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 FIREHOLE, YELLOWSTONE AND THE DARWF WEATHER FORECASTS

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Nombre de messages : 7495
Localisation : http://yanis.tignard.free.fr/
Date d'inscription : 09/11/2005

MessageSujet: FIREHOLE, YELLOWSTONE AND THE DARWF WEATHER FORECASTS   Lun 21 Aoû à 2:28

La rivière Madison est un des cours d'eau qui coulent en amont du Missouri.

Sommaire

1 Géographie
2 Étymologie
3 Voir aussi
4 Notes et références

Géographie

En effet ce dernier ne commence officiellement qu'à partir de la confluence des rivières Jefferson, Madison et Gallatin au voisinage de Three Forks.

Le cours de la rivière Madison mesure 295 km de long. La rivière commence
son parcours dans le nord-ouest du Wyoming à la confluence des rivières Firehole (en)
et Gibbon (en), dans un lieu connu sous le nom de Madison Junction, dans le parc national
de Yellowstone. La rivière coule en direction de l'ouest puis du nord, à travers les montagnes
du sud-ouest du Montana. Dans la partie supérieure de son cours, dans le comté de Gallatin,
le barrage Hebgen (en) barre son cours, et crée un lac de retenu nommé lac Hebgen.
En 1959 un tremblement de terre forma le lac Quake, juste en aval du barrage.
En aval d'Ennis, la rivière coule dans le Bear Trap Canyon. Cette section
de son cours comporte des passages en eau-vive de classe III et IV.
Étymologie

La rivière porte le nom d'un ancien président des États-Unis, James Madison.
Elle doit son nom à Meriwether Lewis comme ses voisines la Jefferson et la Gallatin.
Voir aussi

Madison (rivière), sur Wikimedia Commons

Geographylogo.svg


le Missouri
le Mississippi

Notes et références

Traduction partielle de l'article de Wikipedia (en).

DES HOMMES QUI ONT UNE FORCE HORS DU COMMUN. MALGRÉ L'ADVERSITÉ ET LES FLÉAUX QUE LA VIE LEUR ENVOYA, LEUR CONSCIENCE DE SURVIE LES AMENA À SURMONTER LES PIRES MOMENTS ET SCÉNARIOS DE L'HISTOIRE ET DE L'EXISTENCE...


3 frères juifs italiens partent à la recherche de la grotte qui les a sauvés de l’Holocauste
Dans un documentaire, la famille Anati explore la campagne italienne en retrouvant la grotte dans laquelle ils ont vécu pendant la Deuxième guerre mondiale
Gabe Friedman 19 août 2017, 12:54

JTA — La perspective de louer une maison dans la campagne italienne en dévorant des pâtes peut être considérée par un grand nombre de gens comme des vacances idéales.

TA — La perspective de louer une maison dans la campagne italienne en dévorant des pâtes peut être considérée par un grand nombre de gens comme des vacances idéales.

Pour les trois frères Anati, toutefois, un tel voyage était un rappel des horreurs de l’Holocauste.

Et pourtant, c’est un voyage qu’avaient décidé de faire les trois frères — Bubi, 77 ans, Andrea, 85 ans et Emmanuel, 88 ans — en 2013, avec très précisément pour objectif de se relier à leur passé.

Les frères Anati ont été élevés dans une famille de la haute société à Florence. En 1942, juste avant le début des déportations des Juifs de la ville à Auschwitz, la famille a fui. Elle a erré de village en village puis s’est installée dans une forêt située à proximité de Villa a Sesta, une municipalité située à environ 80 kilomètres de Florence. Avec l’aide des locaux, leur père a creusé une caverne – et la famille a vécu là, littéralement sous la terre, pendant plusieurs mois, durant l’été 1944 jusqu’à la fin de la guerre.

La famille est alors partie s’installer en Israël où les frères ont vécu depuis lors.

« Shalom Italia », un documentaire d’une heure réalisé par Tamar Tal Anati (la belle-fille de Bubi), s’intéresse au retour en Italie des frères qui ont tenté de retrouver la caverne pour enfin tourner la page sur ces années noires. Le trio affable arpente la forêt, rencontre les membres d’une famille qui les avait aidés à survivre et – nous sommes en Italie – en profite pour dévorer des kilos entiers de succulentes pâtes.
Les frères ont utilisé la nourriture italienne locale comme carburant dans leur recherche (Crédit : Tamar Tal Anati via JTA)

Les frères ont utilisé la nourriture italienne locale comme carburant dans leur recherche (Crédit : Tamar Tal Anati via JTA)

Le vrai plaisir de ce film délicieux, toutefois, est la camaraderie authentique qui règne entre les frères et la passion qu’ils ont cultivée pour la culture italienne. Bubi, qui a travaillé pendant des années à l’Institut des sciences Weizmann, est le plus jeune et le plus sincère dans sa démarche. C’est lui qui a donné l’impulsion à ce voyage, la localisation de la grotte étant quelque chose qu’il voulait réaliser depuis des années.

Andrea, chercheur en physique océanique, est un gaffeur fantasque – il siffle souvent, fredonne et se présente aux étrangers – en grande forme physique pour un octogénaire.

Emmanuel — que ses frères appellent « Mèmè » avec affection ou parfois « Mème mio », ou « mon Mèmè” — est un archéologue internationalement connu. Il est le plus grave des trois et n’a aucun désir de revivre ses souvenirs de l’Holocauste, les ayant sortis depuis longtemps de son esprit. Mais Mèmè a accepté le voyage pour faire plaisir à Bubi.

Sur l’écran, les personnalités des trois frères n’entrent pas exactement en confrontation – même si elles se heurtent légèrement malgré tout. Les trois hommes se chamaillent pour savoir dans quelle pièce dîner, quand quitter la maison louée le matin et quel chemin choisir pour retrouver la grotte dans la forêt.

Mais ces accrocs – drôles – sont plus attachants que dérangeants. Un débat particulièrement teinté d’humour survient lorsque les trois frères s’interrogent pour savoir s’ils avaient amené des jeux d’arcs et de flèches avec eux lorsqu’ils étaient partis de Florence – Andrea insiste sur le fait que cela a été le cas, tandis que Mèmè lui répond qu’il est ridicule.

Malgré son charme, « Shalom Italia » n’oublie pas la gravité du récit qui sous-tend l’histoire. Le ton léger du film accompagne, main dans la main, les fantômes de la guerre. Les frères ont des conversations sur leurs souvenirs durant des repas qui mettent l’eau à la bouche, salami, mozzarella, tomates, prosciutto et pâtes au pesto.
Extérieur de la Grande synagogue de Florence (Crédit : Wikimedia commons/Toksave)

Extérieur de la Grande synagogue de Florence (Crédit : Wikimedia commons/Toksave)

Dans une scène mémorable, Andrea dit se souvenir de ces années de clandestinité avec une certaine naïveté encore –
il s’agissait pour lui d’une époque aventureuse qui avait réuni la famille entière.

« Nous avons vécu dans les bois, nous avons joué à Robin des Bois et ramassé des champignons », dit-il. « Je me suis amusé pendant l’Holocauste ».

Une remarque troublante pour Mèmè, qui dit que tandis qu’Andrea a profité de sa jeunesse, il a été obligé de grandir rapidement.

A un autre moment, Bubi dit qu’il ne peut pas manger et qu’il peut pas même sentir l’odeur des sardines. Il réalise que la raison en est que la famille a mangé des sardines pendant la guerre.

Finalement, le film est le témoignage du filtre de leurs souvenirs à travers leurs attitudes et leurs expériences, et à travers les désirs aussi de ceux qui les entourent.

« Cela a été très intéressant de voir que lorsque vous vous confrontez à quelqu’un d’autre, vos souvenirs commencent à changer », a commenté Tamar Tal Anati, interrogée par JTA depuis son domicile de Tel Aviv. « [Et] de voir comment la mémoire se reconstruit ».

Cela fait des années que Tal Anati a épousé le fils de Bubi, mais elle ignorait que son beau-père et ses frères étaient des survivants de l’Holocauste. Lorsque Bubi lui a parlé du voyage prévu dans la campagne italienne – et qu’elle a appris l’existence de la caverne et la raison de ce voyage – elle s’est sentie dans l’obligation de le filmer.

« J’ai été fascinée par le fait que chacun d’entre eux avait un souvenir complètement différent du même événement », a-t-elle confié. « Et j’étais curieuse de voir comment ils allaient gérer le défi physique et mental de ce séjour ».

Tal Anati a noté que pendant des décennies, les frères ne s’étaient jamais considérés comme de vrais survivants de l’Holocauste. Mais depuis le tournage de « Shalom Italia », qui les a aidés à tenir compte des souvenirs de cet hiver-là, ils se considèrent dorénavant ainsi.

« Notre personnalité et la manière dont nous voyons la vie sont le résultat des souvenirs que nous avons », a-t-elle dit. « Et une fois que ces souvenirs changent, nous changeons ».

(« Shalom Italia » est disponible en streaming sur le site pov.org depuis le 24 juillet jusqu’au 26 août).

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MessageSujet: Re: FIREHOLE, YELLOWSTONE AND THE DARWF WEATHER FORECASTS   Lun 21 Aoû à 2:31

Firehole River

The Firehole rises in tiny Madison Lake which
lies in a marshy subalpinebasin at 8,200 feet
along a north-facing slope of the continental divide. From the lake to the bridge on the Old Faithful-Thumb road under which it passes, this is a tiny, cold, winding brook trout stream that also holds a few pan-size browns.

Below the Old Faithful water supply intake, down to the bridge above Biscuit Basin and the mouth of the Little Firehole, is a two- or three-mile stretch that is currently closed to fishing. It never was really good fishing water, except for small spot locations, such as just behind Old Faithful and near Morning Glory Pool. Its closure, to protect the many thermal features, is a very small loss for the fisherman.

The Little Firehole is joined just above its junction with the main river by Iron Spring Creek, locally called Iron Creek. These two streams are much cooler than the Firehole itself and are run-up streams for large trout in July and August of warm years. If summer remains cool, with considerable rain and snow (a not unusual condition at this 7,500 foot level), the larger trout will remain in the big river with its better, more secure holds and more plentiful insects.

But if the summer has been warm and very dry, big trout will run up these cooler streams. There will be some very good fish just above the footbridge across the Little Firehole-lron Creek stem, and just below the junction of the two streams. There will be some few fish in the Little Firehole above the confluence of the two streams, but in general this stream is too cold for comfort for the warm water-loving trout of the main stream. Iron Creek will run some 6 to 10 degrees cooler than the main stream. It is somewhat larger than the Little Firehole and is much more favored by big run-up browns and rainbows. To put things in perspective, when the temperature of the main river reaches 80 degrees Fahrenheit, the larger trout, with their smaller temperature change tolerance, will commence to move into the two cooler streams. These trout are accustomed to temperatures of 70 to 78 degrees in summer and, in fact, prefer a temperature of 70 to 75, because for eighty generations, that has been the normal midsummer daytime temperature of the Firehole.

In the early 1970s a series of earthquakes more severe than normal took place near the Firehole headwaters. This region suffers about 200 quakes a year of up to 4.5 on the Richter Scale, but some of the quakes in the early 1970s reached 6.5 on the Richter. Apparently this opened up new or greater high temperature flows into the river, raising the daytime high temperatures to the high 80s by 1979. In the mid-seventies this caused great numbers of large trout to leave the Firehole and enter Iron Creek during the hottest part of summer. These high temperatures also caused the growth and reproductive rates of the trout to drop dramatically, reducing both the size and numbers of trout in the stream.

Biscuit Basin itself is about a mile of winding meadow stream, deep in places, with an abundance of bottom drop-offs, weed beds and undercut banks providing holds and lies for the trout. The trout of this stretch are almost half-and-half rainbows and browns. It has always been too warm for brookies, which are mostly found now in the cooler water above Keppler Cascades. When the river was first stocked with trout in 1889 (it was barren of fish above Firehole Falls when white men first saw it in the 1830s) brook trout from the East were put into the stream. These quickly fled upstream to cooler water above Old Faithful. In 1890 browns were stocked, and in 1897 a woman named Mary Trowbridge Townsend wrote a lovely piece in Outing Magazine in which she tells of catching a "gloriously colored Von Behr (brown) trout of four pounds."

The river was allegedly named by Jim Bridger in 1851 when he was showing a group of mountain men from the southern Rockies through the Park. It is said that Bridger told them that the river was heated by friction from running over its bedrock bottom, but this sophisticated observation does not fit what is known about the uneducated mountain man.

This bedrock bottom is evident in the Firehole throughout its length. Boulders broken off the cliffs of Firehole Canyon and strewn along the river bottom make it appear different than the rest of the stream, but if you are interested enough to move some of these boulders, you will find them resting on bedrock.

Fishing the smooth stretches of the Firehole, dry or wet, still requires such subtlety. Biscuit Basin, Muleshoe Bend, Goose Lake Meadows, Ojo Caliente Bend, the Broads-all these pieces of difficult water require every skill one can muster because these are wild fish that have been fished over for ninety years, and they have learned much in that time.

Coming down from the lower end of Biscuit Basin Meadows, one encounters two miles of riffle and shallow pool water. This is a less fishworthy stretch than the water either above or below. At the lower end one comes to a high bank on the left, formed of siliceous sinter, the whitish-gray material found around geysers and other thermal features. Beginning at the downstream end of this is a quarter-mile stretch of broken-bottomed pools and runs that is quite good and seldom fished, though it is less than a hundred yards from the road. Then comes a half-mile more of shallow riffles and another high bank of sinter, again on the left. This used to be an excellent stretch, with some large trout lying in the channel next to the bank. Ray Bergman wrote extensively about it in the thirties, when three-pounders could regularly be found here. But it has silted in with geyser debris over the years and the larger fish are no longer there.

Just beyond the lower end of this bank is an abrupt break in the bedrock bottom and a short cascade and plunge pool. The stretch from there to the Upper Iron Bridge, about three-eighths of a mile, is quite good, excellent with dry fly or emergent nymph as needed. Below the bridge a long riffle and run reaches to the upper end of Muleshoe Bend. Before the late warming of the river there were big stone fly nymphs of Pteronarcys and Acroneuria (now Calineuria) here, and at the foot of the faster stretches, in deeper water, an occasional large trout could be found waiting for the drifting nymph. This is no longer true, although smaller fish can be taken with some regularity.

The tight loop of Muleshoe Bend is still a half-mile of excellent dry fly water with some good fish in it, as well as many smaller ones. One parks at the road turnout at the apex of the bend on the high bank there and watches for the hatch to commence. I've not found it too profitable to fish this stretch if no flies were showing.

There is a long riffle from the lower end of Muleshoe through the rest of Midway Geyser Basin. It is right beside the road and is an excellent piece of water for the beginner or children. It is loaded with insect life, mostly small, and the rough but not too uneven bottom offers good footing.

Below Excelsior Spring, which pours a steaming cataract of 200 degree water into the river, there is a long, shallow stretch of relatively fishless water leading into the head of Goose Lake Meadows, a long piece of mostly gliding dry fly water. By dry fly water, I do not mean that other methods cannot be used with success, but that the appearance and conditions truly bespeak the dry fly. From mid-July till late September this is a grasshopper stretch par excellence. ^

A small falls and plunge pool terminates the stretch and gives way to a continuing succession of shallow cataracts, not worth your time. This ends in a narrow chute sliding under the Lower Iron Bridge and on into 0jo Caliente Bend, a deep, weed-filled curve that formerly hosted more big trout than any stretch on the Firehole. But during the late warming trend it became the hottest stretch of the river, topping 89 degrees on hot August days.

There are still many fish here, some quite large, and at the end of a hot summer one can find them packed into the lower end of Sentinel Creek, which enters at the very apex of the bend. These fish are very exposed in the clear, shallow water and are wild and wary. Most anglers find it useless to try for them and perhaps one shouldn't, as this stresses them and any additional stress in overwarm water decreases their chance of survival.

In Ojo Caliente Bend itself the abundant weeds make fishing difficult. Thisis true of all the
weedy stretches, which includes all the slower, deeper waters from Biscuit Basin to the lip of the canyon. Also, insects in these weedy stretches tend to be small to microscopic and there are not many of them in Ojo Caliente Bend. Years ago, this piece of water was loaded with caddis and scud (shrimp, so called) but there are few of either that have survived the high temperatures of the 1970s. Now, small black snails form more than half the trout's diet. The fish are smaller and less plentiful than formerly, although by the standards of most trout streams the stock is adequate.

Below Ojo Caliente begins a long piece of water which traverses Fountain Flats and is called by that name. It is fairly even bottomed and its depth is also even, but there are some potholes and broken places in the bedrock bottom, though no really deep spots. The grass-covered banks are undercut throughout and this plus the potholes and some weeds furnish more holds for trout than at first appears. The water is a bit cooler than that of Ojo Caliente Bend.

In spring this is a favored piece of water, especially for the nymph fisher. A large dragonfly type is found here-and in other similar bottom types in the Firehole drainage. The nymph is in the water two years from egg to hatching adult and is tan to dark brown. It hatches into a fiery red-orange adult nearly three inches long.

In summer the Fountain Flats are the dry fly fishers bane-and delight. The water is truly wonderfully propitious for the dry fly, but this open meadow is often assaulted with winds up to fifty miles an hour. It has always been so. Ray Bergman, in the thirties, speaks of winds so strong that he had to aim his cast 45 degrees away from the river's edge in order to drop the fly along the bank where the fish were holding. But wind or no, this is a very popular piece of water in summer and early fall-grasshopper time- and the wind is a help here, blowing these ungainly creatures into the water and bringing the fish to feed.

From below Fountain Flats, below where the Nez Perce enters, to the breakover above the canyon head, is about three miles of excellent water: broad, smooth, well weeded, very tempting to the dry fly fisher. These are the Broads of the Firehole. Ernie Schwiebert allowed that they must have been so named by some of the Englishmen who early fly-fished these waters.

At the very last before the river enters Firehole Canyon are a pair of long deep pools. They lie in the curve of the road where it returns to the river coming up from Madison Junction. These pools have very large boulders scattered through their otherwise even bottoms, and these boulders play havoc with the nymph fisher. They entangle his line and leader as he attempts to get down to the fish, which he must do since they will not come up to the fly.

The Firehole Canyon is beautiful, with pools, flats, runs, rapids, cascades and falls, but except for the last half-mile before it joins the Gibbon and becomes the Madison, it is not worth the trouble and danger of getting into and out of the canyon to fish it.

The last half-mile has run-up fish from the Madison as well as resident fish of decent size. The giant stone fly nymph is found here, and in early June the adult, the so-called salmonfly, is found in sufficient numbers to make for some exciting dry fly fishing. You must hit it exactly right because the hatch only lasts two or three days on this short stretch and the date varies with the weather: In an early warm, dry spring the hatch may come before the May 28 opening of trout fishing in the Park.

The Firehole, in spite of its late temperature tribulations, is still a magnificent trout stream, challenging and difficult as it has always been. It is beautiful and it is unique; the hot springs, geysers and other thermal features that cause its temperature problems also make it minerally rich, which benefits the creatures in it greatly. These thermal features lining its banks have caused both Ernie Schwiebert and National Geographic magazine to call it the strangest trout stream on earth. I guess that makes it official.

- Fishing Yellowstone Waters -

fly fishing the Firehole River in Yellowstone Park written by Bruce James, guide service manager for Jack Dennis Fishing Trips, an outfitter offering guided trips on the Snake, Green, Salt, Firehole and other rivers in the Grand Teton and yellowstone area
http://jackdennisfishingtrips.com/Regional Fly Fishing Waters/Yellowstone Fly Fishing/Firehole River.html

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Nombre de messages : 7495
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Date d'inscription : 09/11/2005

MessageSujet: Re: FIREHOLE, YELLOWSTONE AND THE DARWF WEATHER FORECASTS   Lun 21 Aoû à 2:40

Welcome to LANDFIRE's Data Product Review Website
UPCOMING
LANDFIRE REMAP
Deadline for Comments Used In Remap

Sunday 9/17/2017

The deadline for submitting comments used in the LANDFIRE Remap is approaching! Submit your comments before September 17, 2017 to be used in the LANDFIRE Remap.

Download Remap Instructions

We are excited to announce the development of this data product review website. The purpose of this site is to provide a place where people can work through a review process of various LANDFIRE data products and a method for submitting feedback and suggestions on a number of LANDFIRE data products in a guidebook structure. The site is based on a content management platform with structured content for a dynamic web experience. The feedback and suggestions will be reviewed both within and external to LANDFIRE and potentially improve future mapping updates and remaps.

In the past, LANDFIRE conducted a series of physical calibration workshops across the country soliciting input on Fire Behavior Fuel Model (FBFM) mapping rule relationships as well as direct communication with specialists reviewing vegetation and fire regime data products along with quantitative state and transition models. These efforts provided some success but were also challenging given travel and participation across the US. Given the success of other efforts to improve data sets (Alaska Guidebook, SE SWRA updates) the LANDFIRE program has developed this web-based database to facilitate improved product review.

Your comments are valuable for several reasons. Based on input we receive, we may be able to adjust the FBFM rulesets, correct systemic errors within an Existing Vegetation Type (EVT) map, and provide for adjustments between map zones. For example; with your input and help, we may be able to identify areas where a subtle change in a bio-physical setting causes a change in fuel models, but the larger scale analysis did not identify the transition or it may help identify less obvious regional differences in the relationship between vegetation type and fuel models. User comments may capture useful insights and regional differences from experts that will be helpful in the mapping processes. The comments and suggestions may help inform the current LANDFIRE ReMap project (http://www.landfire.gov/lf_200.php).

Examples of database comments we think will be most useful:

Suggested edits to the EVT-FBFM rule sets.
Identification of map zone seam lines that are not supported by bio-physical (on-the-ground) changes.
Examples of places where a fuel model change occurs, but is not represented on the map. What on-the-ground characteristics are driving the fuel model change?

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Energy and Environment
The Arctic’s most famed shipwrecks lie in these waters. Scientists are still learning what else lies beneath.
The Northwest Passage in 2017: Follow our series exploring the Arctic
By Chris Mooney August 16

A sample of the marine life that lives on the sea floor of the Queen Maud Gulf is seen on Aug. 9. The gulf is considered a hot spot for sea floor biodiversity in the Arctic. (Alice Li/The Washington Post)

QUEEN MAUD GULF, NUNAVUT, CANADA — In 1846, in perilous seas to the north of here, the two steam-propelled ships of British explorer Sir James Franklin, the Erebus and the Terror, froze in the ice. It was the beginning of the end of the Franklin mission, in which more than 100 men perished in the cold despite the launch of scores of ships to try to rescue them — the greatest disaster in a long and troubled history of trying to uncover the Northwest Passage.

In the past several years, the Erebus and the Terror have been discovered beneath the waves — but not where the ships first got stuck. Rather, the vessels wound up in the relatively shallow waters of the Queen Maud Gulf region. It remains unclear how they got there: Perhaps the ships floated here, or perhaps they broke free and the straggling crew decided to operate them again.

The last voyage of Franklin’s vessels is one of many mysteries of this remote region. At just shy of 70 degrees North Latitude, it is largely unexplored and poorly charted — but it is growing busier, as sea ice recedes and ship traffic increases in the wake of climate change.

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Your daily guide to the energy and environment debate.

With that increased human activity comes new environmental risks. And unless scientists, conservationists and governments understand the local ecosystem, they’ll struggle to protect it.

Enter the CCGS Amundsen, a Canadian Coast Guard vessel that partners with scientists organized by the ArcticNet consortium at the Université Laval in Quebec City to conduct research. On board the Amundsen last week, two journalists from The Washington Post observed as scientists studied the little-known body of water through a range of scientific devices — trawling nets, water profilers, recovering and redeploying research buoys, and others.

“The Queen Maud Gulf and the Kitikmeot as a whole was designated as a ‘mare incognita’; it means very little is known of this place,” said Gerald Darnis, a researcher with the Université Laval who coordinates the Kitikmeot Marine Ecosystems Study, a project devoted to better understanding the region. (Kitikmeot refers to a larger region of the Canadian territory of Nunavut that includes the gulf.)

In the waters of the Queen Maud Gulf, a member of the Canadian Coast Guard climbs on top of a box core, a large and heavy metal device that scoops up a thick cube of mud, providing an intact slice of the seafloor. (Alice Li/The Washington Post)

It’s crucial to find out what lives in the gulf, and how its waters flow, not just to preserve the Franklin wrecks but also to protect the larger ecosystem as ice retreats and ship traffic through the Northwest Passage becomes more commonplace, said Darnis and Cindy Grant, a researcher at the Université Laval studying the gulf from the CCGS Amundsen.

“There’s many risks associated with their presence, for sure. Pollution, and they could have some accident,” Grant said of ships crossing the gulf. There is also the fear that passing ships could introduce invasive species when they dump their ballast water, affecting the gulf’s ecology, she said.

The most catastrophic possibility would be an oil spill, with limited capacity for a cleanup or a quick response.

The waters here are very shallow, sometimes as little as 20 meters deep or less. That’s what seems to foster an unusual ecosystem that doesn’t have many fish or large mammals, like whales and seals, but teems with life on the seafloor.

In one of their many scientific assays in the gulf aboard the Amundsen, scientists used a box core — a large, heavy metal device that slams into the ocean floor and scoops up a thick cube of mud to gather data. When the core was hauled back onto the ship, the surface of the sample — presenting an intact slice of the seafloor about two square feet in size — teemed with colorful Arctic starfish, worms and small shrimp.

These seafloor organisms — so-called benthic life — are setting a record in this area, Grant said.

“For benthic biodiversity, it could be considered as a hot spot in the Arctic,” she said. “If we compare data that we collected for the two last years, we found more than 300 different taxa, only in the Kitikmeot region. And it’s more than all other regions for the Canadian Arctic.”

But scientists still don’t know why life in the Queen Maud Gulf is configured in this way. They have only been studying it intensively for a handful of years.

Research and sampling are underway at and around the Franklin ship wrecks, but it is being carried out by the government agency Parks Canada, which has an underwater research team, Darnis said. The researchers affiliated with ArcticNet, however, are analyzing the data that Parks Canada gathers near the wrecks. (Other partners in the Kitikmeot Marine Ecosystems Study include the W. Garfield Weston Foundation and Québec-Océan.)

“The divers, they go on the wrecks, but they need also an image of what’s happening around the wreck, and we can provide that with what we do on the ship,” Darnis said.

The shallow waters may help define the unique nature of the gulf, but they also make it risky for shipping traffic if navigators aren’t careful in the often poorly or inadequately charted waters.

William Barrière, left, smiles as Samuel Beausoleil shows off the shirt he got in August from a U.S. Coast Guard member on the Cutter Maple. The Canadian and U.S. crews swapped branded shirts and even some books. (Alice Li/The Washington Post)

Yet there’s little doubt more ships will be taking this route. The Northwest Passage’s so-called northern route, which is about 5 degrees Latitude further toward the Pole, is more likely to be filled with ice. The gulf, on the other hand, can be more hospitable — there was little ice to be seen while the CCGS Amundsen was there.

“It’s one of the important connections,” Darnis said of the gulf. “It’s one of the main ways now to cross from east to west.”

As if to underscore the point, while the Amundsen was in the region it crossed paths with a U.S. Coast Guard vessel, the Cutter Maple, which was in the midst of doing its own Northwest Passage route, between Sitka, Alaska and Baltimore. The Amundsen supplied the U.S. ship with some extra fuel and food to provide a buffer on the long journey ahead of them.

“It’s really an extremely remote place, and you’ve seen a few boats coming, some needed help,” Darnis said. “And well, the Amundsen was there because we were doing science. But otherwise it would have taken days for another boat to come for a rescue. And in days, the impact can be extreme.”

Read more:

What it’s like to ride a 6,000-ton icebreaker through Arctic waters

The Arctic’s fabled passage is opening up. This is what it looks like.

Even small boats are tackling the fabled Northwest Passage. The ice doesn’t always cooperate.
6
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Wonkblog Analysis
Mars has eclipses. We have video.
By Christopher Ingraham August 18
(J. Cowart/FU Berlin/DLR/ESA)

If you think solar eclipses on Earth are cool, wait till you get a load of an eclipse on Mars.

Earth typically experiences anywhere from four to seven eclipses in a year,
counting partial solar eclipses (when the moon doesn't fully obscure the sun)
and lunar eclipses (when the earth's shadow partially obscures the moon).

On Mars, however, solar eclipses are practically a daily event. Mars has two moons
— tiny, potato-shaped satellites named Phobos and Deimos, after the Greek deities
of fear and dread, respectively. For a sense of how small they are, here's a NASA
illustration comparing them with the size of Earth's moon.

But Mars' moons orbit at a much closer distance than our own Moon orbits ours. While the moon is about 238,000 miles away from Earth (give or take), Phobos is only about 6,000 miles away from the surface of Mars.

Among other things, that proximity causes it to rotate incredibly fast, circling around Mars in under eight hours. A person standing on Mars would see it cross the sky twice in one day. Because of its small size, it appears smaller than our own moon does to us.

Here's what Phobos looks like in the Martian afternoon sky to the Mars Curiosity rover:
(NASA/JPL/MSSS/Justin Cowart)

Phobos' close, fast orbit makes it cross paths with the sun fairly often — near-daily. But because the moon is so small it never fully occludes the sun to create a total eclipse. Part of the sun's disc is always visible.

The Mars Curiosity rover captured real-time video of this happening on Aug. 20, 2013.
Play Video 1:29
Watch a solar eclipse on Mars
This video clip shows the larger of the two moons of Mars, Phobos, passing directly in front of the sun, in an eclipse photographed by NASA's Mars rover Curiosity on Aug. 20, 2013. (NASA/JPL-Caltech/MSSS/TAMU)

Here are a few still shots captured by the rover during that event.

(NASA/JPL-Caltech/Malin Space Science Systems/Texas A&M University)

Against the solar backdrop, you can clearly make out Phobos' irregular shape,
which it partly owes to being so small that it doesn't exert enough gravity
to pull itself into a proper sphere. A person weighing 150 pounds on Earth would
weigh only two ounces on Phobos.

“Because this eclipse occurred near midday at Curiosity's location on Mars,”
NASA explains, “Phobos was nearly overhead, closer to the rover than it would
have been earlier in the morning or later in the afternoon. This timing made Phobos'
silhouette larger against the sun — as close to a total eclipse of the sun as is possible
from Mars.”

Here's a wide-angle shot of a 2010 Mars eclipse taken by the Opportunity rover.
(NASA/JPL-Caltech/Cornell/Texas A&M University)

What about the other Martian moon? Deimos orbits more than twice as far away
from Mars and is smaller to boot, making it much less visible in the Martian sky.
When Deimos crosses paths with the sun, it's more properly called a transit,
rather than an eclipse.

In this photo of a Deimos transit taken by the Opportunity rover in 2004,
the moon basically looks like a sunspot.
(NASA/JPL/Cornell)

Other planets experience eclipses, too, although
we haven't observed any of them from the ground up.
Here, for instance, is a Hubble telescope image of Jupiter's moon
Io casting a shadow on Jupiter's surface.

J. Spencer (Lowell Observatory) and NASA

From Jupiter, the sun appears much smaller than it does in our own sky.
A number of the planet's moons obscure it completely, creating not
an eclipse but an occultation — an astronomical term for when one
object is completely hidden by another one of much larger apparent size.
Because Jupiter has at least 69 moons, it sometimes experiences multiple
eclipses and occultations simultaneously.

A similar situation holds on Saturn, Uranus and even faraway Neptune.
Eclipses can happen on Pluto, too.

But our own total eclipses on Earth are one-of-a-kind. Because
of the similarity between the apparent sizes of the moon and sun
when viewed from Earth, our total eclipses block out the entirety
of the sun's disc while leaving the luminous corona —
the sun's fiery atmosphere — plainly visible in the darkened sky.

That event happens nowhere else in the solar system — not even on Mars.

RAPPORT DE Y'BECCA ET DU CITOYEN TIGNARD YANIS
SOUS L'EGIDE DU VICE PRESIDENT DES U.S.A, MIKE PENCE
ET DES PRINCIPES DE PHILADELPHIE POUR HARMONISER DANS LA SITUATION
DES CHAMBRES HAUTE ET BASSE DES U.S.A
Revenir en haut Aller en bas
Voir le profil de l'utilisateur http://www.atelier-yannistignard.com En ligne
yanis la chouette



Nombre de messages : 7495
Localisation : http://yanis.tignard.free.fr/
Date d'inscription : 09/11/2005

MessageSujet: Re: FIREHOLE, YELLOWSTONE AND THE DARWF WEATHER FORECASTS   Lun 21 Aoû à 3:04

News | August 17, 2017
Scientists Improve Brown Dwarf Weather Forecasts

Dim objects called brown dwarfs, less massive than the Sun but more massive
than Jupiter, have powerful winds and clouds -- specifically, hot patchy clouds
made of iron droplets and silicate dust. Scientists recently realized these giant
clouds can move and thicken or thin surprisingly rapidly, in less than an Earth day,
but did not understand why.

Now, researchers have a new model for explaining how clouds move
and change shape in brown dwarfs, using insights from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope.
Giant waves cause large-scale movement of particles
in brown dwarfs' atmospheres, changing the thickness
of the silicate clouds, researchers report in the journal Science.
The study also suggests these clouds are organized in bands confined
to different latitudes, traveling with different speeds in different bands.

"This is the first time we have seen atmospheric bands and waves
in brown dwarfs," said lead author Daniel Apai, associate professor
of astronomy and planetary sciences at the University of Arizona in Tucson.

Just as in Earth's ocean, different types of waves can form
in planetary atmospheres. For example, in Earth's atmosphere,
very long waves mix cold air from the polar regions to mid-latitudes,
which often lead clouds to form or dissipate.

The distribution and motions of the clouds on brown dwarfs in
this study are more similar to those seen on Jupiter, Saturn,
Uranus and Neptune. Neptune has cloud structures that
follow banded paths too, but its clouds are made of ice.
Observations of Neptune from NASA's Kepler spacecraft,
operating in its K2 mission, were important in this comparison
between the planet and brown dwarfs.

"The atmospheric winds of brown dwarfs seem to be more like
Jupiter's familiar regular pattern of belts and zones than
the chaotic atmospheric boiling seen on the Sun and many
other stars," said study co-author Mark Marley at NASA's Ames
Research Center in California's Silicon Valley.

Brown dwarfs can be thought of as failed stars because
they are too small to fuse chemical elements in their cores.
They can also be thought of as "super planets" because
they are more massive than Jupiter, yet have roughly the same
diameter. Like gas giant planets, brown dwarfs are mostly made
of hydrogen and helium, but they are often found apart from
any planetary systems. In a 2014 study using Spitzer, scientists found
that brown dwarfs commonly have atmospheric storms.

Due to their similarity to giant exoplanets, brown dwarfs are
windows into planetary systems beyond our own. It is easier
to study brown dwarfs than planets because they often do
not have a bright host star that obscures them.

"It is likely the banded structure and large atmospheric waves
we found in brown dwarfs will also be common in giant exoplanets,"
Apai said.

Using Spitzer, scientists monitored brightness changes in six
brown dwarfs over more than a year, observing each of them rotate
32 times. As a brown dwarf rotates, its clouds move in and out
of the hemisphere seen by the telescope, causing changes
in the brightness of the brown dwarf. Scientists then analyzed
these brightness variations to explore how silicate clouds are
distributed in the brown dwarfs.

Researchers had been expecting these brown dwarfs to have elliptical
storms resembling Jupiter's Great Red Spot, caused by high-pressure zones.
The Great Red Spot has been present in Jupiter for hundreds of years
and changes very slowly: Such "spots" could not explain the rapid changes
in brightness that scientists saw while observing these brown dwarfs.
The brightness levels of the brown dwarfs varied markedly just over
the course of an Earth day.

To make sense of the ups and downs of brightness, scientists had
to rethink their assumptions about what was going on in the brown dwarf
atmospheres. The best model to explain the variations involves large waves,
propagating through the atmosphere with different periods. These waves
would make the cloud structures rotate with different speeds in different bands.

University of Arizona researcher Theodora Karalidi used a supercomputer
and a new computer algorithm to create maps of how clouds travel
on these brown dwarfs.

"When the peaks of the two waves are offset, over the course
of the day there are two points of maximum brightness," Karalidi said.
"When the waves are in sync, you get one large peak, making
the brown dwarf twice as bright as with a single wave."

The results explain the puzzling behavior and brightness changes
that researchers previously saw. The next step is to try to better
understand what causes the waves that drive cloud behavior.

JPL manages the Spitzer Space Telescope mission for NASA's Science
Mission Directorate, Washington. Science operations are conducted
at the Spitzer Science Center at Caltech in Pasadena, California.
Spacecraft operations are based at Lockheed Martin Space Systems
Company, Littleton, Colorado. Data are archived at the Infrared Science
Archive housed at the Infrared Processing and Analysis Center at Caltech.
Caltech manages JPL for NASA. For more information about Spitzer, visit:

http://spitzer.caltech.edu

https://www.nasa.gov/spitzer

News Media Contact
Elizabeth Landau
Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif.
818-354-6425
https://www.jpl.nasa.gov/news/news.php?feature=6925&utm_source=iContact&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=NASAJPL&utm_content=spitzer20170817
-------------------------------------


Energy and Environment
What it’s like to ride a 6,000-ton icebreaker through Arctic waters
The Northwest Passage in 2017: Follow our series exploring the Arctic
By Chris Mooney August 14


elizabeth.landau@jpl.nasa.gov

2017-221

VICTORIA STRAIT, NORTHWEST PASSAGE — When the CCGS Amundsen
breaks through a 10-foot (or thicker) piece of ice, it rides on top of it first,
the whole front of the ship sliding onto the sheet as the boat comes to a stop.
Then the ship, 100 yards long and weighing 6,000 tons, crushes down,
and its sharp hull splits the ice and pushes the fragments to either side.

Here in the ice-clogged Victoria Strait, there’s much crushing to do.
These are the icy waters that famously claimed the ships of
Sir John Franklin in the late 1840s, even though he set out
with Britain’s strongest steam-powered vessels of the time —
and, climate change or not, they don’t feel so different today.

The Washington Post’s Alice Li and I are here to document
a voyage of the CCGS Amundsen — a ship so famous in Canada
that it is pictured on the $50 bill — as it navigates the waterways
of the famous Northwest Passage. The boat is occupied by Canadian
coast guard sailors and dozens of scientists from the ArcticNet
consortium based at Université Laval in Quebec City.

The Energy 202 newsletter

Your daily guide to the energy and environment debate.

The vessel’s crew and passengers are here researching how
the waters of the Arctic are changing because of climate change
and increased vessel traffic.

It’s a research mission that often involves impressive
and expensive instruments, such as the gigantic 35-foot-long
piston corer that plunges into the seafloor at high speed
and extracts long cylinders of ancient mud, looking
for clues on this environment’s state thousands
of years ago, when it was covered with a sheet of ice.

They also use a tool known as the CTD Rosette, a device consisting
of dozens of canisters that gathers up water samples to determine
basic physical properties of the ocean, checking temperatures
and salt levels as researchers investigate whether the seas
are warming or currents are shifting.

But the Amundsen is also a coast guard ship and at any moment
can be diverted from scientific pursuits to search and rescue,
or to help out a vessel in need. Several days ago, we took
a detour to provide some extra fuel and food to the U.S. Coast
Guard Cutter Maple, which is making a Northwest Passage transit
of its own — from Sitka, Alaska, to Baltimore — and needed a little
extra supplies along the way. That resulted in a touching moment
in which Canadian and U.S. personnel lined up on opposite decks
to swap T-shirts, baseball caps and even a book.

And it’s not just coast-guard callings that can rapidly change
the day’s plans — it’s the elements. Ice conditions are monitored
in high detail, often via the ship’s helicopter, sent to gather knowledge
far beyond what’s available from the official ice charts. As results come back,
science schedules are constantly being torn up and rewritten.

“We try to accommodate all the science that we can, but then fog
and ice and all these other variables that we have no control over,
they chew on our contingency time,” says Martine Lizotte,
the chief scientist on board and a research associate at the Université Laval
in Quebec City. “And if we add something to the schedule, like breaking ice,
then we have to subtract something else down the line.”

Jasmin Beauregard, left, and Hugo Jacques of the Canadian coast guard
prepare nets Wednesday in the Queen Maud Gulf. The nets are used
to scrape the seafloor and capture specimens for researchers to study.
(Alice Li/The Washington Post)

But the coast guard also benefits from having the scientists on board
because it pushes it to explore areas that aren’t otherwise immediate
coast guard priorities, said the ship’s commanding officer, Claude Lafrance.

“We usually go where the communities are or where the commercial
ship goes,” Lafrance said. “If we did not have the ArcticNet and
the scientists, the Arctic waters would stay with a lot of places
uncharted or not known.”

In between stops, the scientists grab sleep when they can —
they often hit their research sites in the wee hours of the morning
and quickly throw their equipment over the side. There’s plenty
of light to work by during those early hours, with the long hours
of light from the summer Arctic sun. But the schedule does mean people
on board are often tired, or at least keeping unusual sleep schedules.

The boat is filled more with students and graduate students
than senior scientists — getting much-needed experience
in taking cores from the seafloor or water samples. While on
the deck working with the heavy equipment, they wear hard hats,
steel-toed boots and “immersion” suits that remind you a little
of Luke Skywalker’s flight suit. The suits are there to keep you alive
if you fall into the freezing waters, long enough for someone to rescue you.

When the students aren’t working on the deck or in specialized labs
hosted in containers on the ship, they organized a scavenger hunt,
ranging around the ship and looking at scientific posters and
other displays to gather a list of information.

Life on board is modern and comfortable — the ship offers warm
showers, expertly cooked food by a trio of Quebecoise chefs,
and even hot chocolate when you come in from the cold and ice.
There’s a small gym and informally organized yoga classes.

There’s even formal Sunday dinner, where you’re supposed to get
out of muddy science clothes and dress nice. In the officer’s dining hall,
food and wine is served by a waitstaff. It’s all too easy to forget
you’re in remote, rarely visited and dangerous waters.

Time on board is punctuated by loudspeaker announcements from
the bridge, always in French first followed by English.
(The Amundsen’s home port is Quebec City.) One of the most common is a warning
not to smoke outside, because the helicopter is refueling — followed by
a subsequent announcement when the refueling is done and smoking can resume.

Rarer, and far more anticipated, announcements alert all on board
to the sighting of a polar bear or walrus perched on the ice.
So far we have seen several — including a bear whose enormous
head protruded from the water between ice floes as it swam in place
and seemed to be bathing.

Aude Boivin-Rioux teaches yoga in the officer’s lounge Saturday.
(Alice Li/The Washington Post)

Sleeping on board is in bunks, two to a cabin — and often done
despite the steady chirping sound of the echo sounder, which is
busy measuring the ocean floor and sediments beneath the ship
through the use of sound waves. You get used to it, or you find
earplugs.

The ship’s dramatic shaking at night as it crushes through thick ice
is ultimately a bit more unnerving. But the consolation is remembering
that you’re on a vessel designed for just this — and one that goes out
to rescue other ships that get in trouble in these waters.

A successful scientific cruise, Lizotte said, can be measured
in many ways. It could be gauged by how many research stops
are actually completed — but some are inevitably thwarted by the ice.

“But there’s also the human side of things, when you get off the ship
and people are like, ‘I’ll call you,’ and we’ll meet and we have a beer,”
she said.
“We’ve developed bonds, and we meet after these cruises.
I think that’s also a measure of success.”

Read more:
https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/energy-environment/wp/2017/08/14/what-its-like-to-ride-a-6000-ton-icebreaker-through-arctic-waters/?utm_term=.13774ffd134d
The Arctic’s fabled passage is opening up. This is what it looks like.
Even small boats are tackling the fabled Northwest Passage. The ice doesn’t always cooperate.

---------------------------------

LE CLANS DES MOUETTES AVEC LA N.A.S.A APPRENEZ L'ANGLAIS
ET SES VARIATIONS AFIN DE FAIRE DÉVELOPPER LE FRANÇAIS ET SES BRANCHAGES...
CITOYEN TIGNARD YANIS.
STEM Activities | NASA/JPL Edu


Teach
Bring the wonder of space to your students. Explore our universe
of science, technology, engineering and math activities and resources.
https://www.jpl.nasa.gov/edu/teach/


Teachable Moments| August 10, 2017
Get Students Excited About Science With This Month’s Total Solar Eclipse

By Lyle Tavernier


Update – Aug. 17, 2017: Two new lessons ("Measuring Solar Energy
During an Eclipse" and "Modeling the Earth-Moon System") were
added to the Teach It section below.
In the News
A satellite image of the Moon's shadow on Earth during a total solar eclipse

The Moon casts a shadow on Earth during a total solar eclipse
over Europe in this image taken by a French astronaut
on the Mir Space Station. Credit: CNES

This month marks the first time in 38 years that one
of nature’s most awe-inspiring sights, a total solar eclipse,
will be visible from the continental United States. And unlike
the 1979 eclipse, the one on August 21 can be seen from coast to coast
– something that hasn’t happened since 1918.

Millions of people are expected to travel to the 14 states
that are in the path of totality – where the Moon will completely
cover the disk of the Sun – while hundreds of millions more
in every other state of the U.S. will be able to see a partial eclipse.

Whether you live in or are traveling to the path of totality,
or will be able to step outside and view the partial eclipse from
the comfort of your own home or school, the eclipse provides
both an inspiring reason to look to the sky and opportunities
to engage in scientific observations and discovery.
Animation of the Aug. 21, 2017 eclipse –
Pi in the Sky 4 math problem
Teach It

Use these standards-aligned lessons and related activities
to get your students excited about the eclipse
and the science that will be conducted during the eclipse.

› Get started!
How it Works

Eclipses occur as the result of an alignment between the Sun,
the Moon and Earth. Solar eclipses can only happen during
the new moon phase, when the Moon’s orbit brings it between
Earth and the Sun. At this time, the shadow cast by the moon
could land on Earth, resulting in an eclipse. But most of the time,
because the moon’s orbit is slightly titled, the moon’s shadow
falls above or below Earth.

The time period when the Moon, Earth and the Sun are lined up
and on the same plane is called an eclipse season. Eclipse seasons
last about 34 days and occur just shy of every six months.
A new moon during an eclipse season will cause the Moon’s shadow
to fall on Earth, creating a solar eclipse.
graphic showing eclipse seasons
An eclipse season is the time period when the Moon,
Earth and the Sun are lined up on the same plane.
A new moon during an eclipse season will cause the Moon's shadow
to fall on Earth, creating a solar eclipse. Image credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech

In addition to the proper alignment required for an eclipse, the distance
between Earth, the Moon and the Sun also plays an important role.
Even though the Moon is much smaller than
Sun (about 400 times smaller in diameter), the Sun and Moon appear
about the same size from Earth because the Sun is about 400 times
farther away than the Moon. If the Moon were farther from Earth,
it would appear smaller and not cover the disk of the Sun. Similarly,
if the Sun were closer to Earth, it would appear larger and the Moon
would not completely cover it.
Why It’s Important

Total solar eclipses provide a unique opportunity for scientists
to study the Sun and Earth from land, air and space, and allow
the public to engage in citizen science!

Total eclipse image taken March 20, 2015 in Svalbard,
Norway. Credit: S. Habbal, M. Druckmüller and P. Aniol

The sun's outer atmosphere (corona) and thin lower atmosphere
(chromosphere) can be seen streaming out from the covered disk
of the sun during a solar eclipse on March 20, 2015.
Credit: S. Habbal, M. Druckmüller and P. Aniol

On a typical day, the bright surface of the Sun, called
the photosphere, is the only part of the Sun we can see.
During a total solar eclipse, the photosphere is completely
blocked by the Moon, leaving the outer atmosphere of the Sun
(corona) and the thin lower atmosphere (chromosphere) visible.
Studying these regions of the Sun’s atmosphere can help scientists
understand solar radiation, why the corona is hotter than
the photosphere, and the process by which the Sun sends
a steady stream of material and radiation into space.

Scientists measure incoming solar radiation on Earth, also known
as insolation, to better understand Earth’s radiation budget –
the energy emitted, reflected and absorbed by Earth. Just as
clouds block sunlight and reduce insolation, the eclipse will block
sunlight, providing a great opportunity to study how increased
cloud cover can impact weather and climate.
(Learn more about insolation during the 2017 eclipse here.)

Citizen scientists can get involved in collecting data and participating
in the scientific process, too, through NASA’s Global Learning
and Observations to Benefit the Environment, or GLOBE, program.
During the eclipse, citizen scientists in the path of totality
and in partial eclipse areas can measure temperature and cloud cover
data and report it using the GLOBE Observer app to help further
the study of how eclipses affect Earth’s atmosphere.

You can learn more about the many ways scientists are using
the eclipse to improve their understanding of Earth, the Moon and the Sun here.
How to View It

Important! Do not look directly at the Sun or view the partial eclipse
without certified eclipse glasses or a solar filter. For more information
on safe eclipse viewing, visit the NASA Eclipse website.

When following proper safety guidelines, witnessing an eclipse is
an unparalleled experience. Many “eclipse chasers” have been known
to travel the world to see total eclipses.

The start time of the partial eclipse, when the edge of the Moon first
crosses in front of the disk of the Sun, will depend on your location.
You can click on your location in this interactive eclipse map to create
a pin, which will show you the start and end time for the eclipse
in Universal Time. (To convert from Universal Time to your local time,
subtract four hours for EDT, five hours for CDT, six hours for MDT,
or seven hours for PDT.) Clicking on your location pin will also
show you the percent of Sun that will be eclipsed in your area
if you’re outside the path of totality.
Aug 2017 eclipse map
This graphic shows the path of the Moon and Sun across
the US during the Aug. 21, 2017 eclipse. The gray line represents
the path of totality, while the Sun and Moon graphics flowing from
top to bottom represent the percent of coverage for areas outside
the path of totality. Image credit: NASA

If you are inside the approximately 70-mile-wide strip known as the path
of totality, where the shadow of the Moon, or umbra, will fall on Earth,
the total eclipse will be visible starting about an hour to 1.5 hours
after the partial eclipse begins.

Only when the eclipse is at totality – and the viewer is in
the path of totality – can eclipse glasses be removed. Look at the eclipse
for anywhere from a few seconds to more than 2.5 minutes
to see the Sun’s corona and chromosphere, as well as the darkened
near side of the Moon facing Earth. As before, your viewing location
during the eclipse will determine how long you can see the eclipse
in totality.
graphic showing when its safe to remove your eclipse glasses
if you are in the path of totality
Viewers should wear eclipse glasses or use a pinhole camera
for the entirety of the partial eclipse. Those in the path of totality
can remove their glasses only when the eclipse is in totality,
which may last from a few seconds to more than 2.5 minutes
depending on your location. Image credit: NASA

After totality ends, a partial eclipse will continue for an hour to 1.5 hours,
ending when the edge of the Moon moves off of the disk of the Sun.
Remember, wear eclipse glasses
or use a pinhole camera for the entirety of the partial eclipse.
Do not directly view the partial eclipse.
Animation of the pinhole camera project from NASA-JPL Education
Make a Pinhole Camera

Find out how to make your very own pinhole camera to safely
view the eclipse in action.

› Get started!

To get an idea of what the eclipse will look like from your location
and explore the positions of the Moon, Sun and Earth throughout
the eclipse, see this interactive simulation.

For more information about the start of the partial eclipse,
the start and duration of totality, and the percentage
of the Sun eclipsed outside the path of totality, find
your location on this interactive eclipse map.

NASA Television will host a live broadcast beginning
at 9 a.m. PDT on Aug. 21 showing the path of totality
and featuring views from agency research aircraft, high-altitude
balloons, satellites and specially-modified telescopes.
Find out how and where to watch, here.
Teach It

Use these standards-aligned lessons and related activities
to get your students excited about the eclipse and the science that will be
conducted during the eclipse.

Epic Eclipse – Students use the mathematical constant pi
to approximate the area of land covered by the Moon’s shadow during the eclipse.
Pinhole Camera – Learn how to make your very own pinhole camera
to safely see a solar eclipse in action from anywhere the eclipse is visible, partial or full!
Moon Phases - Students learn about the phases of the Moon by acting
them out. In 30 minutes, they will act out one complete, 30-day, Moon cycle.
NEW! Measuring Solar Energy During an Eclipse – Students use mobile
devices to measure the impact a solar eclipse has on the energy received at Earth’s surface.
NEW! Modeling the Earth-Moon System – Students learn about
scale models and distance by creating a classroom-size Earth-Moon system.
NASA GLOBE Observer – Students can become citizen scientists
and collect data for NASA’s GLOBE Program using this app available
for iOS and Android devices (eclipse update available starting August 18, 2017).

Explore More

NASA TV Eclipse 2017 broadcast info
NASA 2017 Eclipse website
NASA Eyes Eclipse 2017 Interactive
Interactive Eclipse Map
NASA Eclipse website (for info about other eclipses)
Eclipse Safety
American Astronomical Society website (for info on reputable vendors
of solar viewers and filters)
Earth’s Radiation Budget

TAGS: Eclipse, Solar Eclipse, Science, Pinhole Camera, K-12, Students, Educators

Lyle Tavernier
ABOUT THE AUTHOR

Lyle Tavernier, Educational Technology Specialist, NASA/JPL Edu

Lyle Tavernier is an educational technology specialist at NASA's Jet
Propulsion Laboratory. When he’s not busy working in the areas of distance
learning and instructional technology, you might find him running with his dog,
cooking or planning his next trip.

RAPPORT MORAL
DU CITOYEN TIGNARD YANIS
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Nombre de messages : 7495
Localisation : http://yanis.tignard.free.fr/
Date d'inscription : 09/11/2005

MessageSujet: Re: FIREHOLE, YELLOWSTONE AND THE DARWF WEATHER FORECASTS   Lun 21 Aoû à 3:29

TIGNARD YANIS‏ @TIGNARDYANIS 19 août
NIETZSCHE EN CRÉANT LE PERSONNAGE DE ZARATHOUSTRA EN RESPECTANT LE RÉEL ET L'HONNEUR DE L'ÉCRIT M'A OUVERT LA PORTE CONTRE LE FANATISME. TAY

LA FORCE DE ZARATHOUSTRA EST DE RETROUVER LES HISTOIRES ANCIENNES ET MONTRAIT AUX PEUPLES COMMENT LE RÉALITÉ EST DEVENUE UN MYTHE. TAY

LUCIEN ÉCRIT QU'À LA MORT DE EPICTÉTE, UN HOMME SOT ACHETA SA LAMPE DE TERRE EN ESPÉRANT Y OBTENIR QUELQUES LUMIÈRES: LE GÉNIE D'ALADIN. TAY

EPICTÉTE EST AIMÉ PAR DESCARTES ET KANT; IL Y A L'HISTOIRE DE LA LAMPE DE TERRE ACHETÉ 3000 DRACHMES: AINSI EST NÉ LE GÉNIE D'ALADIN. TAY

SI LA PLUPART DES AUTEURS N'APPLIQUENT PAS LA DOCTRINE DE EPICTÉTE, SES DOCTRINES MORALES ONT MARQUÉ LES PILLIERS DE LA SAGESSE LIBRE. TAY

EPICTÉTE, FONDATEUR D'UNE ÉCOLE À NICOPOLIS EN ÉPIRE. SON ENSEIGNEMENT FUT TRANSMIT PAR ARRIEN DE NICOMÉDIE: "ABSTIENT TOI ET SUPPORTE". TAY

ÉPICTÈTE EST UN HOMME DIGNE DONT LA RAISON N'EST PAS PARFAITE MAIS IRRÉPROCHABLE DANS L'ASPECT DU SOCIAL ET DE LA COMMUNICATION: JUSTE. TAY

ÉPICTÈTE PRÊCHE LA LIBERTÉ INTÉRIEUR ET LA SOUMISSION À LA RAISON: IL CONFONDS DONC LA CONVICTION DE CONSCIENCE AU JUGEMENT DE LIBERTÉ. TAY

L'HISTOIRE DE EPICTÈTE ET DE EPAPHRODITE. CELLE D'UN ESCLAVE ACHETÉ PAR UN ESCLAVE: L'HISTOIRE DE L'IMPASSIBILITÉ ET DE LA JAMBE BRISÉE. TAY

LE SAGE EST LIBRE EN LA LOI DU CYLINDRE ET IL REDEVABLE DEVANT L'ASSISTANCE D'UN PEUPLE QUI SE STRUCTURE EN INDIVIDUALITÉ CONVERGENTE. TAY

FIRE HOLE RIVER IN YELLOWSTONE: A VERY NICE STYX... TAY https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OQWqUIp1_mI&sns=tw … via @youtube

MilitaryHealth‏Compte certifié @MilitaryHealth 19 août
Join us on Aug. 23 from 2-3 PM EST for the #ImmunizeTogether twitter chat, we’ll have our SME Col. Rans answer all of your questions.

TIGNARD YANIS‏ @TIGNARDYANIS 20 août
DIMANCHE 20 AOÛT 2017, J'IGNORE L'ACTUALITÉ RÉELLE DU MATIN QUI SE LÈVE TOUT COMME CELLE DE CEUX VONT SE COUCHER: L'ÉCLIPTIQUE NATURE. TAY

LE SILENCE SE FAIT ENTENDRE DANS LA NUIT ET DE LES ÂMES FONT ENTENDRE LE VROMBISSEMENT DE LEURS MOTEURS: GARDER ESPÉRANCE EN L'ÉTHIQUE. TAY

TIGNARD YANIS‏ @TIGNARDYANIS 15 hil y a 15 heures
J'AIME ADRESSER UN ESPOIR EN L'HORIZON DE L'ÉTERNEL ET DANS LES ÉVOLUTIONS DU VENT OU UNIVERS; LE SILENCE NE RONGE PAS LE TEMPS: VIVRE. TAY

LA LAÏCITÉ SE RENDS COMPTE QU'IL Y A PLUS DE PHILOSOPHIES QU'IL N'Y A D'EXISTENCE SUR LA TERRE CAR LES MEUTES CHERCHENT CHEFS ET IDÉES. TAY

L'ÂME SE TROUVE DEVANT TROIS EXTRÉMISTES BASÉ SUR LEURS ASPECTS DE VÉRITÉ: L'ATHÉISME, LE RELIGIEUX ET LE MENTEUR, SE REVENDIQUANT ÊTRE. TAY

LA PERSONNALITÉ SE CONFRONTE AUX AFFIRMATIONS SI CELLES-CI N'ESSAYENT PAS D'INCULQUER LEURS PROPRES PENSÉES DE PEUR SUR LA SURVIE. TAY

LA MÉDITATION ET LA CONSCIENCE PEUVENT ÊTRE UN REFUGE DE L'ÂME MAIS, UN JOUR CELLE CI DOIT SE CONFRONTER À LA SOCIÉTÉ: L'ADVERSITÉ. TAY

L'ÉTHIQUE ET L'ÉVOLUTION SONT DES POINTS COMMUNS ET DIVERGENTS DE L'EXISTENCE HUMAINE DE L'ÊTRE CAR L'ACTE LIÉ À L'ESPÉRANCE, O ÉTERNEL. TAY

PARTAGER EST UN SENTIMENT PLUS FORT QUE DOMINER: DES EXTRÉMISTES VEULENT NOUS FAIRE RETOURNER DANS DES CONDITIONS DE VIE LIÉ À LA HAINE. TAY

IL EST UN ACTEUR QUI A SU CHOISIR CES PHÉNOMÈNES D'EMPRUNT DANS CES RÔLES TOUT EN Y INCLUANT UNE ÉTHIQUE DE SOI, C'EST CHARLTON HESTON. TAY

L'ÉPROUVETTE N'EST PAS LA FIOLE ET L'APTITUDE N'EST PAS L'ÉTHIQUE; L'ÉVOLUTION DES EXISTENCES: DE CHARLTON HESTON À ANDY SERKIS. VUES DE TAY

VOUS ÊTES UN MONDE OÙ LA MÉTAPHYSIQUE DÉVORE LA SCIENCE FICTION DANS LA PLANÈTE DES SINGES DE PIERRE BOULLE: LE SILENCE RONGE LE TEMPS. TAY

L'OEUVRE DE PIERRE BOULLE EST INCROYABLE PLUS ANTHROPOLOGUE QUE CELLE INTERPRÉTÉ PAR CHARLTON HESTON QUI FUT LE PREMIER À LE DIRE. TAY

CE NOUVEAU METTEUR EN SCÈNE DE LA PLANÈTE DES SINGES A DÉTRUIT DES ASPECTS ANTHROPOLOGUES POUR LES TRANSFORMER EN DES 21 JUMP STREET. TAY

LINDA HARISSON, NOVA, PILLIER DU RETOUR DE L'OEUVRE DE PIERRE BOULLE OÙ LE TEMPS DÉFORMÉ PAR LA NAISSANCE D'UN BÉBÉ DONNE UN AUTRE MOMENT. Y

DANS L'OEUVRE DE PIERRE BOULLE, HOMMES REVIENNENT À LEUR ÉPOQUE QUI EST DEVENUE LA PLANÈTE DES SINGES: TIM BURTON A TENTÉ UNE RÉPONSE . TAY

J'AURAI AIMÉ SAVOIR COMMENT L'ASTRONAUTE DE TIM BURTON AURAIT VÉCU DANS LA PLANÈTE DES SINGES ET RÉPONDRE AU RETOUR DE PIERRE BOULLE. TAY

DANS CETTE NOUVELLE PLANÈTE DES SINGES, JE DÉPLORE CORNELIUS ET ZIRA PUIS CETTE DÉCOUVERTE DE PIERRE BOULLE: LA METAPHYSE ANTHROPOLOGUE. TAY

POURTANT, DANS LA NOUVELLE PLANÈTE DES SINGES, J'AIME BIEN LE VIEIL OURAN OUTAN, ABANDONNÉ PAR UN CIRQUE ET DEVENU LE PROFESSEUR DE CÉSAR. Y

ON A CRITIQUÉ 300 DE DIRE DES CLIVAGES ET DES CLICHÉS SUR LES CIVILISATIONS MAIS LA NOUVELLE PLANÈTE DES SINGES EST UNE GUERRE DE GANG. TAY

DANS CETTE NOUVELLE TRILOGIE DE LA PLANÈTE DES SINGES, ON DÉVELOPPE RIEN ET MÊME ON L'AMPUTE DE SON ASPECT SPARTIATE DE SCIENCE FICTION. TAY

L'ORIGINALITÉ DES SAGA DE LA PLANÈTE DES SINGES AVEC CHARLTON HESTON PUIS DE TIM BURTON S'EST LA VISION SUR L'OEUVRE DE BOULLE PIERRE. TAY

DÉCÈS DE JERRY LEWIS. DE TRÈS NOMBREUX COMIQUES ET COMÉDIENS VONT LUI RENDRE UN GRAND HOMMAGE DONT MICHEL LEEB, NÉ LE 23 AVRIL 1947. TAY

SAN FRANCISCO RADIO POUR BARCELONE ET À CEUX QUI LUTTENT POUR LE PARTAGE. TERRITOIRE BRITANNIQUE DE GIBRALTAR. TAY
Jacques Brel - La Quete
https://twitter.com/TIGNARDYANIS
TAY

COUP DE GUEULE
DU CITOYEN TIGNARD YANIS

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Nombre de messages : 7495
Localisation : http://yanis.tignard.free.fr/
Date d'inscription : 09/11/2005

MessageSujet: Re: FIREHOLE, YELLOWSTONE AND THE DARWF WEATHER FORECASTS   Mar 22 Aoû à 9:16

TALMUD DE JERUSALEM ET LIVRES DES JUGES

CITOYEN TIGNARD YANIS RACONTE

La lanterne et le phare.

Ah, ces souffrances nocturnes qui travaillent à sceller nos destins.
Elles ne sont pas telles une fortune qui en vient dénouer ses liens.
Dans les appartenues de sottise, les apparences se font chimères.
Un silence criard fait entendre la note absolue: la sirène de mer.

Quelle est la date ? Tu feuillettes le livre des songes devant le ton.
L'amer qui est remplaçait par le plaisir et le désir supplante l'envie.
Reconnaissance fait signe au phare, la lumière soigne la distinction.
Le cri de la lanterne rencontre l'absolue divinité en moi: la survie.

POEME DE
TAY
LA CHOUETTE EFFRAIE

------------------

TALMUD DE JERUSALEM ET LIVRES DES JUGES

CITOYEN TIGNARD YANIS RACONTE YAHVE

Nagalïéw du clan de la Garonne poursuit ses rêves dans les infini
de l'imaginaire et de l'éther. Ses souvenirs ne s'estompent pas
de sa mémoire. O, elle a traversé les souffles du Sahara et les
rugissement des grands océans tel le chameau et l'albatros...

Dans la clarté des anges, des milliers de papillons se distinguent
Dans ses yeux, elle qui approche de ce lieu: Rêves des hommes
Et jamais atteint par aucun d'entre eux sauf les navigateurs nomades.
elle entends alors ses convictions devant sa conscience et ses sœurs !

Telle un vaisseau malade depuis la disparition de Eole partis rejoindre
Le grand vide. Nagalïéw regarde l'escalier de la gravite et sans le moindre
repère part rejoindre cet infini aussi lointain que peut l'être le pacifique.
Minouska regarde son amie dans ce mouvement et miaule un écho...

Dans ce monde de nuances, Nagalïéw et Minouska sont unies de sang.
Ayant des aspects de vies, l'une est écliptique et l'autre est rotationnelle.
Chacune dans le souffle de vie portant sur le concept fondamentale...
Sublime dans le déplacement, je suis dans l'inconnu du commentaire.

Ecrit de
TAY
la chouette effraie
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Nombre de messages : 7495
Localisation : http://yanis.tignard.free.fr/
Date d'inscription : 09/11/2005

MessageSujet: Re: FIREHOLE, YELLOWSTONE AND THE DARWF WEATHER FORECASTS   Sam 9 Sep à 3:20

SON PRÉNOM EST NINA, DOUCE NUÉE DU MARCHÉ SAINT CYPRIEN


LA JOIE ME FUT JADIS DÉROBÉE PAR MON EXISTENCE OU PAR LE DESTIN LUI MÊME.
UNE CHATTE PRÉNOMMÉE MINOUSKA ME RAPPELA L’ESPÉRANCE ET ME REPRIT AU CROIRE
DE L'ESPOIR. DANS LA PÉRIODE DE LEADER PRICE ET DE MON EXÉMA, ELLE FUT PILIER
DE MON ENTRETIEN AVEC LA NATURE ET LES PRINCIPES DE LA VIE: LA MANIÈRE D’ÊTRE

LA JOIE EST VENUE DANS UN SENTIMENT SIMPLE, PAR UN SOURIRE TIMIDE ET SERVIABLE
QUI PORTE UNE VOIX DOUCE ET AIGRE. CETTE PERSONNE CALME ME REGARDA ET
UN SENTIMENT BIZARRE NAQUIT DANS MON CŒUR: JE FUT SUBJUGUE PAR SON CALME.
DOUCE ET AFFIRMÉE AFFRONTANT LES INTEMPÉRIES DE LA PLUME ET DU VERBE
SACHANT JONGLER SUR LES ASPECTS DU MARCHE ET HUMBLE DE SON CHARME: LA GRÂCE.

AU LIEU DE M’ÉLOIGNER DU MONDE, ELLE M'EN RAPPROCHE CAR ELLE SAIT ESSUYER LE VERBE
SANS LA MOINDRE GRIMACE ! ELLE EST DANS SON ÉQUILIBRE ET CELUI CI EST SON SECRET.
ELLE EST UN MYSTÈRE DANS LA PLÉNITUDE DE SES MOUVEMENTS DIGNE DES BEAUX NUAGES.
DANS SON CALME, J'Y APERÇOIT DES RÊVERIES MYSTÉRIEUSES: DES SONGES ÉNIGMATIQUES.

DANS LA CLARTÉ DE LA LUMIÈRE TOUT COMME DANS LE SONGE DE LA NUIT; IL EST DES FAITS
QUE L'HOMME NE PEUT OUBLIER. JE NE CHERCHE DONC PAS DE RAISONS SUR MES SENTIMENTS.
LA JOIE EST UN MERVEILLEUX SENTIMENT DANS LE BONHEUR TOUT COMME DANS LE MALHEUR.
ELLE FAIT PARTI DE SES PERSONNES QUI ME REDONNE SOIF AU BONHEUR: ELLE EST NINA.

ECRIT DU
CITOYEN TIGNARD YANIS
ALIAS
TAY La chouette effraie
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MessageSujet: Re: FIREHOLE, YELLOWSTONE AND THE DARWF WEATHER FORECASTS   

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