter of Nut and Geb.
Nephthys was typically paired with her sister Isis in funerary rites[1]
because of their role as protectors of the mummy and the god Osiris
and as the sister-wife of Set.

Nephthys is the Greek form of an epithet (transliterated as Nebet-het,
and Nebt-het, from Egyptian hieroglyphs).The origin of the goddess
Nephthys is unclear but the literal translation of her name is usually given
as "Lady of the House", which has caused some to mistakenly identify
her with the notion of a "housewife", or as the primary lady who ruled
a domestic household. This is a pervasive error repeated
in many commentaries concerning this deity. Her name means
quite specifically, "Lady of the [Temple] Enclosure" which associates her
with the role of priestess[citation needed].

This title, which may be more of an epithet describing her function than a
given name, probably indicates the association of Nephthys with
one particular temple or some specific aspect of the Egyptian temple ritual.
Along with her sister Isis, Nephthys represented the temple pylon
or trapezoidal tower gateway entrance to the temple which
also displayed the flagstaff. This entrance way symbolised
the horizon or akhet.
Function
Part of a series on
Ancient Egyptian religion
Eye of Horus
Beliefs
[show]
Practices
[show]
Deities
[show]
Texts
[show]
Related religions
[show]
Pyramidi aavikolla.png Ancient Egypt portal

v t e

At the time of the Fifth Dynasty Pyramid Texts, Nephthys appears
as a goddess of the Heliopolitan Ennead. She is the sister of Isis and
companion of the war-like deity, Set. As sister of Isis and especially Osiris,
Nephthys is a protective goddess who symbolizes the death experience,
just as Isis represented the (re)birth experience.

Nephthys was known in some ancient Egyptian temple theologies
and cosmologies as the "Useful Goddess" or the "Excellent Goddess".
[2] These late Ancient Egyptian temple texts describe a goddess
who represented divine assistance and protective guardianship.

Nephthys is regarded as the mother of the funerary-deity Anubis (Inpu)
in some myths.[3][4] Alternatively Anubis appears as the son of Bastet[5]
or Isis.[6]

As the primary "nursing mother" of the incarnate Pharaonic-god, Horus,
Nephthys also was considered to be the nurse of the reigning Pharaoh
himself.[7] Though other goddesses could assume this role, Nephthys
was most usually portrayed in this function. In contrast Nephthys
is sometimes featured as a rather ferocious and dangerous divinity,
capable of incinerating the enemies of the Pharaoh with her fiery breath.[8]

New Kingdom Ramesside Pharaohs, in particular, were enamored
of Mother Nephthys, as is attested in various stelae and a wealth
of inscriptions at Karnak and Luxor, where Nephthys was a member
of that great city's Ennead and her altars were present in the massive complex.[9]
Triad of Isis, Nephthys, and Harpocrates. Early Greco-Roman. Walters Museum

Nephthys was typically paired with her sister Isis in funerary rites[1]
because of their role as protectors of the mummy and the god Osiris
and as the sister-wife of Set.

Less well understood than her sister Isis, Nephthys was no less important
in Egyptian Religion as confirmed by the work of E. Hornung,[10]
along with the work of several noted scholars.

"Ascend and descend; descend with Nephthys, sink into darkness
with the Night-bark. Ascend and descend; ascend with Isis,
rise with the Day-bark."

Pyramid Text Utterance 222 line 210.[11]
Symbolism

In the funerary role, Nephthys often was depicted as a kite,
or as a woman with falcon wings, usually outstretched as
a symbol of protection. Nephthys's association with the kite
or the Egyptian hawk (and its piercing, mournful cries)
evidently reminded the ancients of the lamentations usually
offered for the dead by wailing women. In this capacity,
it is easy to see how Nephthys could be associated
with death and putrefaction in the Pyramid Texts.
She was, almost without fail, depicted as crowned
by the hieroglyphics signifying her name, which were
a combination of signs for the sacred temple enclosure (hwt),
along with the sign for neb, or mistress (Lady), on top of the enclosure sign.[12]

Nephthys was clearly viewed as a morbid-but-crucial force
of heavenly transition, i.e., the Pharaoh becomes strong
for his journey to the afterlife through the intervention
of Isis and Nephthys. The same divine power could be applied
later to all of the dead, who were advised to consider Nephthys
a necessary companion. According to the Pyramid Texts, Nephthys,
along with Isis, was a force before whom demons trembled in fear,
and whose magical spells were necessary for navigating the various
levels of Duat, as the region of the afterlife was termed.

It should here be noted that Nephthys was not necessarily viewed
as the polar opposite of Isis, but rather as a different reflection
of the same reality: eternal life in transition. Thus, Nephthys was
also seen in the Pyramid Texts as a supportive cosmic force occupying
the night-bark on the journey of Ra, the majestic sun god,
particularly when he entered Duat at the transitional time of dusk,
or twilight. Isis was Ra's companion at the coming of dawn.
Mythology and position in the Pantheon
Nephthys and Set

Though it commonly has been assumed that Nephthys was married
to Set and they have a son Anubis, recent Egyptological research
has called this into question. Levai notes that while Plutarch's
De Iside et Osiride mentions the deity's marriage, there is very little
specifically linking Nephthys and Set in the original early Egyptian sources.
She argues that the later evidence suggests that:

while Nephthys's marriage to Set was a part of Egyptian mythology,
it was not a part of the myth of the murder and resurrection of Osiris.
She was not paired with Set the villain, but with Set's other aspect,
the benevolent figure who was the killer of Apophis. This was the aspect
of Set worshiped in the western oases during the Roman period,
where he is depicted with Nephthys as co-ruler.[13]

The savior of her brother Osiris
Nephthys - Greco-Roman era painted image on a linen and tempera shroud - c. 300-200 B.C. - Metropolitan Museum of Art
Isis - Greco-Roman era painted image on a linen and tempera shroud - c. 300-200 B.C. - Metropolitan Museum of Art

Nephthys plays an important role in the Osirian myth cycle.

It is Nephthys who assists Isis in gathering and mourning the dismembered portions of the body of Osiris, after his murder by the envious Set. Nephthys also serves as the nursemaid and watchful guardian of the infant Horus. The Pyramid Texts refer to Isis as the "birth-mother" and to Nephthys as the "nursing-mother" of Horus. Nephthys was attested as one of the four "Great Chiefs" ruling in the Osirian cult-center of Busiris, in the Delta[14] and she appears to have occupied an honorary position at the holy city of Abydos. No cult is attested for her there, though she certainly figured as a goddess of great importance in the annual rites conducted, wherein two chosen females or priestesses played the roles of Isis and Nephthys and performed the elaborate 'Lamentations of Isis and Nephthys'. There, at Abydos, Nephthys joined Isis as a mourner in the shrine known as the Osireion.[15] These "Festival Songs of Isis and Nephthys" were ritual elements of many such Osirian rites in major ancient Egyptian cult-centers.

As a mortuary goddess like Isis, Neith, and Serqet, Nephthys was one of the protectresses of the Canopic jars of the Hapi. Hapi, one of the Sons of Horus, guarded the embalmed lungs. Thus we find Nephthys endowed with the epithet, "Nephthys of the Bed of Life",[16] in direct reference to her regenerative priorities on the embalming table. In the city of Memphis, Nephthys was duly honored with the title "Queen of the Embalmer's Shop", and there associated with the jackal-headed god Anubis as patron.[17]

Nephthys was also considered a festive deity whose rites could mandate the liberal consumption of beer. In various reliefs at Edfu, Dendera, and Behbeit, Nephthys is depicted receiving lavish beer-offerings from the Pharaoh, which she would "return", using her power as a beer-goddess "that [the pharaoh] may have joy with no hangover". Elsewhere at Edfu, for example, Nephthys is a goddess who gives the Pharaoh power to see "that which is hidden by moonlight". This fits well with more general textual themes that consider Nephthys to be a goddess whose unique domain was darkness, or the perilous edges of the desert.

Nephthys could also appear as one of the goddesses who assists at childbirth. An ancient Egyptian myth preserved in the Papyrus Westcar recounts the story of Isis, Nephthys, Meskhenet, and Heqet as traveling dancers in disguise, assisting the wife of a priest of Amun-Re as she prepares to bring forth sons who are destined for fame and fortune.

Nephthys's healing skills and status as direct counterpart of Isis, steeped, as her sister in "words of power", are evidenced by the abundance of faience amulets carved in her likeness, and by her presence in a variety of magical papyri that sought to summon her famously altruistic qualities to the aid of mortals.[18]
New Kingdom cults
A mummy rests on a sacred boat guarded by Anubis. Above, figures of Osiris, Isis, and Nephthys. Sandstone stela. From Egypt, 332 BCE to 395 CE. Kelvingrove Art Gallery and Museum, Glasgow, UK

The Ramesside Pharaohs were particularly devoted to Set's prerogatives and, in the 19th Dynasty, a temple of Nephthys called the "House of Nephthys of Ramesses-Meriamun" was built or refurbished in the town of Sepermeru, midway between Oxyrhynchos and Herakleopolis, on the outskirts of the Fayyum and quite near to the modern site of Deshasheh. Here, as Papyrus Wilbour notes in its wealth of taxation records and land assessments, the temple of Nephthys was a specific foundation by Ramesses II, located in close proximity to (or within) the precinct of the enclosure of Set. To be certain, the House of Nephthys was one of fifty individual, land-owning temples delineated for this portion of the Middle Egyptian district in Papyrus Wilbour. The fields and other holdings belonging to Nephthys's temple were under the authority of two Nephthys-prophets (named Penpmer and Merybarse) and one (mentioned) wa'ab priest of the goddess.

While certainly affiliated with the "House of Set", the Nephthys temple at Sepermeru and its apportioned lands (several acres) clearly were under administration distinct from the Set institution.[19] The Nephthys temple was a unique establishment in its own right, an independent entity. According to Papyrus Wilbour,[20] another "House of Nephthys of Ramesses-Meriamun" seems to have existed to the north, in the town of Su, closer to the Fayyum region.

Another temple of Nephthys seems to have existed in the town of Punodjem. The Papyrus Bologna records a complaint lodged by a prophet of the temple of Set in that town regarding undue taxation in his regard. After making an introductory appeal to "Re-Horakhte, Set, and Nephthys" for the ultimate resolution of this issue by the royal Vizier, the prophet (named Pra'emhab) laments his workload. He notes his obvious administration of the "House of Set" and adds: "I am also responsible for the ship, and I am responsible likewise for the House of Nephthys, along with a heap of other temples."[21]

As "Nephthys of Ramesses-Meriamun", the goddess and her shrines were under the particular endorsement of Ramesses II. The foundations of the Set and Nephthys temples at Sepermeru finally were discovered and identified in the 1980s, and the Nephthys temple was a self-sustaining temple complex within the Set enclosure.[22]

There can be little doubt that a cult of Nephthys existed in the temple and great town of Herakleopolis, north of Sepermeru. A near life-sized statue of Nephthys (currently housed in the Louvre) boasts a curiously altered inscription. The basalt image originally was stationed at Medinet-Habu, as part of the cultic celebration of the Pharaonic "Sed-Festival", but was transferred at some point to Herakleopolis and the temple of Herishef. The cult-image's inscription originally pertained to "Nephthys, Foremost of the Sed [Festival] in the Booth of Annals" (at Medinet-Habu), but was re-inscribed or re-dedicated to "Nephthys, Foremost of the [Booths of] Herakleopolis". A "prophet of Nephthys" is indeed attested for the town of Herakleopolis in the 30th Dynasty.[23]
Chief goddess of Nome VII

Nephthys was considered the unique protectress of the Sacred Phoenix, or the Bennu Bird. This role may have stemmed from an early association in her native Heliopolis, which was renowned for its "House of the Bennu" temple. In this role, Nephthys was given the name "Nephthys-Kheresket", and a wealth of temple texts from Edfu, Dendera, Philae, Kom Ombo, El Qa'la, Esna, and others corroborate the late identification of Nephthys as the supreme goddess of Upper Egyptian Nome VII, where another shrine existed in honor of the Bennu. Nephthys also was the goddess of the "Mansion of the Sistrum" in Hwt-Sekhem (Gr. Diospolis Parva), the chief city of Nome VII. There, Nephthys was the primary protectress of the resident Osirian relic, of the Bennu Bird, and of the local Horus/Osiris manifestation, the god Neferhotep.[24]

Nephthys was most widely and usually worshipped in ancient Egypt as part of a consortium of temple deities. Therefore, it should not surprise us that her cult images could likely be found as part of the divine entourage in temples at Kharga, Kellis, Deir el-Hagar, Koptos, Dendera, Philae, Sebennytos, Busiris, Shenhur, El Qa'la, Letopolis, Heliopolis, Abydos, Thebes, Dakleh Oasis, and indeed throughout Egypt.[25] In most cases, Nephthys found her typical place as part of a triad alongside Osiris and Isis, or Isis and Horus, or Isis and Min, or as part of a quartet of deities. It is perhaps in this way that Nephthys best fulfilled her role as an important national deity whose ideal function was to provide powerful assistance to her associates in a great variety of temple cults—a truly "Useful" and "Excellent" goddess, as her primary epithets reflect.
In popular culture
Main article: Ancient Egyptian deities in popular culture § Nephthys
References

Abeer El-Shahawy books.google.co.uk The funerary art of Ancient Egypt: a bridge to the realm of the hereafter (106 pages) American University in Cairo Press, 2005 ISBN 977-17-2353-7 [Retrieved 2011-12-12]
P. Wilson, 'A Ptolemaic Lexikon: A Lexicographical Study of the Texts in the Temple of Edfu', OLA 78, 1997
G. A. Wainwright, Seshat and the Pharaoh, The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, Vol. 26, (Feb., 1941), pp. 30-40
Virginia Schomp, The Ancient Egyptians, Marshall Cavendish, 2007, p. 27
A. K. Eyma, A Delta-man in Yebu, Universal-Publishers, 2003; Page 219 in the article On a Topos in Egyptian Medical History by Hedvig Györy
Donald B. Redford, The Literary Motif of the Exposed Child (cf. Ex. ii 1-10), Numen, Vol. 14, Fasc. 3. (Nov. 1967), pp. 209-228. The discussion of Isis as the mother of Anubis appears on pages 222 and 223
K.A. Kitchen, Ramesside Inscriptions, 1993, Blackwell
Sauneron, Elephantine, Beitrage Bf. 6, 46 n.d.; Traunecker, Karnak VII, 184 n. 2; Cauville, 'Essai,' 152 n.7
B. Porter/R. Moss, Topographical Bibliography of Ancient Egyptian Hieroglyphic Texts, Reliefs, and Paintings. II. Theban Temples. Oxford Second Edition
Versuch über Nephthys, in: A. B. Lloyd [Hrsg.], Studies in Pharaonic Religion and Society in Honour of J. G. Griffiths, London 1992, 186-188
Ancient Egyptian Pyramid Texts, R.O. Faullkner, Oxford University Press 1969.
James P. Allen, Peter Der Manuelian, 'The Pyramid Texts' SBL, 2005
Levai, Jessica. "Nephthys and Seth: Anatomy of a Mythical Marriage", Paper presented at The 58th Annual Meeting of the American Research Center in Egypt, Wyndham Toledo Hotel, Toledo, Ohio, Apr 20, 2007.http://www.allacademic.com/meta/p176897_index.html
The Book of the Dead, Theban Recension
Byron Esely Shafer, Dieter Arnold, Temples in Ancient Egypt, p. 112, 2005
Tomb of Tuthmosis III, Dynasty XVIII
J. Berlandini, p. 41-62, Varia Memphitica, VI - La stèle de Parâherounemyef, BIFAO 82
A. Gutbub, J. Bergman, Nephthys découverte dans un papyrus magique in Mélanges, Publications de la recherche, université de Montpellier, Montpellier, FRANCE, 1984
'Land Tenure in the Ramesside Period' by S. Katary, 1989
Section 1. 28
Papyrus Bologna 1094, 5, 8-7, 1
'Les Deesses de l'Egypte Pharaonique', R. LaChaud, 1992, Durocher-Champollion
Forgeau, 'Pretres Isiaques,' BIFAO 84, 155-157
Sauneron, Beitrage Bf. 6, 46; C. Traunecker, Le temple d'El-Qal'a. Relevés des scènes et des textes. I' Sanctuaire central. Sanctuaire nord. Salle des offrandes 1 à 112
BIFAO website

DANS LA MYTHOLOGIE ÉGYPTIENNE, ELLE EST MA PERSONNALITÉ FAVORITE
AVEC THOT, L'IBIS-SCRIBE COMME FAVORI MASCULIN. THOT EST UN PÈRE
MORALE POUR NEPHTYS ET ELLE EST SA COSSETTE À SES YEUX: FIDÈLE
À SETH, ELLE DOIT SA NAISSANCE DE ANUBIS SOIT PAR LE BIAIS DE L'ADOPTION
OU ALORS PAR SON ÉTHIQUE HIMALAYENNE...
ECRIT DE YANIS TIGNARD. EN TOUT CAS, ELLE EST POUR MOI ÉGALE
EN TERME DE LOYAUTÉ AU MÊME TITRE QUE ANTIGONE ENVERS SA FAMILLE
ET CASSANDRE DEVANT LE MONDE. UNE RÉALITÉ DE LA RÉFÉRENCE
ET MÊME SI ELLE EST LA GARDIENNE DES ENFERS:
ELLE RECÈLE PLUS DE BIEN QUE CERTAINS ASPECTS DISTINCTS
DE LA LOYAUTÉ ENVERS LE NARCISSISME.
REMARQUE DE TAY LA CHOUETTE EFFRAIE
ENVERS LES ÉGYPTOLOGUES ET AUTRES HISTORIENS DES ARCHIVES.

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MessageSujet: Re: SIRIMA, SETH L'EPOUX DE NEPHTYS, ISIS ET Y'BECCA   Mer 23 Aoû à 2:55

Protector of Ra
Set spears Apep.

Set was depicted standing on the prow of Ra's night barque defeating Apep, who is usually in the form of a serpent, sometimes turtle or other dangerous water animals. In some Late Period representations, such as in the Persian Period temple at Hibis in the Khargah Oasis, Set was represented in this role with a falcon's head, taking on the guise of Horus. In the Amduat Set is described as having a key role in overcoming Apep.
Set in the Second Intermediate and Ramesside Periods
Set and Horus adore Ramesses in the small temple at Abu Simbel.

During the Second Intermediate Period (1650–1550 BC), a group of Asiatic foreign chiefs known as the Hyksos (literally, "rulers of foreign lands") gained the rulership of Egypt, and ruled the Nile Delta, from Avaris. They chose Set, originally Upper Egypt's chief god, the god of foreigners and the god they found most similar to their own chief god, as their patron. Set then became worshiped as the chief god once again. The Hyksos King Apophis is recorded as worshiping Set exclusively, as described in the following passage:

[He] chose for his Lord the god Seth. He did not worship any other deity in the whole land except Seth.
— Papyrus Sallier 1 (Apophis and Sekenenre)[14]

Jan Assmann argues that because the ancient Egyptians could never conceive of a "lonely" god lacking personality, Seth the desert god, who was worshiped on his own, represented a manifestation of evil.[15]

When, c. 1522 BC, Ahmose I overthrew the Hyksos and expelled them, Egyptians' attitudes towards Asiatic foreigners became xenophobic, and royal propaganda discredited the period of Hyksos rule. The Set cult at Avaris flourished, nevertheless, and the Egyptian garrison of Ahmose stationed there became part of the priesthood of Set.

The founder of the Nineteenth Dynasty, Ramesses I came from a military family from Avaris with strong ties to the priesthood of Set. Several of the Ramesside kings were named after the god, most notably Seti I (literally, "man of Set") and Setnakht (literally, "Set is strong"). In addition, one of the garrisons of Ramesses II held Set as its patron deity, and Ramesses II erected the so-called Four Hundred Years' Stele at Pi-Ramesses, commemorating the 400-year anniversary of the Set cult in the Delta.

Set also became associated with foreign gods during the New Kingdom, particularly in the Delta. Set was also identified by the Egyptians with the Hittite deity Teshub, who, like Seth, was a storm god.

Set /sɛt/ or Seth (/sɛθ/; also spelled Setesh, Sutekh,[1] Setekh, or Suty) is a god of the desert, storms, disorder, violence, and foreigners in ancient Egyptian religion.[2] In Ancient Greek, the god's name is given as Sēth (Σήθ). Set had a positive role where he is employed by Ra on his solar boat to repel Apep, the serpent of Chaos.[2] Set had a vital role as a reconciled combatant.[2] He was lord of the red (desert) land where he was the balance to Horus' role as lord of the black (soil) land.[2]

In Egyptian mythology, Set is portrayed as the usurper who killed and mutilated his own brother Osiris. Osiris' wife Isis reassembled Osiris' corpse and resurrected him long enough to conceive his son and heir Horus. Horus sought revenge upon Set, and the myths describe their conflicts. This Osiris myth is a prominent theme in Egyptian mythology.

Contents

1 Family
2 Origin
3 Set animal
4 Conflict between Horus and Set
5 Protector of Ra
6 Set in the Second Intermediate and Ramesside Periods
7 Demonization of Set
8 Temples
9 In modern religion
10 In popular culture
11 References
12 Bibliography
13 External links

Family

Set's siblings are Osiris, Isis, and Nephthys. He married Nephthys and fathered Anubis; and in some accounts he had relationships with the foreign goddesses Anat, and Astarte.[3]
Origin

The meaning of the name Seth is unknown, thought to have been originally pronounced *Sūtaḫ based on the occurrence of his name in Egyptian hieroglyphs (swtḫ), and his later mention in the Coptic documents with the name ⲥⲏⲧ Sēt.[4][5]
Set animal
Main article: Set animal

In art, Set is usually depicted as an enigmatic creature referred to by Egyptologists as the Set animal, a beast resembling no known creature, although it could be seen as a composite of an aardvark, a donkey, a jackal or a fennec fox. The animal has a curved snout, long rectangular ears, a thin forked tail and canine body, with sprouted fur tufts in an inverted arrow shape; sometimes, Set is depicted as a human with the distinctive head. Some early Egyptologists proposed that it was a stylised representation of the giraffe, owing to the large flat-topped "horns" which correspond to a giraffe's ossicones. The Egyptians themselves, however, made a distinction between the giraffe and the Set animal. During the Late Period, Set is depicted as a donkey or as having a donkey's head.[6]

The earliest representations of what might be the Set animal comes from a tomb dating to the Naqada I phase of the Predynastic Period (3790 BC–3500 BC), though this identification is uncertain. If these are ruled out, then the earliest Set animal appears on a mace head of the King Scorpion, a ruler of the Protodynastic Period. The head and the forked tail of the Set animal are clearly present.[7]
Conflict between Horus and Set

In the mythology of Heliopolis, Set was born of the sky goddess Nut and the earth god Geb. Set's sister and wife was Nephthys. Nut and Geb also produced another two children who became husband and wife: the divine Osiris and Isis, whose son was Horus. The myth of Set's conflict with Horus, Osiris, and Isis appears in many Egyptian sources, including the Pyramid Texts, the Coffin Texts, the Shabaka Stone, inscriptions on the walls of the temple of Horus at Edfu, and various papyrus sources. The Chester Beatty Papyrus No. 1 contains the legend known as The Contendings of Horus and Set. Classical authors also recorded the story, notably Plutarch's De Iside et Osiride.[8]

These myths generally portray Osiris as a wise lord, king, and bringer of civilization, happily married to his sister, Isis. Set was envious of his brother, and he killed and dismembered Osiris. Isis reassembled Osiris' corpse and embalmed him. As the archetypal mummy, Osiris reigned over the afterworld as a king among deserving spirits of the dead. Osiris' son Horus was conceived by Isis with Osiris' corpse. Horus naturally became the enemy of Set, and had many battles against Set for the kingship of Egypt. During these battles, Set was associated with Upper Egypt while Horus became Lower Egypt's patron.

According to Papyrus Chester-Beatty I, Set is depicted as trying to prove his dominance by seducing Horus and then having intercourse with him. However, Horus places his hand between his thighs and catches Set's semen, then subsequently throws it in the river, so that he may not be said to have been inseminated by Set. Horus then deliberately spreads his own semen on some lettuce, which was Set's favorite food. After Set had eaten the lettuce, they went to the gods to try to settle the argument over the rule of Egypt. The gods first listened to Set's claim of dominance over Horus, and call his semen forth, but it answered from the river, invalidating his claim. Then, the gods listened to Horus' claim of having dominated Set, and call his semen forth, and it answered from inside Set.[9][10] However, Set still refused to relent, and the other gods were getting tired from over eighty years of fighting and challenges. Horus and Set challenged each other to a boat race, where they each raced in a boat made of stone. Horus and Set agreed, and the race started. But Horus had an edge: his boat was made of wood painted to resemble stone, rather than true stone. Set's boat, being made of heavy stone, sank, but Horus's did not. Horus then won the race, and Set stepped down and officially gave Horus the throne of Egypt.[11] But after the New Kingdom, Set still was considered Lord of the desert and its oases.[12] The same myth was also described in the prognosis texts of the Calendar of Lucky and Unlucky Days of papyrus Cairo 86637, where the actions of Set were connected to the phases of the Moon. [13]

It has been suggested that the myth may reflect historical events. According to the Shabaka Stone, Geb divided Egypt into two halves, giving Upper Egypt (the desert south) to Set and Lower Egypt (the region of the delta in the north) to Horus, in order to end their feud. However, according to the stone, in a later judgment Geb gave all Egypt to Horus. Interpreting this myth as a historical record would lead one to believe that Lower Egypt (Horus' land) conquered Upper Egypt (Set's land); but, in fact Upper Egypt conquered Lower Egypt. So the myth cannot be simply interpreted.

Several theories exist to explain the discrepancy. For instance, since both Horus and Set were worshipped in Upper Egypt prior to unification, perhaps the myth reflects a struggle within Upper Egypt prior to unification, in which a Horus-worshipping group subjugated a Set-worshipping group. What is known is that during the Second Dynasty, there was a period in which the King Peribsen's name or Serekh – which had been surmounted by a Horus falcon in the First Dynasty – was for a time surmounted by a Set animal, suggesting some kind of religious struggle. It was ended at the end of the dynasty by Khasekhemwy, who surmounted his Serekh with both a falcon of Horus and a Set animal, indicating some kind of compromise had been reached.

Regardless, once the two lands were united, Set and Horus were often shown together crowning the new pharaohs, as a symbol of their power over both Lower and Upper Egypt. Queens of the First Dynasty bore the title "She Who Sees Horus and Set." The Pyramid Texts present the pharaoh as a fusion of the two deities. Evidently, pharaohs believed that they balanced and reconciled competing cosmic principles. Eventually the dual-god Horus-Set appeared, combining features of both deities (as was common in Egyptian theology, the most familiar example being Amun-Ra).

Later Egyptians interpreted the myth of the conflict between Set and Osiris/Horus as an analogy for the struggle between the desert (represented by Set) and the fertilizing floods of the Nile (Osiris/Horus).

Demonization of Set
Set on a late New Kingdom relief from Karnak: his figure was erased during his demonization.

According to Herman te Velde, the demonization of Set took place after Egypt's conquest by several foreign nations in the Third Intermediate and Late Periods. Set, who had traditionally been the god of foreigners, thus also became associated with foreign oppressors, including the Assyrian and Persian empires.[16] It was during this time that Set was particularly vilified, and his defeat by Horus widely celebrated.

Set's negative aspects were emphasized during this period. Set was the killer of Osiris, having hacked Osiris' body into pieces and dispersed it so that he could not be resurrected. The Greeks would later associate Set with Typhon, a monstrous and evil force of raging nature. Both were sons of deities representing the Earth who attacked the principal deities.

Nevertheless, throughout this period, in some outlying regions of Egypt, Set was still regarded as the heroic chief deity.

Set has also been classed as a trickster deity who, as a god of disorder, resorts to deception to achieve bad ends.[17]
Temples

Set was worshipped at the temples of Ombos (Nubt near Naqada) and Ombos (Nubt near Kom Ombo), at Oxyrhynchus in upper Egypt, and also in part of the Fayyum area.

More specifically, Set was worshipped in the relatively large metropolitan (yet provincial) locale of Sepermeru, especially during the Rammeside Period.[18] There, Seth was honored with an important temple called the "House of Seth, Lord of Sepermeru." One of the epithets of this town was "gateway to the desert," which fits well with Set's role as a deity of the frontier regions of ancient Egypt. At Sepermeru, Set's temple enclosure included a small secondary shrine called "The House of Seth, Powerful-Is-His-Mighty-Arm", and Ramesses II himself built (or modified) a second land-owning temple for Nephthys, called "The House of Nephthys of Ramesses-Meriamun".[19]

There is no question, however, that the two temples of Seth and Nephthys in Sepermeru were under separate administration, each with its own holdings and prophets.[20] Moreover, another moderately sized temple of Seth is noted for the nearby town of Pi-Wayna.[19] The close association of Seth temples with temples of Nephthys in key outskirt-towns of this milieu is also reflected in the likelihood that there existed another "House of Seth" and another "House of Nephthys" in the town of Su, at the entrance to the Fayyum.[21]

Perhaps most intriguing in terms of the pre-Twentieth Dynasty connections between temples of Set and nearby temples of his consort Nephthys is the evidence of Papyrus Bologna, which preserves a most irritable complaint lodged by one Pra'em-hab, Prophet of the "House of Seth" in the now-lost town of Punodjem ("The Sweet Place"). In the text of Papyrus Bologna, the harried Pra'em-hab laments undue taxation for his own temple (The House of Seth) and goes on to lament that he is also saddled with responsibility for: "the ship, and I am likewise also responsible for the House of Nephthys, along with the remaining heap of district temples".[22]

It is unfortunate, perhaps, that we have no means of knowing the particular theologies of the closely connected Set and Nephthys temples in these districts—it would be interesting to learn, for example, the religious tone of temples of Nephthys located in such proximity to those of Seth, especially given the seemingly contrary Osirian loyalties of Seth's consort-goddess. When, by the Twentieth Dynasty, the "demonization" of Seth was ostensibly inaugurated, Seth was either eradicated or increasingly pushed to the outskirts, Nephthys flourished as part of the usual Osirian pantheon throughout Egypt, even obtaining a Late Period status as tutelary goddess of her own Nome (UU Nome VII, "Hwt-Sekhem"/Diospolis Parva) and as the chief goddess of the Mansion of the Sistrum in that district.[23][24][25][26]

Yet it is perhaps most telling that Seth's cult persisted with astonishing potency even into the latter days of ancient Egyptian religion, in outlying (but important) places like Kharga, Dakhlah, Deir el-Hagar, Mut, Kellis, etc. Indeed, in these places, Seth was considered "Lord of the Oasis/Town" and Nephthys was likewise venerated as "Mistress of the Oasis" at Seth's side, in his temples[27] (esp. the dedication of a Nephthys-cult statue). Meanwhile, Nephthys was also venerated as "Mistress" in the Osirian temples of these districts, as part of the specifically Osirian college.[27] It would appear that the ancient Egyptians in these locales had little problem with the paradoxical dualities inherent in venerating Seth and Nephthys as juxtaposed against Osiris, Isis, and Nephthys. Further study of the enormously important role of Seth in ancient Egyptian religion (particularly after the Twentieth Dynasty) is imperative.
In modern religion
Main articles: Kemetism, Temple of Set, and Sethian Liberation Movement
In popular culture
Main article: Ancient Egyptian deities in popular culture § Set
References

Probably this is the lection of a god adored by the Hittites, the "Kheta", afterwards assimilated to the local Afro-Asiatic Seth. Sutekh appears, in fact, as a god of Hittites in the treaty declarations between the Hittite kings and Ramses II after the battle of Qadesh (see Archibald H. Sayce, "The Hittites: The Story of a Forgotten Empire"; also E. A. Wallis Budge, "A History of Egypt from the End of the Neolithic Period to the Death of Cleopatra VII B.C. 30".)
Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt, vol. 3, p. 269
Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt, vol. 3, p. 270
te Velde (1967), pp. 1–7.
"Coptic Dictionary Online". corpling.uis.georgetown.edu. Retrieved 2017-03-16.
te Velde (1967), pp. 13–15.
te Velde (1967), pp. 7–12.
te Velde (1967), chapter 2.
"Theology WebSite: The 80 Years of Contention Between Horus and Set".
Fleming, Fergus; Lothian, Alan (1997). The Way to Eternity: Egyptian Myth. Duncan Baird Publishers. pp. 80–81.
Mythology, published by DBP, Chapter: Egypt's divine kingship
te Velde (1967)[page needed]
Jetsu, L.; Porceddu, S. (2015). "Shifting Milestones of Natural Sciences: The Ancient Egyptian Discovery of Algol's Period Confirmed". PLOS ONE. 10 (12): e.0144140 (23pp). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0144140.
Papyrus Sallier 1 (Apophis and Sekenenre), 1.2–3, ed. Gardiner 1932
Assmann, Jan (2008). Of God and Gods: Egypt, Israel, and the Rise of Monotheism. University of Wisconsin Press. pp. 47–48. ISBN 0-299-22550-X.
te Velde (1967), pp. 138–140.
Nicholas, Dean Andrew (2009). The Trickster Revisited: Deception as a Motif in the Pentateuch. Studies in Biblical Literature. 117. Peter Lang. pp. 16–17. ISBN 978-1-4331-0226-4.
cf. Sauneron, Priests of Ancient Egypt, p. 181
Katary (1989), p. 216.
Katary (1989), p. 220.
Gardiner, Papyrus Wilbour Commentary, S28, pp. 127–128
Papyrus Bologna 1094, 5,8–7, 1
Sauneron, Beitrage Bf. 6, 46
Pantalacci, L.; Traunecker, C. (1990). Le temple d'El-Qal'a. Relevés des scènes et des textes. I' Sanctuaire central. Sanctuaire nord. Salle des offrandes 1 à 112. Cairo: Institut Français d'Archéologie Orientale.
Wilson, P. (1997). A Ptolemaic Lexicon: A Lexicographical Study of the Texts in the Temple of Edfu. OLA 78. Leuven. ISBN 90-6831-933-7.
Collombert, P. (1997). "Hout-sekhem et le septième nome de Haute Égypte II: Les stèles tardives (Pl. I–VII)". Revue d'Egyptologie. 48: 15–70. doi:10.2143/RE.48.0.2003683.

Kaper (1997b), pp. 234–237.

Bibliography

Allen, James P. (2004). "Theology, Theodicy, Philosophy: Egypt". In Sarah Iles Johnston. Religions of the Ancient World: A Guide. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-01517-7.
Bickel, Susanne (2004). "Myths and Sacred Narratives: Egypt". In Sarah Iles Johnston. Religions of the Ancient World: A Guide. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-01517-7.
Cohn, Norman (1995). Cosmos, Chaos and the World to Come: The Ancient Roots of Apocalyptic Faith. New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-09088-9. (1999 paperback reprint)
Ions, Veronica (1982). Egyptian Mythology. New York: Peter Bedrick Books. ISBN 0-87226-249-9.
Kaper, Olaf Ernst (1997a). Temples and Gods in Roman Dakhlah: Studies in the Indigenous Cults of an Egyptian Oasis (doctoral dissertation). Groningen: Rijksuniversiteit Groningen, Faculteit der Letteren.
Kaper, Olaf Ernst (1997b). "The Statue of Penbast: On the Cult of Seth in the Dakhlah Oasis". In Jacobus van Dijk. Egyptological Memoirs, Essays on ancient Egypt in Honour of Herman Te Velde. Egyptological Memoirs 1. Groningen: Styx Publications. pp. 231–241. ISBN 90-5693-014-1.
Katary, Sally L. D. (1989). Land Tenure in the Rammesside Period. Kegan Paul International.
Lesko, Leonard H. (2005). "Seth". In Lindsay Jones. The Encyclopedia of Religion. [Edited 1987 by Mircea Eliade] (2nd ed.). Farmington Hills, Michigan: Thomson-Gale. ISBN 0-02-865733-0.
Osing, Jürgen (1985). "Seth in Dachla und Charga". Mitteilungen des Deutschen Archäologischen Instituts, Abteilung Kairo. 41: 229–233.
Quirke, Stephen G. J. (1992). Ancient Egyptian Religion. New York: Dover Publications. ISBN 0-486-27427-6. (1993 reprint)
Stoyanov, Yuri (2000). The Other God: Dualist Religions from Antiquity to the Cathar Heresy. New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-08253-3.
te Velde, Herman (1967). Seth, God of Confusion: A Study of His Role in Egyptian Mythology and Religion. Probleme der Ägyptologie 6. Translated by van Baaren-Pape, G. E. (2nd ed.). Leiden: E. J. Brill. ISBN 90-04-05402-2.

External links
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Seth.

Le temple d'Hibis, oasis de Khargha: Hibis Temple representations of Sutekh as Horus

SETH EST UN PERSONNAGE ÉPRIS DANS UNE FORME DE COLÈRE QUE L'ON PRÉNOMME JALOUSIE. CE PERSONNAGE EST PEUT ÊTRE FICTIF MAIS IL REFLÈTE UN ASPECT DE LA PERSONNALITÉ HUMAINE. POURTANT CES ASPECTS NÉGATIFS, IL POURRAIT SEMBLER QUE DANS LA MYTHOLOGIE, IL Y A UN DOUTE SUR LA VERA CITE DE CERTAINS CULTES EN L’ÉGARD DE CELUI QUI FUT PENDANT UN INSTANT, UN USURPATEUR !
http://jfbradu.free.fr/egypte/LA%20RELIGION/LES%20DIEUX/nout.php3?r1=0&r2=0&r3=0

PLUS QUE PAR UN ACTE DE JALOUSIE, SETH A COMMIS UN LESE MAJESTE ET CERTAINEMENT, IL ÉPROUVA UNE FORTE HAINE ENVERS SA SOEUR, ISIS... IL NE FAUT PAS OUBLIER QUE ISIS EST UNE INTRIGANTE AUPRÈS DU SOLEIL ET EN TANT QUE PROTECTEUR DE LA BARQUE, IL EST VU UNE MENACE DU COUPLE ROYALE SUR L'ASPECT MÊME DE LA CONCEPTION
DE L’ÉGYPTE. CETTE MALÉDICTION POURSUIVRA TRÈS LONGTEMPS LES DYNASTIES DE PHARAONS, DE GRANDS PETRES, ET DES GÉNÉRAUX DE LA GRANDE ÉGYPTE... POURTANT IL EST DIT QUE DANS SA NEGATIVITE PROFONDE SUR L'ASPECT MEME DE L'EGYPTE, IL EST UN COMBATANT DE LA VIE ET DE L'ETABLISSEMENT: UN MAITRE SITH ELABORE DE LA LUMIERE QUI CHERCHE UN CONCEPT D"'ETABLIR UNE LUEUR DANS LES TENEBRES... IL EST UN LIEN IMMENSE QUI UNIT LES COUPLES DE OSIRIS ET ISIS AINSI QUE SETH ET NEPHTYS; C'EST LE RESPECT QU'IL PORTE EN THOT...

NOUN L'OCEAN PRIMORDIAL...
ATOUM LE CREATEUR SOLAIRE
SHOU LE VENT
TEFNOU L'HUMIDITE
GEB LA TERRE "MASCULIN"
NOUT LE CIEL "FEMININ"

Thoth or Djehuti (/ˈθoʊθ/ or /ˈtoʊt/; from Greek Θώθ thṓth, from Egyptian ḏḥwty, perhaps pronounced */tʃʼiħautiː/ or */ɟiħautiː/, depending on the phonological interpretation of Egyptian's emphatic consonants) was one of the deities of the Egyptian pantheon. In art, he was often depicted as a man with the head of an ibis or a baboon, animals sacred to him. His feminine counterpart was Seshat, and his wife was Ma'at.
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MessageSujet: Re: SIRIMA, SETH L'EPOUX DE NEPHTYS, ISIS ET Y'BECCA   Mer 23 Aoû à 3:07

THOT, L'AFFRANCHI OU LE SAGE-FEMME QUI PERMIT À NOUT, DÉESSE DU CIEL D'ACCOUCHER. AVEC RUSE, IL DÉFIA LE SOLEIL ET LE VAINCU. DE TOUS LES ENFANTS DE NOUT ET GEB, NEPHTYS LUI ACCORDA SA PLUS GRANDE AFFECTION ET DEVINT SA FAVORITE EN TERME DE CONSCIENCE ET DE TRANSMISSION DE LA CONNAISSANCE. THOT EST AUSSI CELUI QUI PARLE POUR MIEUX ÉCRIRE CHERCHANT LE SENTIMENTALISME À L'IVRESSE MÊME SI IL NE REFUSE PAS UNE BIÈRE HOUBLON. THOT EST UN BON VIVANT AYANT UN GRAND SENS DE L'AMITIÉ ET SÉDUCTEUR SANS USER DE VIOLENCE ET DE MÉTAMORPHOSE MAGIQUE. MA VISION DE THOT DEVANT L'ÉTERNEL: SON DIEU CAR SI LE SOLEIL EST SON ROI; L'ÉTERNEL EST SON DIEU ET IL LE MURMURE ÉLOHIM TANDIS QUE CELUI-CI RÉPOND YAHVÉ. SOUFFLE DE TAY LA CHOUETTE EFFRAIE.

Thoth or Djehuti (/ˈθoʊθ/ or /ˈtoʊt/; from Greek Θώθ thṓth, from Egyptian ḏḥwty, perhaps pronounced */tʃʼiħautiː/ or */ɟiħautiː/, depending on the phonological interpretation of Egyptian's emphatic consonants) was one of the deities of the Egyptian pantheon. In art, he was often depicted as a man with the head of an ibis or a baboon, animals sacred to him. His feminine counterpart was Seshat, and his wife was Ma'at.[3]

Thoth's chief temple was located in the city of Khmun,[note 1][4] later called Hermopolis Magna during the Greco-Roman era[5] (in reference to him through the Greeks' interpretation that he was the same as their god Hermes) and Shmounein in the Coptic rendering, and was partially destroyed in 1826 CE.[6] In that city, he led the Ogdoad pantheon of eight principal deities. He also had numerous shrines within the cities of Abydos, Hesert, Urit, Per-Ab, Rekhui, Ta-ur, Sep, Hat, Pselket, Talmsis, Antcha-Mutet, Bah, Amen-heri-ab, and Ta-kens.[7]

Thoth played many vital and prominent roles in Egyptian mythology, such as maintaining the universe, and being one of the two deities (the other being Ma'at) who stood on either side of Ra's boat.[8] In the later history of ancient Egypt, Thoth became heavily associated with the arbitration of godly disputes,[9] the arts of magic, the system of writing, the development of science,[10] and the judgment of the dead.[11]

Etymology
G26 t
Z4 A40
, or
d H w t
Z4 R8
Common names for Thoth[12]
in hieroglyphs

The Egyptian pronunciation of ḏḥwty is not fully known, but may be reconstructed as *ḏiḥautī, based on the Ancient Greek borrowing Thōth (Θώθ [tʰɔːtʰ]) or Theut and the fact that it transliterated into Sahidic Coptic variously as Thoout, Thōth, Thoot, Thaut, as well as Bohairic Coptic Thōout. The final -y may even have been pronounced as a consonant, not a vowel.[13] However, many write "Djehuty", inserting the letter 'e' automatically between consonants in Egyptian words, and writing 'w' as 'u', as a convention of convenience for English speakers, not the transliteration employed by Egyptologists.[14]

According to Theodor Hopfner,[15] Thoth's Egyptian name written as ḏḥwty originated from ḏḥw, claimed to be the oldest known name for the ibis although normally written as hbj. The addition of -ty denotes that he possessed the attributes of the ibis.[16] Hence his name means "He who is like the ibis".
Thoout, Thoth Deux fois Grand, le Second Hermés, N372.2A, Brooklyn Museum
Further names and spellings

Djehuty is sometimes alternatively rendered as Jehuti, Jehuty, Tahuti, Tehuti, Zehuti, Techu, or Tetu.[citation needed] Greek versions Thot, Thout and Thoth are derived from the letters ḏḥwty.[citation needed]

Not counting differences in spelling, Thoth had many names and titles, like other goddesses and gods. (Similarly, each Pharaoh, considered a god himself, had five different names used in public.[17])

Among the names used are A, Sheps, Lord of Khemennu, Asten, Khenti, Mehi, Hab, and A'an.[18]

In addition, Thoth was also known by specific aspects of himself, for instance the moon god Iah-Djehuty, representing the Moon for the entire month,.[19] The Greeks related Thoth to their god Hermes due to his similar attributes and functions.[20] One of Thoth's titles, "Thrice great" (see Titles) was translated to the Greek τρισμέγιστος (trismégistos), making Hermes Trismegistus.[21]
Depictions
Stela showing a male adorer standing before 2 Ibises of Thoth. Limestone, sunken relief. Early 19th Dynasty. From Egypt. The Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology, London
Depiction of Thoth as a baboon (c. 1400 BC), in the British Museum

Thoth has been depicted in many ways depending on the era and on the aspect the artist wished to convey. Usually, he is depicted in his human form with the head of an ibis.[22] In this form, he can be represented as the reckoner of times and seasons by a headdress of the lunar disk sitting on top of a crescent moon resting on his head. When depicted as a form of Shu or Ankher, he was depicted to be wearing the respective god's headdress. Sometimes he was also seen in art to be wearing the Atef crown or the United Crowns of Upper and Lower Egypt.[16] When not depicted in this common form, he sometimes takes the form of the ibis directly.[22]

He also appears as a dog-faced baboon or a man with the head of a baboon when he is A'an, the god of equilibrium.[23] In the form of A'ah-Djehuty he took a more human-looking form.[24] These forms are all symbolic and are metaphors for Thoth's attributes. The Egyptians did not believe these gods actually looked like humans with animal heads.[25] For example, Ma'at is often depicted with an ostrich feather, "the feather of truth," on her head,[26] or with a feather for a head.[27]
Attributes
Lee Lawrie, Thoth (1939). Library of Congress John Adams Building, Washington, D.C.

Thoth's roles in Egyptian mythology were many. He served as a mediating power, especially between good and evil, making sure neither had a decisive victory over the other.[28] He also served as scribe of the gods,[29] credited with the invention of writing and alphabets (i.e. hieroglyphs) themselves.[30] In the underworld, Duat, he appeared as an ape, A'an, the god of equilibrium, who reported when the scales weighing the deceased's heart against the feather, representing the principle of Ma'at, was exactly even.[31]

The ancient Egyptians regarded Thoth as One, self-begotten, and self-produced.[22] He was the master of both physical and moral (i.e. divine) law,[22] making proper use of Ma'at.[32] He is credited with making the calculations for the establishment of the heavens, stars, Earth,[33] and everything in them.[32] Compare this to how his feminine counterpart, Ma'at was the force which maintained the Universe.[34] He is said to direct the motions of the heavenly bodies. Without his words, the Egyptians believed, the gods would not exist.[29] His power was unlimited in the Underworld and rivalled that of Ra and Osiris.[22]

The Egyptians credited him as the author of all works of science, religion, philosophy, and magic.[35] The Greeks further declared him the inventor of astronomy, astrology, the science of numbers, mathematics, geometry, land surveying, medicine, botany, theology, civilized government, the alphabet, reading, writing, and oratory. They further claimed he was the true author of every work of every branch of knowledge, human and divine.[30]
Mythology
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This detail scene, from the Papyrus of Hunefer (c. 1275 BCE), shows the scribe Hunefer's heart being weighed on the scale of Maat against the feather of truth, by the jackal-headed Anubis. The ibis-headed Thoth, scribe of the gods, records the result. If his heart equals exactly the weight of the feather, Hunefer is allowed to pass into the afterlife. If not, he is eaten by the waiting chimeric devouring creature Ammit composed of the deadly crocodile, lion, and hippopotamus. Vignettes such as these were a common illustration in Egyptian books of the dead.

Thoth has played a prominent role in many of the Egyptian myths. Displaying his role as arbitrator, he had overseen the three epic battles between good and evil. All three battles are fundamentally the same and belong to different periods. The first battle took place between Ra and Apep, the second between Heru-Bekhutet and Set, and the third between Horus and Set . In each instance, the former god represented order while the latter represented chaos. If one god was seriously injured, Thoth would heal them to prevent either from overtaking the other.

Thoth was also prominent in the Asarian myth, being of great aid to Isis. After Isis/Aset gathered together the pieces of Asar's dismembered body, he gave her the words to resurrect him so she could be impregnated and bring forth Horus. After a battle between Horus and Set in which the latter plucked out Horus' eye, Thoth's counsel provided him the wisdom he needed to recover it. Thoth was the god who always speaks the words that fulfill the wishes of Ra.

This mythology also credits him with the creation of the 365-day calendar. Originally, according to the myth, the year was only 360 days long and Nut was sterile during these days, unable to bear children. Thoth gambled with the Moon for 1/72nd of its light (360/72 = 5), or 5 days, and won. During these 5 days, Nut and Geb gave birth to Ausar (Osiris), Set, Auset (Isis), and Nebt-Het (Nephthys).
History
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Thoth, sitting on his throne

Thoth was originally a moon god. The moon not only provides light at night, allowing time to still be measured without the sun, but its phases and prominence gave it a significant importance in early astrology/astronomy. The cycles of the moon also organized much of Egyptian society's rituals and events, both civil and religious. Consequently, Thoth gradually became seen as a god of wisdom, magic, and the measurement and regulation of events and of time.[36] He was thus said to be the secretary and counselor of the sun god Ra, and with Ma'at (truth/order) stood next to Ra on the nightly voyage across the sky.

Thoth became credited by the ancient Egyptians as the inventor of writing, and was also considered to have been the scribe of the underworld; and the Moon became occasionally considered a separate entity, now that Thoth had less association with it and more with wisdom. For this reason Thoth was universally worshipped by ancient Egyptian scribes. Many scribes had a painting or a picture of Thoth in their "office". Likewise, one of the symbols for scribes was that of the ibis.

In art, Thoth was usually depicted with the head of an ibis, possibly because the Egyptians saw curve of the ibis' beak as a symbol of the crescent moon.[37] Sometimes, he was depicted as a baboon holding up a crescent moon, as the baboon was seen as a nocturnal and intelligent creature. The association with baboons led to him occasionally being said to have as a consort Astennu, one of the (male) baboons at the place of judgment in the underworld. On other occasions, Astennu was said to be Thoth himself.

During the late period of Egyptian history, a cult of Thoth gained prominence due to its main centre, Khmun (Hermopolis Magna), also becoming the capital. Millions of dead ibis were mummified and buried in his honour. The rise of his cult also led to his cult seeking to adjust mythology to give Thoth a greater role.

Thoth was inserted in many tales as the wise counselor and persuader, and his association with learning and measurement led him to be connected with Seshat, the earlier deification of wisdom, who was said to be his daughter, or variably his wife. Thoth's qualities also led to him being identified by the Greeks with their closest matching god Hermes, with whom Thoth was eventually combined as Hermes Trismegistus, also leading to the Greeks' naming Thoth's cult centre as Hermopolis, meaning city of Hermes.

It is also considered that Thoth was the scribe of the gods rather than a messenger. Anpu (or Hermanubis) was viewed as the messenger of the gods, as he travelled in and out of the Underworld and presented himself to the gods and to humans. It is more widely accepted that Thoth was a record keeper, not a divine messenger. In the Papyrus of Ani copy of the Egyptian Book of the Dead the scribe proclaims "I am thy writing palette, O Thoth, and I have brought unto thee thine ink-jar. I am not of those who work iniquity in their secret places; let not evil happen unto me."[38] Chapter XXXb (Budge) of the Book of the Dead is by the oldest tradition said to be the work of Thoth himself.[39]

There was also an Egyptian pharaoh of the Sixteenth dynasty named Djehuty (Thoth) after him, and who reigned for three years.
Modern cultural references
See also: Ancient Egyptian deities in popular culture § Thoth

Thoth has been seen as a god of wisdom and has been used in modern literature, especially since the early 20th century when ancient Egyptian ideas were quite popular.

Aleister Crowley named his Egyptian style Tarot deck "The Book of Thoth", in reference to the theory that Tarot cards were the Egyptian book of Thoth.
H. P. Lovecraft also used the word "Thoth" as the basis for his god, "Yog-Sothoth", a god of knowledge.[40]
In Mika Waltari's The Egyptian, the illegitimate son of Sinuhe is named after Thoth, much to the surprise of his father.
Thoth is mentioned as one of the pantheon in the 1831 issue of The Wicked + The Divine.
Thoth appears as Mr. Ibis in Neil Gaiman's American Gods.
The principle mecha in Zone of the Enders is named Jehuty.
Thoth is a playable character in the battle arena game Smite.
In the 2016 film Gods of Egypt, Thoth is played by Chadwick Boseman.[41]
Thoth is the name of a psychically generated entity in the anime JoJo's Bizarre Adventure.

See also

Eye of Horus
The Book of Thoth
Thout, the first month of the Coptic calendar

Notes

Not to be confused with the deity Khnum.

References

Wilkison, Richard H. (2003). The Complete Gods and Goddesses of Ancient Egypt, p. 166
Bleeker, C. J. (1973). Hathor and Thoth: Two Key Figures of the Ancient Egyptian Religion, pp. 121–123
Thutmose III: A New Biography By Eric H Cline, David O'Connor University of Michigan Press (January 5, 2006)p. 127
National Geographic Society: Egypt's Nile Valley Supplement Map. (Produced by the Cartographic Division)
National Geographic Society: Egypt's Nile Valley Supplement Map: Western Desert portion. (Produced by the Cartographic Division)
Miroslav Verner, Temple of the World: Sanctuaries, Cults, and Mysteries of Ancient Egypt (2013) 149
(Budge The Gods of the Egyptians Thoth was said to be born from the skull of set also said to be born from the heart of Ra.p. 401)
(Budge The Gods of the Egyptians Vol. 1 p. 400)
(Budge The Gods of the Egyptians Vol. 1 p. 405)
(Budge The Gods of the Egyptians Vol. 1 p. 414)
(Budge The Gods of the Egyptians p. 403)
Hieroglyphs verified, in part, in (Budge The Gods of the Egyptians Vol. 1 p. 402) and (Collier and Manley p. 161)
Information taken from phonetic symbols for Djehuty, and explanations on how to pronounce based upon modern rules, revealed in (Collier and Manley pp. 2–4, 161)
(Collier and Manley p. 4)
Hopfner, Theodor, b. 1886. Der tierkult der alten Agypter nach den griechisch-romischen berichten und den wichtigeren denkmalern. Wien, In kommission bei A. Holder, 1913. Call#= 060 VPD v.57
(Budge The Gods of the Egyptians Vol. 1 p. 402)
(Collier and Manley p. 20)
(Budge The Gods of the Egyptians Vol. 1 pp. 402–3)
(Budge The Gods of the Egyptians Vol. 1 pp. 412–3)
(Budge The Gods of the Egyptians p. 402)
(Budge The Gods of the Egyptians Vol. 1 p. 415)
(Budge The Gods of the Egyptians Vol. 1 p. 401)
(Budge The Gods of the Egyptians Vol. 1 p. 403)
(Budge The Gods of the Egyptians Vol. 1 plate between pp. 408–9)
Allen, James P. (2000). Middle Egyptian: An Introduction to the Language and Culture of Hieroglyphs, p. 44.
Allen, op. cit., p. 115
(Budge The Gods of the Egyptians Vol. 1 p. 416)
(Budge Gods of the Egyptians Vol. 1 p. 405)
(Budge Gods of the Egyptians Vol. 1 p. 408)
(Budge Gods of the Egyptians Vol. 1 p. 414)
(Budge Gods of the Egyptians Vol. 1 p. 403)
(Budge The Gods of the Egyptians Vol. 1 p. 407)
(Budge Gods of the Egyptians Vol. 1 p. 401)
(Budge Gods of the Egyptians Vol. 1 pp. 407–Cool
(Hall The Hermetic Marriage p. 224)
Assmann, Jan, The Search for God in Ancient Egypt, 2001, pp. 80–81
Wilkinson, Richard H., The Complete Gods and Goddesses of Ancient Egypt, 2003, p. 217
The Book of the Dead by E. A. Wallis Budge, 1895, Gramercy, 1999, p. 562, ISBN 0-517-12283-9
The Book of the Dead by E. A. Wallis Budge, 1895, Gramercy, 1999, p. 282, ISBN 0-517-12283-9
Steadman, John L. (2015-09-01). H. P. Lovecraft and the Black Magickal Tradition: The Master of Horror's Influence on Modern Occultism. Weiser Books. ISBN 9781633410008.

Lee, Benjamin (November 13, 2015). "Gods of Egypt posters spark anger with 'whitewashed' cast". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 1 January 2017.

Bibliography

Bleeker, Claas Jouco. 1973. Hathor and Thoth: Two Key Figures of the Ancient Egyptian Religion. Studies in the History of Religions 26. Leiden: E. J. Brill.
Boylan, Patrick. 1922. Thoth, the Hermes of Egypt: A Study of Some Aspects of Theological Thought in Ancient Egypt. London: Oxford University Press. (Reprinted Chicago: Ares Publishers inc., 1979).
Budge, E. A. Wallis. Egyptian Religion. Kessinger Publishing, 1900.
Budge, E. A. Wallis. The Gods of the Egyptians Volume 1 of 2. New York: Dover Publications, 1969 (original in 1904).
Jaroslav Černý. 1948. "Thoth as Creator of Languages." Journal of Egyptian Archæology 34:121–122.
Collier, Mark and Manley, Bill. How to Read Egyptian Hieroglyphs: Revised Edition. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998.
Fowden, Garth. 1986. The Egyptian Hermes: A Historical Approach to the Late Mind. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press. (Reprinted Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1993). ISBN 0-691-02498-7.
The Book of Thoth, by Aleister Crowley. (200 signed copies, 1944) Reprinted by Samuel Wiser, Inc 1969, first paperback edition, 1974 (accompanied by The Thoth Tarot Deck, by Aleister Crowley & Lady Fred Harris)

External links
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Thoth.

Stadler, Martin (2012). "Thoth". In Dieleman, Jacco; Wendrich, Willeke. UCLA Encyclopedia of Egyptology. Department of Near Eastern Languages and Cultures, UC Los Angeles.
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Nombre de messages : 7155
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Date d'inscription : 09/11/2005

MessageSujet: Re: SIRIMA, SETH L'EPOUX DE NEPHTYS, ISIS ET Y'BECCA   Mer 23 Aoû à 3:13

Les archives du prieuré - Poéme
http://jfbradu.free.fr/egypte/
Poéme / Poémes d'Paul Neuhuys




On n'aime pas ce que j'écris, tout ce que je fais est d'un anodin pignocheur de colifichets.

Mes amis me voudraient autre que je ne suis et voudraient faire d'un troène un cognassier.



Les plus aimables d'entre eux me quittent sur cette invite:
Tu es rasoir, grand-père, puisses-tu claquer au plus vite.



Le fait est que ça me paraît de moins en moins étrange d'être un mort au-dessus duquel les arbres mêleront leurs

[branches

car j'aurai beau ne plus être, l'être sera toujours et comme un paysan qui rentre des labours

je préfère interroger le vol des étourneaux

ou bien regarder le feu fixement sans dire un mot.



Mourir, c'est s'attendre à tout, franchir les frontières de la

[peur, voir le rideau qui subrepticement se lève à l'intérieur.

c'est descendre dans l'humide touffeur de l'humus, naître à la vaporeuse émanation de quelque chose de plus.



car la vie ne serait qu'une immense duperie

sans une existence supérieure à celle du corps et de

[l'esprit.



Merveilleux est un mot très chrétien; ce qui compte c'est cette petite parcelle de réalité profonde.

C'est pourquoi pas de deuil dans la maison du poète mais un léger sourire:
Adieu, c'est chose faite...

Naissance: 16 septembre 1897 Anvers
Décès: 16 septembre 1984 - La Hestre

Paul Neuhuys est un poète belge, également auteur d'études critiques

Si la poésie constitue une part essentielle de l'œuvre de Paul Neuhuys, né à Anvers en 1897, le récit et l'essai n'en sont cependant pas absents. Quelques contes et romans (Les Dix Dollars de mademoiselle Rubens, 1926, La Conversion de Pittacus, 1927, etc.) restituent l'atmosphère anversoise des années vingt et les démêlés artistiques d'une jeunesse souvent désabusée, qui voient l'auteur devenir un des protagonistes de la revue Ça Ira. Il meurt en 1984.

http://www.wikipoemes.com/poemes/paul-neuhuys/index.php

Textes et poésies francophones. Sur notre site vous pouvez trouver une grande recueil de poèmes et de citations provenant de plus de 700 poètes.
http://www.wikipoemes.com/
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Date d'inscription : 09/11/2005

MessageSujet: Re: SIRIMA, SETH L'EPOUX DE NEPHTYS, ISIS ET Y'BECCA   Mer 23 Aoû à 3:17

Ode sur la poésie de louise labé - Sonnet
http://jfbradu.free.fr/egypte/LA%20RELIGION/LES%20DIEUX/nephthys.php3
Sonnet / Poémes d'Louise Labé




Le
Temps, dévorateur de tout, avait détruit les odes de
Sappho à l'harmonieux bruit.

Mais
Louise
Labé, qui connaît les
Amours

et le sein de
Vénus, nous les rend pour toujours.

Si ce miracle étonne et que l'on cherche en vain d'où vient cet écrivain nouveau et féminin,



qu'on sache qu'elle aussi s'est mise à adorer un farouche
Phaon inflexible à aimer.

La pauvre, subissant un refus désolant, s'est mise à moduler un chant si pénétrant

qu'elle enfonce, à son tour, d'une force cruelle, l'aiguillon de l'amour au cœur le plus rebelle.


Naissance: 1524 Lyon, Royaume de France
Décès: 25 avril 1566 Parcieux-en-Dombes,

Louise Labé née Louise Charly en 1524 à Lyon, décédée le 25 avril 1566 à Parcieux-en-Dombes, est une poétesse française. Surnommée « La Belle Cordière », elle fait partie des poètes en activité à Lyon pendant la Renaissance.

Née à Lyon, elle était la fille d'un riche cordier, Pierre Charly (ou Charlin), surnommé Labé. Elle reçut une bonne éducation «!à l'italienne!» - enseignement de l'italien, du latin et de la musique - et fut instruite au maniement des armes. Autour de 1543, son mariage avec un cordier lui valut son surnom de «!Belle Cordière!».



Louise Labé, dite « la Belle Cordière », est née à Lyon en 1526. « Le plaisir le plus doux qui soit après l'amour, c'est d'en parler » ; Louise Labé a su le faire avec une sensualité rare. Cette « nymphe ardente des bords du Rhône », selon Marceline Desbordes-Valmore, dont la liberté de mœurs étonne ses contemporains, est la fille d'un riche bourgeois de Lyon, qui lui fait donner une solide éducation. [ Lire la biographie de Louise Labé]

http://www.wikipoemes.com/poemes/louise-labe/index.php

Textes et poésies francophones. Sur notre site vous pouvez trouver une grande recueil de poèmes et de citations provenant de plus de 700 poètes.
http://www.wikipoemes.com/
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Nombre de messages : 7155
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Date d'inscription : 09/11/2005

MessageSujet: Re: SIRIMA, SETH L'EPOUX DE NEPHTYS, ISIS ET Y'BECCA   Mer 23 Aoû à 3:26

Gods of Egypt http://www.programme-tv.net/cinema/7352377-gods-of-egypt/ … via @teleloisirs

TIGNARD YANIS‏ @TIGNARDYANIS
SETH ÉTAIT LE GARDIEN DU SOLEIL ET L'AIDER À VAINCRE APOPHIS DANS SA COURSE DU TEMPS: POURTANT IL ÉTAIT HAÏS DES HOMMES BIEN INJUSTEMENT. Y

OSIRIS ÉTAIT JUSTE ET SA FEMME ISIS ÉTAIT UNE GRANDE MÉDECIN MAIS UN JOUR, ELLE TROMPA LE SOLEIL POUR PERMETTRE À SON FILS DE RÉGNER. TAY

SELON LES ÉGYPTOLOGUES, LA NAISSANCE VIENT DE THOT QUI A VAINCU LE SOLEIL AU SUJET D'UNE PARTIE D'ÉCHEC DE CINQ JOURS: NOUT ACCOUCHA. TAY

GEB, DIEU DE LA TERRE ET NOUT DÉESSE DU CIEL S'AIMAIENT; LE SOLEIL N'APPRÉCIAIT PAS CET AMOUR: SETH ET OSIRIS VÉCURENT DANS CE TUMULTE. TAY

LA MYTHOLOGIE ÉGYPTIENNE RESTE MYSTÉRIEUSE SUR LE RÔLE POLITIQUE DE NEPHTYS DANS LA DYNASTIE DE NOUT ET GEB: GARDIENNE DE L'ÉTHIQUE. TAY

NEPHTYS ÉPROUVA UN GRAND CHAGRIN DEVANT L'ADVERSITÉ ET L'ACTE DE SON MARI POURTANT MAUDIT DES HOMMES, IL DEMEURA DANS LA BARQUE SOLAIRE. TAY

QUAND LE SOLEIL DONNA SON JUGEMENT AU SUJET DU TRÔNE D'OSIRIS ENTRE HORUS ET ISIS CONTRE SETH: IL DEMEURA DIGNE PAR ÉGARD POUR NEPHTYS. TAY
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Localisation : http://yanis.tignard.free.fr/
Date d'inscription : 09/11/2005

MessageSujet: Re: SIRIMA, SETH L'EPOUX DE NEPHTYS, ISIS ET Y'BECCA   Sam 9 Sep à 3:01

SON PRÉNOM EST NINA, DOUCE NUÉE DU MARCHÉ SAINT CYPRIEN


LA JOIE ME FUT JADIS DÉROBÉE PAR MON EXISTENCE OU PAR LE DESTIN LUI MÊME.
UNE CHATTE PRÉNOMMÉE MINOUSKA ME RAPPELA L’ESPÉRANCE ET ME REPRIT AU CROIRE
DE L'ESPOIR. DANS LA PÉRIODE DE LEADER PRICE ET DE MON EXÉMA, ELLE FUT PILIER
DE MON ENTRETIEN AVEC LA NATURE ET LES PRINCIPES DE LA VIE: LA MANIÈRE D’ÊTRE

LA JOIE EST VENUE DANS UN SENTIMENT SIMPLE, PAR UN SOURIRE TIMIDE ET SERVIABLE
QUI PORTE UNE VOIX DOUCE ET AIGRE. CETTE PERSONNE CALME ME REGARDA ET
UN SENTIMENT BIZARRE NAQUIT DANS MON CŒUR: JE FUT SUBJUGUE PAR SON CALME.
DOUCE ET AFFIRMÉE AFFRONTANT LES INTEMPÉRIES DE LA PLUME ET DU VERBE
SACHANT JONGLER SUR LES ASPECTS DU MARCHE ET HUMBLE DE SON CHARME: LA GRÂCE.

AU LIEU DE M’ÉLOIGNER DU MONDE, ELLE M'EN RAPPROCHE CAR ELLE SAIT ESSUYER LE VERBE
SANS LA MOINDRE GRIMACE ! ELLE EST DANS SON ÉQUILIBRE ET CELUI CI EST SON SECRET.
ELLE EST UN MYSTÈRE DANS LA PLÉNITUDE DE SES MOUVEMENTS DIGNE DES BEAUX NUAGES.
DANS SON CALME, J'Y APERÇOIT DES RÊVERIES MYSTÉRIEUSES: DES SONGES ÉNIGMATIQUES.

DANS LA CLARTÉ DE LA LUMIÈRE TOUT COMME DANS LE SONGE DE LA NUIT; IL EST DES FAITS
QUE L'HOMME NE PEUT OUBLIER. JE NE CHERCHE DONC PAS DE RAISONS SUR MES SENTIMENTS.
LA JOIE EST UN MERVEILLEUX SENTIMENT DANS LE BONHEUR TOUT COMME DANS LE MALHEUR.
ELLE FAIT PARTI DE SES PERSONNES QUI ME REDONNE SOIF AU BONHEUR: ELLE EST NINA.

ECRIT DU
CITOYEN TIGNARD YANIS
ALIAS
TAY La chouette effraie
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MessageSujet: Re: SIRIMA, SETH L'EPOUX DE NEPHTYS, ISIS ET Y'BECCA   

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