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 VORMÄRZ, L'HÉGÉLIANISME, LE LIBÉRALISME ET BERLIN OU Y'BECCA

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yanis la chouette



Nombre de messages : 6874
Localisation : http://yanis.tignard.free.fr/
Date d'inscription : 09/11/2005

MessageSujet: VORMÄRZ, L'HÉGÉLIANISME, LE LIBÉRALISME ET BERLIN OU Y'BECCA   Mar 4 Juil à 3:32

RÉNOVER ET JE M'Y PRÉPARE TURBULENTE ALLEMAGNE. TA DISCIPLINE EST TOUT COMME LE ROSEAU
VORMÄRZ, L'HÉGÉLIANISME ET LIBÉRALISME OU MERKEL.ANGELA SONT TOUT COMME CE ROSEAU MAIS
ÉTANT DEVENU CHÊNE DANS LE MIRAGE DU MARÉCAGE.
L'ALLEMAGNE DANS LA THÉORIE D'EMPIRE ENTRE LA THÉORIE ET LA RÉALITÉ POLITIQUE
AVEC UNE ÈRE D'ABSOLUTISME MONARCHIQUE: AINSI NAQUIT WEIMAR. Y
SILENCE NE SERA PAS NOTRE GRAND GLAIVE, IL CONSTITUERA LE CONCEPT DU CORPS
DE NOTRE ÉMOTION: UN PHARE DANS L'INFINI ET LE TEMPS. NARMIA. Y
L'HISTOIRE DE FRIEDRICH CHRISTOPH DAHLMANN ET JOHANN JACOBY DANS L'ESPRIT DE STEIN,
ALLEMAGNE, JE VAIS DÉFENDRE LES RÉPUBLIQUES: KAISER. TAY
L'ALLEMAGNE A TOUJOURS REVENDIQUER SES OUVERTURES D'ESPRIT PAR UN ESPRIT DE CONQUÊTE;
AINSI ALLEMAGNE ET TOI SES PEUPLES DANS L’ENTITÉ ET L’ÉTHIQUE DE NATION;
JE M'ADRESSE VERS TOI DANS UN ESPRIT DE CONVOITISE ARDENTE SUR LE PRINCIPE
DE TE CONDUIRE VERS L’APOGÉ ET UNE APOGÉE DIGNE DES PLUS GRANDS MURMURES ET MOUVEMENTS
DE L'ESPRIT DE TES PEUPLES: LE RASSEMBLEMENT.
C'EST DANS LES PRINCIPES DE LA PHILOSOPHIE DU DROIT QUE J'ENTENDS UNE ŒUVRE DE RÉUNIFICATION
DE CE QUE VOUS APPELEZ LE CROIRE, LE PARTAGE ET LA VOLONTÉ; DANS NOS PRINCIPES,
NOUS AVONS SU FAIRE DÉVELOPPER DES ASPECTS DE LA CONSCIENCE GERMANIQUE, EUROPÉENNE ET
MONDIALE. NOS PRINCIPES DE MIEUX SUR LES IMPÔTS PONTIFICAUX EST UNE MARQUE
DE NOTRE VOLONTÉ DE PRINCIPE SUR L'ASPECT DE FRATERNITÉ CONTRE L’INTÉRÊT DE PUISSANCE ET
DE DOMINATION SUR LES CHOSES. POUR AUTAN MALGRÉ DES ÉCHECS CUISANT SUR LES ASPECTS;
MENÉ PAR CERTAINS DIRIGEANTS DE LA CDU ET AUTRES ENCLIN AUX HÉRITAGES DES MÉROVINGIENS ET DE LEURS ROIS FAINÉANTS; NOUS NOUS SOMMES DÉTOURNÈS DE L'ASPECT MÊME DE LA RÉPUBLIQUE ALLEMANDE:

LE RÉVISIONNISME INTELLIGIBLE ET INTELLIGENT DONC NE PAS CHERCHER DES PÔLES D'ATTRACTIONS ÉCONOMIQUES
TOUT EN NE CHERCHANT PAS AU MANŒUVRE DIABOLIQUE SUR LEUR PENSÉE MAIS CHERCHE LES ASPECTS DE L'INTELLIGENCE MORALE DE LA CONSCIENCE DE L'INDIVIDU AFIN DE PERMETTRE L’ÉTABLISSEMENT D'UN HIÉRARCHIE ÉGALE EN DROIT SANS ÊTRE SOUMIS AUX PENSÉES D'UNE HIÉRARCHIE QUI RESSEMBLE PUS AUX GOUROUS QU'AUX AGISSEMENTS DE FEMMES ET D'HOMMES AYANT ÉTABLIS LEURS BASES DE PENSÉES SUR L’ÉVOLUTION DE SURVIE DANS UN CONTEXTE INDIVIDUELLE ÉLABORÉ DANS UN GROUPE OU D'UN GROUPE POUVANT AUSSI PERMETTRE AUX MEMBRES DU CLANS DE SE DISLOQUER DANS L'ACTIF DE SON PEUPLE: CELA EST MON MOUVEMENT DANS LA PENSÉE ALLEMANDE AUX VUES DE CES ÉLECTIONS LÉGISLATIVES 2017 EN ALLEMAGNE.

L’ÂME ALLEMANDE S'EST CERTES LE PEUPLE MAIS C'EST AUSSI L'INDIVIDU: L'INDIVIDU DANS UNE EUROPE TOUT COMME CE
FUT LE CAS LORSQUE CHARLES QUINT DEVINT EMPEREUR DU SAINT EMPIRE GERMANIQUE. IL Y AVAIT UN ASPECT NATIONALE ET POURTANT IL Y AVAIT L'ASPECT DE SURVIE DEVANT LE CROIRE TOUT COMME CE FUT LE CAS DANS LE ROYAUME DE GRANDE-BRETAGNE AU TEMPS DE HENRI VIII, MARIE I TUDOR ET ÉLISABETH I TUDOR. CES CONCEPTS D’ÂMES DEVANT LA SITUATION MONTRE L'ASPECT DE LA DIVERSITÉ ALLEMANDE DANS SA PHILOSOPHIE QUI EST AUSSI GRANDE QUE LES PAYS LATINS, SCANDINAVES, SLAVES ET COMME TOUT AUTRES PEUPLES DEVANT LES DIFFICULTÉS DE GUERRE,
DE POUVOIR ET DE MENSONGES POUR ÉTOURDIR LA CONSCIENCE DE FAIM ET DE RÊVE DU PEUPLE ET DE SA VERVE ET VERGE, LA PLÈBE...

GAGNONS LE REICHSTAG ET LES FUTURS ÉLECTIONS EUROPÉENNES OU LES BEETHOVEN'S SYMPHONIES

JE VOUS APPELLE DONC AU PARADOXE, PEUPLES DES GERMANIES OU RÉPUBLIQUE ALLEMANDE; J'EN APPELLE AUX SURVIES ET POURTANT AUX OUVERTURES D'ESPRITS ENTRE LANDERS TOUT COMME ENVERS LES AUTRES PAYS TOUT EN FAISANT ENTENDRE CET ASPECT QUI FAIT LA FORCE DE NOTRE RÉPUBLIQUE: LA DIVERSITÉ DE NOS LANDERS QUI MALGRÉ LEURS DISCIPLES GARDENT ASPECTS DE LEURS LANGUES ET DE LEURS CHANTS TOUT COMME LA PLUPART DES RÉGIONS LATINES SANS FAIRE INTERVENIR LA GARDE DES JEUNES ENFANTS EN JEU.

L'ALLEMAGNE DANS LA THÉORIE D'EMPIRE ENTRE LA THÉORIE ET LA RÉALITÉ POLITIQUE AVEC UNE ÈRE D'ABSOLUTISME MONARCHIQUE: AINSI NAQUIT WEIMAR. Y

LA RÉFLEXION DEVANT LA PENSÉE ET LA PENSÉE DEVANT LA RÉFLEXION, TELLE EST LA CITATION DE MOUVEMENT DE LA NOUVELLE PLÈBE ALLEMANDE DANS UNE DISCORDE DÉVOILÉE ET UNE RIGUEUR D’ÉMANCIPATION LOGIQUE SUR LE DÉVELOPPEMENT... VIVE L'ALLEMAGNE ET VIVE LA RÉPUBLIQUE...

ECRIT DU
CITOYEN TIGNARD YANIS;
FONDATEUR LA NOUVELLE PLÈBE ALLEMANDE POUR CONSOLIDER LES PILIERS DE LA RÉPUBLIQUE ALLEMANDE
Revenir en haut Aller en bas
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yanis la chouette



Nombre de messages : 6874
Localisation : http://yanis.tignard.free.fr/
Date d'inscription : 09/11/2005

MessageSujet: Re: VORMÄRZ, L'HÉGÉLIANISME, LE LIBÉRALISME ET BERLIN OU Y'BECCA   Mar 4 Juil à 3:39

Berlin (/bɜːrˈlɪn, ˌbɜːr-/, German: [bɛɐ̯ˈliːn] (About this sound listen)) is the capital and the largest city of Germany as well as one of its 16 constituent states. With a population of approximately 3.7 million,[4] Berlin is the most populous city proper and the sixth most populous urban area in the European Union.[5] Located in northeastern Germany on the banks of the rivers Spree and Havel, it is the centre of the Berlin-Brandenburg Metropolitan Region, which has roughly 6 million residents from more than 180 nations.[6][7][8][9] Due to its location in the European Plain, Berlin is influenced by a temperate seasonal climate. Around one-third of the city's area is composed of forests, parks, gardens, rivers, canals and lakes.[10]

First documented in the 13th century and situated at the crossing of two important historic trade routes,[11] Berlin became the capital of the Margraviate of Brandenburg (1417–1701), the Kingdom of Prussia (1701–1918), the German Empire (1871–1918), the Weimar Republic (1919–1933) and the Third Reich (1933–1945).[12] Berlin in the 1920s was the third largest municipality in the world.[13] After World War II and its subsequent occupation by the victorious countries, the city was divided; East Berlin was declared capital of East Germany, while West Berlin became a de facto West German exclave, surrounded by the Berlin Wall (1961–1989) and East German territory.[14] Following German reunification in 1990, Berlin once again became the capital of all-Germany.

Berlin is a world city of culture, politics, media and science.[15][16][17][18] Its economy is based on high-tech firms and the service sector, encompassing a diverse range of creative industries, research facilities, media corporations and convention venues.[19][20] Berlin serves as a continental hub for air and rail traffic and has a highly complex public transportation network. The metropolis is a popular tourist destination.[21] Significant industries also include IT, pharmaceuticals, biomedical engineering, clean tech, biotechnology, construction and electronics.

Modern Berlin is home to world renowned universities, orchestras, museums, entertainment venues and is host to many sporting events.[22] Its urban setting has made it a sought-after location for international film productions.[23] The city is well known for its festivals, diverse architecture, nightlife, contemporary arts and a high quality of living.[24] Since the 2000s Berlin has seen the emergence of a cosmopolitan entrepreneurial scene.[25]

Etymology

The name Berlin has its roots in the language of West Slavic inhabitants of the area of today's Berlin, and may be related to the Old Polabian stem berl-/birl- ("swamp").[26] All German place names ending on -ow, -itz and -in, of which there are many east of the River Elbe, are of Slavic origin (Germania Slavica). There are many boroughs of Slavic origin in the city: Berlin-Karow, Berlin-Malchow, Berlin-Pankow, Berlin-Spandau (earlier: Spandow), Berlin-Gatow, Berlin-Kladow, Berlin-Steglitz, Berlin-Lankwitz, Berlin-Britz, Berlin-Buckow, Berlin-Rudow, Berlin-Alt-Treptow, Berlin-Schmöckwitz, Berlin-Marzahn and Berlin-Köpenick. Since the Ber- at the beginning sounds like the German word Bär (bear), a bear appears in the coat of arms of the city. It is therefore a canting arm.
12th to 16th centuries
Map of Berlin in 1688

The earliest evidence of settlements in the area of today's Berlin are a wooden rod dated from approximately 1192[27] and leftovers of wooden houseparts dated to 1174 found in a 2012 excavation in Berlin Mitte.[28] The first written records of towns in the area of present-day Berlin date from the late 12th century. Spandau is first mentioned in 1197 and Köpenick in 1209, although these areas did not join Berlin until 1920.[29] The central part of Berlin can be traced back to two towns. Cölln on the Fischerinsel is first mentioned in a 1237 document, and Berlin, across the Spree in what is now called the Nikolaiviertel, is referenced in a document from 1244.[27] 1237 is considered the founding date of the city.[30] The two towns over time formed close economic and social ties, and profited from the staple right on the two important trade routes Via Imperii and from Bruges to Novgorod.[11] In 1307, they formed an alliance with a common external policy, their internal administrations still being separated.[31][32]

In 1415 Frederick I became the elector of the Margraviate of Brandenburg, which he ruled until 1440.[33] During the 15th century, his successors established Berlin-Cölln as capital of the margraviate, and subsequent members of the Hohenzollern family ruled in Berlin until 1918, first as electors of Brandenburg, then as kings of Prussia, and eventually as German emperors. In 1443 Frederick II Irontooth started the construction of a new royal palace in the twin city Berlin-Cölln. The protests of the town citizens against the building culminated in 1448, in the "Berlin Indignation" ("Berliner Unwille").[34][35] This protest was not successful and the citizenry lost many of its political and economic privileges. After the royal palace was finished in 1451, it gradually came into use. From 1470, with the new elector Albrecht III Achilles, Berlin-Cölln became the new royal residence.[32] Officially, the Berlin-Cölln palace became permanent residence of the Brandenburg electors of the Hohenzollerns from 1486, when John Cicero came to power.[36] Berlin-Cölln, however, had to give up its status as a free Hanseatic city. In 1539, the electors and the city officially became Lutheran.[37]
17th to 19th centuries
Frederick the Great (1712–1786) was one of Europe's enlightened monarchs.

The Thirty Years' War between 1618 and 1648 devastated Berlin. One third of its houses were damaged or destroyed, and the city lost half of its population.[38] Frederick William, known as the "Great Elector", who had succeeded his father George William as ruler in 1640, initiated a policy of promoting immigration and religious tolerance.[39] With the Edict of Potsdam in 1685, Frederick William offered asylum to the French Huguenots.[40] By 1700, approximately 30 percent of Berlin's residents were French, because of the Huguenot immigration.[41] Many other immigrants came from Bohemia, Poland, and Salzburg.[42]
Berlin became the capital of the German Empire in 1871 and expanded rapidly in the following years. (Unter den Linden in 1900)

Since 1618 the Margraviate of Brandenburg had been in personal union with the Duchy of Prussia. In 1701 the dual state formed the Kingdom of Prussia, as Frederick III, Elector of Brandenburg crowned himself as king Frederick I in Prussia. Berlin became the capital of the new Kingdom. This was a successful attempt to centralise the capital in the very far-flung state, and it was the first time the city began to grow. In 1709, Berlin merged with the four cities of Cölln, Friedrichswerder, Friedrichstadt and Dorotheenstadt under the name Berlin, "Haupt- und Residenzstadt Berlin".[31]

In 1740 Frederick II, known as Frederick the Great (1740–1786), came to power.[43] Under the rule of Frederick II, Berlin became a center of the Enlightenment, but also, was briefly occupied during the Seven Years' War by the Russian army.[44] Following France's victory in the War of the Fourth Coalition, Napoleon Bonaparte marched into Berlin in 1806, but granted self-government to the city.[45] In 1815 the city became part of the new Province of Brandenburg.[46]

The Industrial Revolution transformed Berlin during the 19th century; the city's economy and population expanded dramatically, and it became the main railway hub and economic centre of Germany. Additional suburbs soon developed and increased the area and population of Berlin. In 1861 neighbouring suburbs including Wedding, Moabit and several others were incorporated into Berlin.[47] In 1871 Berlin became capital of the newly founded German Empire.[48] In 1881 it became a city district separate from Brandenburg.[49]
20th to 21st centuries
Main articles: West Berlin and East Berlin
See also: 1920s Berlin
Street, Berlin (1913) by Ernst Ludwig Kirchner

In the early 20th century, Berlin had become a fertile ground for the German Expressionist movement.[50] In fields such as architecture, painting and cinema new forms of artistic styles were invented. At the end of the First World War in 1918, a republic was proclaimed by Philipp Scheidemann at the Reichstag building. In 1920 the Greater Berlin Act incorporated dozens of suburban cities, villages and estates around Berlin into an expanded city. The act increased the area of Berlin from 66 to 883 km2 (25 to 341 sq mi). The population almost doubled and Berlin had a population of around four million. During the Weimar era, Berlin underwent political unrest due to economic uncertainties, but also became a renowned centre of the Roaring Twenties. The metropolis experienced its heyday as a major world capital and was known for its leadership roles in science, technology, arts, the humanities, city planning, film, higher education, government and industries. Albert Einstein rose to public prominence during his years in Berlin, being awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1921.
Berlin in ruins after the Second World War (Potsdamer Platz, 1945)

In 1933 Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party came to power. NSDAP rule diminished Berlin's Jewish community from 160,000 (one-third of all Jews in the country) to about 80,000 as a result of emigration between 1933 and 1939. After Kristallnacht in 1938, thousands of the city's Jews were imprisoned in the nearby Sachsenhausen concentration camp. Starting in early 1943, many were shipped to death camps, such as Auschwitz.[51] During World War II, large parts of Berlin were destroyed in the 1943–45 air raids and during the Battle of Berlin. Around 125,000 civilians were killed.[52] After the end of the war in Europe in May 1945, Berlin received large numbers of refugees from the Eastern provinces. The victorious powers divided the city into four sectors, analogous to the occupation zones into which Germany was divided. The sectors of the Western Allies (the United States, the United Kingdom and France) formed West Berlin, while the Soviet sector formed East Berlin.[53]
The Berlin Wall (painted on the western side) was a barrier that divided the city from 1961 to 1989.

All four Allies shared administrative responsibilities for Berlin. However, in 1948, when the Western Allies extended the currency reform in the Western zones of Germany to the three western sectors of Berlin, the Soviet Union imposed a blockade on the access routes to and from West Berlin, which lay entirely inside Soviet-controlled territory. The Berlin airlift, conducted by the three western Allies, overcame this blockade by supplying food and other supplies to the city from June 1948 to May 1949.[54] In 1949 the Federal Republic of Germany was founded in West Germany and eventually included all of the American, British and French zones, excluding those three countries' zones in Berlin, while the Marxist-Leninist German Democratic Republic was proclaimed in East Germany. West Berlin officially remained an occupied city, but it politically was aligned with the Federal Republic of Germany despite West Berlin's geographic isolation. Airline service to West Berlin was granted only to American, British and French airlines.
The fall of the Berlin Wall on 9 November 1989. On 3 October 1990, the German reunification process was formally finished.

The founding of the two German states increased Cold War tensions. West Berlin was surrounded by East German territory, and East Germany proclaimed the Eastern part as its capital, a move that was not recognised by the western powers. East Berlin included most of the historic centre of the city. The West German government established itself in Bonn.[55] In 1961 East Germany began the building of the Berlin Wall between East and West Berlin, and events escalated to a tank standoff at Checkpoint Charlie. West Berlin was now de facto a part of West Germany with a unique legal status, while East Berlin was de facto a part of East Germany. John F. Kennedy gave his "Ich bin ein Berliner" – speech in 1963 underlining the US support for the Western part of the city. Berlin was completely divided. Although it was possible for Westerners to pass from one to the other side through strictly controlled checkpoints, for most Easterners travel to West Berlin or West Germany was prohibited by the government of East Germany. In 1971, a Four-Power agreement guaranteed access to and from West Berlin by car or train through East Germany.[56]

In 1989, with the end of the Cold War and pressure from the East German population, the Berlin Wall fell on 9 November and was subsequently mostly demolished. Today, the East Side Gallery preserves a large portion of the wall. On 3 October 1990, the two parts of Germany were reunified as the Federal Republic of Germany and Berlin again became the official German capital. In 1991, the German Parliament, the Bundestag, voted to move the seat of the German capital from Bonn to Berlin, which was completed in 1999. On 18 June 1994 soldiers from the United States, France and Britain marched in a parade which was part of the ceremonies to mark the final withdrawal of foreign troops allowing a reunified Berlin.[57] Berlin's 2001 administrative reform merged several districts. The number of boroughs was reduced from 23 to 12. In 2006, the FIFA World Cup Final was held in Berlin.
Geography
Main article: Geography of Berlin
Berlin Mitte landmarks from left to right (seen from Victory Column): Reichstag building, Fernsehturm, Cathedral, City Hall, Brandenburg Gate, Gendarmenmarkt
Mitte, the historical center: Unter den Linden boulevard in the foreground, high-rise buildings of Potsdamer Platz up to the right
Topography
Aerial view towards northeast over central Berlin

Berlin is situated in northeastern Germany, in an area of low-lying marshy woodlands with a mainly flat topography, part of the vast Northern European Plain which stretches all the way from northern France to western Russia. The Berliner Urstromtal (an ice age glacial valley), between the low Barnim Plateau to the north and the Teltow Plateau to the south, was formed by meltwater flowing from ice sheets at the end of the last Weichselian glaciation. The Spree follows this valley now. In Spandau, a borough in the west of Berlin, the Spree empties into the river Havel, which flows from north to south through western Berlin. The course of the Havel is more like a chain of lakes, the largest being the Tegeler See and the Großer Wannsee. A series of lakes also feeds into the upper Spree, which flows through the Großer Müggelsee in eastern Berlin.[58]

Substantial parts of present-day Berlin extend onto the low plateaus on both sides of the Spree Valley. Large parts of the boroughs Reinickendorf and Pankow lie on the Barnim Plateau, while most of the boroughs of Charlottenburg-Wilmersdorf, Steglitz-Zehlendorf, Tempelhof-Schöneberg, and Neukölln lie on the Teltow Plateau.

The borough of Spandau lies partly within the Berlin Glacial Valley and partly on the Nauen Plain, which stretches to the west of Berlin. Since 2015, the highest elevation in Berlin is found on the Arkenberge hills in Pankow, at 122 metres (400 feet). Through the dumping of construction debris, they surpassed Teufelsberg (120.1 m or 394 ft), a hill made of rubble from the ruins of the Second World War.[59] The highest natural elevation is found on the Müggelberge at 114.7 metres (376 feet), and the lowest at the Spektesee in Spandau, at 28.1 metres (92 feet).[60]
Climate
The outskirts of Berlin are covered with woodlands and numerous lakes.

Berlin has a Maritime temperate climate (Cfb) according to the Köppen climate classification system.[61] There are significant influences of mild continental climate due to its inland position, with frosts being common in winter and there being larger temperature differences between seasons than typical for many oceanic climates. Furthermore, Berlin is classified as a temperate continental climate (Dc) under the Trewartha climate scheme.[62]

Summers are warm and sometimes humid with average high temperatures of 22–25 °C (72–77 °F) and lows of 12–14 °C (54–57 °F). Winters are cool with average high temperatures of 3 °C (37 °F) and lows of −2 to 0 °C (28 to 32 °F). Spring and autumn are generally chilly to mild. Berlin's built-up area creates a microclimate, with heat stored by the city's buildings and pavement. Temperatures can be 4 °C (7 °F) higher in the city than in the surrounding areas.[63]

Annual precipitation is 570 millimeters (22 in) with moderate rainfall throughout the year. Snowfall mainly occurs from December through March.[64]
[hide]Climate data for Berlin- Tempelhof (1971–2000), extremes (1876– 2015) (Source: DWD)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 15.5
(59.9) 18.7
(65.7) 24.8
(76.6) 31.3
(88.3) 35.5
(95.9) 35.9
(96.6) 38.1
(100.6) 38.0
(100.4) 34.2
(93.6) 28.1
(82.6) 20.5
(68.9) 16.0
(60.Cool 38.1
(100.6)
Average high °C (°F) 3.3
(37.9) 5.0
(41) 9.0
(48.2) 15.0
(59) 19.6
(67.3) 22.3
(72.1) 25.0
(77) 24.5
(76.1) 19.3
(66.7) 13.9
(57) 7.7
(45.9) 3.7
(38.7) 14.02
(57.24)
Daily mean °C (°F) 0.6
(33.1) 1.4
(34.5) 4.8
(40.6) 8.9
(48) 14.3
(57.7) 17.1
(62.Cool 19.2
(66.6) 18.9
(66) 14.5
(58.1) 9.7
(49.5) 4.7
(40.5) 2.0
(35.6) 9.67
(49.42)
Average low °C (°F) −1.9
(28.6) −1.5
(29.3) 1.3
(34.3) 4.2
(39.6) 9.0
(48.2) 12.3
(54.1) 14.3
(57.7) 14.1
(57.4) 10.6
(51.1) 6.4
(43.5) 2.2
(36) −0.4
(31.3) 5.88
(42.59)
Record low °C (°F) −23.1
(−9.6) −26.0
(−14.Cool −16.5
(2.3) −8.1
(17.4) −4.0
(24.Cool 1.5
(34.7) 5.4
(41.7) 3.5
(38.3) −1.5
(29.3) −9.6
(14.7) −16.0
(3.2) −20.5
(−4.9) −26.0
(−14.Cool
Average rainfall mm (inches) 42.3
(1.665) 33.3
(1.311) 40.5
(1.594) 37.1
(1.461) 53.8
(2.118) 68.7
(2.705) 55.5
(2.185) 58.2
(2.291) 45.1
(1.776) 37.3
(1.469) 43.6
(1.717) 55.3
(2.177) 570.7
(22.469)
Average rainy days (≥ 1.0 mm) 10.0 8.0 9.1 7.8 8.9 7.0 7.0 7.0 7.8 7.6 9.6 11.4 101.2
Mean monthly sunshine hours 46.5 73.5 120.9 159.0 220.1 222.0 217.0 210.8 156.0 111.6 51.0 37.2 1,625.6
Source: World Meteorological Organization (UN),[65] HKO[66][67]
Cityscape
Typically dense cityscape of core Berlin: Mitte area

Berlin's history has left the city with a polycentric organization and a highly eclectic array of architecture and buildings. The city's appearance today is predominantly shaped by the key role it played in Germany's history in the 20th century. Each of the national governments based in Berlin – the Kingdom of Prussia, the 1871 German Empire, the Weimar Republic, Nazi Germany, East Germany, and now the reunified Germany – initiated ambitious reconstruction programs, with each adding its own distinctive style to the city's architecture.

Berlin was devastated by bombing raids, fires and street battles during World War II, and many of the buildings that had remained after the war were demolished in the post-war period in both West and East Berlin. Much of this demolition was initiated by municipal architecture programs to build new residential or business quarters and main roads. Many ornaments of pre-war buildings were destroyed following modernist dogmas. While in both systems and in reunified Berlin, various important heritage monuments were also (partly) reconstructed, including the Forum Fridericianum with e.g., the State Opera (1955), Charlottenburg Palace (1957), the main monuments of the Gendarmenmarkt (1980s), Kommandantur (2003) and the project to reconstruct the baroque façades of the City Palace. A number of new buildings are inspired by historical predecessors or the general classical style of Berlin, such as Hotel Adlon.

Clusters of high-rise buildings emerge at disperse locations, e.g. Potsdamer Platz, City West, and Alexanderplatz, the latter two representing the previous centers of West and East Berlin, respectively, and the former representing the new Berlin of the 21st century built upon the previous no-man's land of the Berlin Wall. Berlin has three of the top 40 tallest buildings in Germany.
Architecture
Main article: Architecture in Berlin
See also: List of sights in Berlin and List of tallest buildings in Berlin
A mixed-use building in Kreuzberg. The 'blockrand' structure of the 1862 Hobrecht-Plan is typical for Berlin.

The Fernsehturm (TV tower) at Alexanderplatz in Mitte is among the tallest structures in the European Union at 368 m (1,207 ft). Built in 1969, it is visible throughout most of the central districts of Berlin. The city can be viewed from its 204 m (669 ft) high observation floor. Starting here the Karl-Marx-Allee heads east, an avenue lined by monumental residential buildings, designed in the Socialist Classicism style. Adjacent to this area is the Rotes Rathaus (City Hall), with its distinctive red-brick architecture. In front of it is the Neptunbrunnen, a fountain featuring a mythological group of Tritons, personifications of the four main Prussian rivers and Neptune on top of it.
The Brandenburg Gate, icon of Berlin and Germany

The Brandenburg Gate is an iconic landmark of Berlin and Germany; it stands as a symbol of eventful European history and of unity and peace. The Reichstag building is the traditional seat of the German Parliament. It was remodelled by British architect Norman Foster in the 1990s and features a glass dome over the session area, which allows free public access to the parliamentary proceedings and magnificent views of the city.

The East Side Gallery is an open-air exhibition of art painted directly on the last existing portions of the Berlin Wall. It is the largest remaining evidence of the city's historical division.

The Gendarmenmarkt is a neoclassical square in Berlin, the name of which derives from the headquarters of the famous Gens d'armes regiment located here in the 18th century. It is bordered by two similarly designed cathedrals, the Französischer Dom with its observation platform and the Deutscher Dom. The Konzerthaus (Concert Hall), home of the Berlin Symphony Orchestra, stands between the two cathedrals.
Haus der Kulturen der Welt
Holocaust Memorial

The Museum Island in the River Spree houses five museums built from 1830 to 1930 and is a UNESCO World Heritage site. Restoration and the construction of a main entrance to all museums, as well as the reconstruction of the Stadtschloss is continuing.[68][69] Also located on the island and adjacent to the Lustgarten and palace is Berlin Cathedral, emperor William II's ambitious attempt to create a Protestant counterpart to St. Peter's Basilica in Rome. A large crypt houses the remains of some of the earlier Prussian royal family. St. Hedwig's Cathedral is Berlin's Roman Catholic cathedral.
Potsdamer Platz, Kollhoff Tower at the center.

Unter den Linden is a tree-lined east–west avenue from the Brandenburg Gate to the site of the former Berliner Stadtschloss, and was once Berlin's premier promenade. Many Classical buildings line the street and part of Humboldt University is located there. Friedrichstraße was Berlin's legendary street during the Golden Twenties. It combines 20th-century traditions with the modern architecture of today's Berlin.
Unter den Linden boulevard with Zeughaus, Berlin Cathedral and Fernsehturm Berlin at night.

Potsdamer Platz is an entire quarter built from scratch after 1995 after the Wall came down.[70] To the west of Potsdamer Platz is the Kulturforum, which houses the Gemäldegalerie, and is flanked by the Neue Nationalgalerie and the Berliner Philharmonie. The Memorial to the Murdered Jews of Europe, a Holocaust memorial, is situated to the north.[71]

The area around Hackescher Markt is home to fashionable culture, with countless clothing outlets, clubs, bars, and galleries. This includes the Hackesche Höfe, a conglomeration of buildings around several courtyards, reconstructed around 1996. The nearby New Synagogue is the center of Jewish culture.
Charlottenburg Palace is the largest existing palace in Berlin.

The Straße des 17. Juni, connecting the Brandenburg Gate and Ernst-Reuter-Platz, serves as the central east-west axis. Its name commemorates the uprisings in East Berlin of 17 June 1953. Approximately halfway from the Brandenburg Gate is the Großer Stern, a circular traffic island on which the Siegessäule (Victory Column) is situated. This monument, built to commemorate Prussia's victories, was relocated in 1938–39 from its previous position in front of the Reichstag.

The Kurfürstendamm is home to some of Berlin's luxurious stores with the Kaiser Wilhelm Memorial Church at its eastern end on Breitscheidplatz. The church was destroyed in the Second World War and left in ruins. Nearby on Tauentzienstraße is KaDeWe, claimed to be continental Europe's largest department store. The Rathaus Schöneberg, where John F. Kennedy made his famous "Ich bin ein Berliner!" speech, is situated in Tempelhof-Schöneberg.

West of the center, Bellevue Palace is the residence of the German President. Charlottenburg Palace, which was burnt out in the Second World War, is the largest historical palace in Berlin.

The Funkturm Berlin is a 150 m (490 ft) tall lattice radio tower in the fairground area, built between 1924 and 1926. It is the only observation tower which stands on insulators and has a restaurant 55 m (180 ft) and an observation deck 126 m (413 ft) above ground, which is reachable by a windowed elevator.

The Oberbaumbrücke is Berlin's most iconic bridge, crossing the River Spree. It was a former East-West border crossing and connects the boroughs of Friedrichshain and Kreuzberg. It was completed in a brick gothic style in 1896. The center portion has been reconstructed with a steel frame after having been destroyed in 1945. The bridge has an upper deck for the Berlin U-Bahn line U1.
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MessageSujet: Re: VORMÄRZ, L'HÉGÉLIANISME, LE LIBÉRALISME ET BERLIN OU Y'BECCA   Mar 4 Juil à 3:41



Wir schreiten auf und ab im reichen flitter
Des buchenganges beinach bis zum tore
Und sehen aussen in dem feld vom gitter
Den mandelbaum zum zweitenmal im flore.

Wir suchen nach den schattenfreien bänken
Dort wo uns niemals fremde stimmen scheuchten,
In träumen unsre arme sich verschränken,
Wir laben uns am langen milden leuchten

Wir fühlen dankbar wie zu leisem brausen
Von wipfeln strahlenspuren auf uns tropfen
Und blicken nur und horchen wenn in pausen
Die reifen früchte an den boden klopfen.

Stefan GEORGE

Nous marchons sous la profusion brillante
Des hêtres du chemin jusqu'au portique
Et nous voyons dehors entre les grilles
Pour la seconde fois les fleurs d'amandes.

Nous cherchons les espaces libres d'ombres
Où jamais d'autres vois ne nous troublèrent.
Et comme nous rêvons nos bras se serrent.
Nous nous désaltérons de reflets sombres.

Nous sentons des sommets aux vents tranquilles
Descendre sur nous des traces de jour.
Nous écoutons seulement dans les pauses
Tomber les fruits mûrs et frapper le sol.

(Traduction de Catherine POZZI)


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MessageSujet: Re: VORMÄRZ, L'HÉGÉLIANISME, LE LIBÉRALISME ET BERLIN OU Y'BECCA   Mar 4 Juil à 3:51

CLIN D’ŒIL ET CONCLUSION
--------------------------------------------
Wir schreiten auf und ab im reichen flitter
Des buchenganges beinach bis zum tore
Und sehen aussen in dem feld vom gitter
Den mandelbaum zum zweitenmal im flore.

Wir suchen nach den schattenfreien bänken
Dort wo uns niemals fremde stimmen scheuchten,
In träumen unsre arme sich verschränken,
Wir laben uns am langen milden leuchten

Wir fühlen dankbar wie zu leisem brausen
Von wipfeln strahlenspuren auf uns tropfen
Und blicken nur und horchen wenn in pausen
Die reifen früchte an den boden klopfen.

Stefan GEORGE

Nous marchons sous la profusion brillante
Des hêtres du chemin jusqu'au portique
Et nous voyons dehors entre les grilles
Pour la seconde fois les fleurs d'amandes.

Nous cherchons les espaces libres d'ombres
Où jamais d'autres vois ne nous troublèrent.
Et comme nous rêvons nos bras se serrent.
Nous nous désaltérons de reflets sombres.

Nous sentons des sommets aux vents tranquilles
Descendre sur nous des traces de jour.
Nous écoutons seulement dans les pauses
Tomber les fruits mûrs et frapper le sol.

(Traduction de Catherine POZZI)

https://fr.wikisource.org/wiki/La_Po%C3%A9sie_allemande_et_l%E2%80%99esprit_fran%C3%A7ais

Alfred North Whitehead OM FRS (15 February 1861 – 30 December 1947) was an English mathematician and philosopher. He is best known as the defining figure of the philosophical school known as process philosophy,[18] which today has found application to a wide variety of disciplines, including ecology, theology, education, physics, biology, economics, and psychology, among other areas.

In his early career Whitehead wrote primarily on mathematics, logic, and physics. His most notable work in these fields is the three-volume Principia Mathematica (1910–13), which he wrote with former student Bertrand Russell. Principia Mathematica is considered one of the twentieth century's most important works in mathematical logic, and placed 23rd in a list of the top 100 English-language nonfiction books of the twentieth century by Modern Library.[19]

Beginning in the late 1910s and early 1920s, Whitehead gradually turned his attention from mathematics to philosophy of science, and finally to metaphysics. He developed a comprehensive metaphysical system which radically departed from most of western philosophy. Whitehead argued that reality consists of processes rather than material objects, and that processes are best defined by their relations with other processes, thus rejecting the theory that reality is fundamentally constructed by bits of matter that exist independently of one another.[20] Today Whitehead's philosophical works – particularly Process and Reality – are regarded as the foundational texts of process philosophy.

Whitehead's process philosophy argues that "there is urgency in coming to see the world as a web of interrelated processes of which we are integral parts, so that all of our choices and actions have consequences for the world around us."[20] For this reason, one of the most promising applications of Whitehead's thought in recent years has been in the area of ecological civilization and environmental ethics pioneered by John B. Cobb, Jr.[21]

« Plaisante poésie, qu’une rivière borne ! Vérité au-deçà des Pyrénées, erreur au-delà. »

LA NOUVELLE PLÈBE ALLEMANDE , LA RÉFLEXION DEVANT LA PENSÉE ET LA PENSÉE FACE AUX RÉFLEXIONS

ECRIT DU
CITOYEN TIGNARD YANIS
OU
TAY LA CHOUETTE EFFRAIE...
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MessageSujet: Re: VORMÄRZ, L'HÉGÉLIANISME, LE LIBÉRALISME ET BERLIN OU Y'BECCA   Mar 4 Juil à 9:51

GALILÉE ET MAGELLAN

" MON AMI, J'AI PERDU MON EXISTENCE DANS UN PROCÈS."
"TOUT COMME J'AI PERDU LA VIE DANS UNE HISTOIRE AUTRE QUE MON PROJET."

"AINSI, MAGELLAN... TU AS ABANDONNE UN HOMME SUR UNE ILE."
"TOUT COMME TOI, QUAND TU AS DIT QUE LA TERRE ÉTAIT RONDE."

" J'AI DÉVOILÉ UNE THÉORIE QUI ÉTAIT VÉRITÉ ET EN CELA, JE SUIS DONC JE PENSE;
ALORS QUE TOI, TU AS FAIT PREUVE ENVERS CET HOMME D'UNE ABJECTE BARBARIE."

" IL AVAIT ENGENDRÉ UNE MUTINERIE AU MILIEU DE L’OCÉAN NE FAISANT PAS CONFIANCE
AU COMMANDEMENT: ET TOI GALILÉE, TU AS JUSTE RENVERSÉ UN ORDRE DES CHOSES/
TOUT COMME MOI, AVEC CET HOMME."

" C’ÉTAIT POUR LE MIEUX POUR FAIRE FACE AUX MENSONGES."

"TOUT COMME MOI, GALILÉE, CAR JE TE PARLE EN CET INSTANT. JE RECONNAIS QUE
JE SUIS UN ÊTRE BRUTAL MAIS TOI DANS TA VÉRITÉ, TU AS TRANCHÉ SUR LES EXISTENCES."

MORALE:
AINSI L'HOMME INVERSE LES STRUCTURES QUI SONT TOUJOURS BASE SUR
LES GAMMES D'UN POLE MAGNÉTIQUE ET DEVANT L’ADVERSITÉ, IL EST DANS CE MÉLANGE ET CETTE DOUCE
IRRÉALITÉ QUI EST LA BASE DE L'EXISTENCE: L'OSMOSE ET L'HARMONIE NE FONT PAS BON MÉNAGE
DANS LES PERCEPTIVES DE PERCEVOIR L’ÉVOLUTION COMME UN ASPECT D’ÉTHIQUE ALORS QUE
POUR L'AUTRE, IL S'AGIT D'AFFIRMER UNE FEUILLE DE ROUTE.

ECRIT DU
CITOYEN TIGNARD YANIS

POST SCRIPTUM: C'EST POUR C'EST POUR CELA QUE J'AI TRANSFORMÉ GALILÉE EN FOU DE BASSAN
ET MAGELLAN EN ALBATROS DANS MES FABLES.
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MessageSujet: Re: VORMÄRZ, L'HÉGÉLIANISME, LE LIBÉRALISME ET BERLIN OU Y'BECCA   Sam 22 Juil à 3:41

NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity recorded a panoramic view
before entering the upper end of a fluid-carved valley that descends
the inner slope of a large crater's rim.

The scene includes a broad notch in the crest of the crater's rim,
which may have been a spillway where water or ice or wind flowed over
the rim and into the crater. Wheel tracks visible in the area of the notch
were left by Opportunity as the rover studied the ground there and
took images into the valley below for use in planning its route.

"It is a tantalizing scene," said Opportunity Deputy Principal Investigator
Ray Arvidson of Washington University in St. Louis.
"You can see what appear to be channels lined by boulders,
and the putative spillway at the top of Perseverance Valley.
We have not ruled out any of the possibilities of water, ice
or wind being responsible."

Opportunity's panoramic camera (Pancam) took the component images
of the scene during a two-week driving moratorium in June 2017
while rover engineers diagnosed a temporary stall in the left-front
wheel's steering actuator. The wheel was pointed outward more
than 30 degrees, prompting the team to call the resulting vista Pancam's
"Sprained Ankle" panorama. Both ends of the scene show portions
of Endeavour Crater's western rim, extending north and south,
and the center of the scene shows terrain just
outside the crater.

The team was able to straighten the wheel to point straight ahead,
and now uses the steering capability of only the two rear wheels.
The right-front wheel's steering actuator has been disabled
since 2006. Opportunity has driven 27.95 miles (44.97 kilometers)
since landing on Mars in 2004.

On July 7, 2017, Opportunity drove to the site within upper
Perseverance Valley where it will spend about three weeks
without driving while Mars passes nearly behind the sun from
Earth's perspective, affecting radio communications.
The rover's current location is just out of sight
in the Sprained Ankle panorama, below the possible spillway.
Opportunity is using Pancam to record another grand view
from this location.

After full communications resume in early August, the team
plans to drive Opportunity farther down Perseverance Valley,
seeking to learn more about the process that carved it.

For more information about Opportunity's adventures on Mars, visit:

https://mars.nasa.gov/mer

News Media Contact
Guy Webster
Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif.
818-354-6278
guy.webster@jpl.nasa.gov

Laurie Cantillo / Dwayne Brown
NASA Headquarters, Washington
202-358-1077 / 202-358-1726
laura.l.cantillo@nasa.gov / dwayne.c.brown@nasa.gov

-------------------------------------

20 July 2017

With Sentinel-5 Precursor about to be packed up and shipped
to Russia for liftoff in late September, media representatives,
members of the UK Space Agency and National Centre
for Earth Observation had the chance to see this Copernicus
air-pollution monitoring satellite standing proud in the cleanroom.

Sentinel-5 Precursor – also known as Sentinel-5P
– is the first Copernicus mission dedicated to monitoring
our atmosphere.

It has been built to map a multitude of trace gases such as
nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide and methane that
affect air quality.

The satellite will help to identify pollution hotspots
where public health could be at risk. It will also contribute
to services that warn of high levels of UV radiation,
which can cause skin cancer, and volcanic ash
monitoring for aviation safety.

Carrying the Tropomi instrument, the most advanced
of its kind, Sentinel-5P will map the entire planet every 24 hours.
The availability of accurate and up-to-date information will help
decision-makers to fight air pollution and climate change.
Josef Aschbacher

Sentinel-5P is the forerunner of the Sentinel-5 mission
to be carried on the MetOp Second Generation satellites
that will be launched in a few years. Until then Sentinel-5P
will deliver much needed information to monitor
and track air pollution.

The media event was held at Airbus Defence and Space in Stevenage,
UK, where the satellite was built and tested.

ESA’s Director of Earth Observation Programmes, Josef Aschbacher,
said, “It’s wonderful to see the satellite in all its glory,
and it’s thanks to a truly collaborative effort that it will take
the EC’s Copernicus programme into a new era
of atmospheric monitoring.

“ESA is very grateful to the Netherlands for its substantial contribution
to the Tropomi instrument. The mission as a whole was designed
and built by a consortium of 30 companies under the leadership
of Airbus Defence and Space.”

Nico van Putten, Deputy Director of the Netherlands Space Office,
added, “The development and the implementation
of the top-notch Tropomi instrument for Sentinel-5P
is thanks to the remarkable close cooperation between
different entities from all over Europe.

Bringing air pollution into focus
Access the video

“As a Dutch institution we are proud to contribute to this marvel
of space technology, which will now help to tackle global challenges,
making Europe even stronger in Earth observation.”

Pepijn Veefkind from the Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute,
KNMI, added, “Every day, Tropomi will make almost 20 million observations
of important air pollutants and gases affecting the climate.

“KNMI will use this data to improve air-quality forecasts and to keep
a close eye on emission increases or reductions, and to monitor
what mitigation measures are effective in protecting
the air we breathe.”

Engineers will now prepare the satellite for shipment
to the Plesetsk launch site in Russia. Once there it will be
thoroughly tested and prepared for launch in late September.

--------------------------------------

Impacts of climate on past, present, and future fire regimes in Alaskan boreal forest and tundra ecosystems

JFSP Project Number: 14-3-01-07
Principal Investigators
Luigi Boschetti, University of Idaho
Philip Higuera, University of Montana
Adam Young, University of Idaho (GRIN recipient/student investigator )

Understanding how fire regimes may respond to climate change is
a key priority for Alaskan fire and resource managers. Statistical models
play an important role in developing this understanding, helping project
the timing and location of future fire-regime changes.
However, future projections are accompanied by significant
sources of uncertainty, particularly related to the calibration
of statistical models with data spanning a short observational record
(e.g., 60 yr). The goal of this project was to evaluate the ability
of statistical models to predict outside the observational record,
and thus identify key strengths and limitations when applying statistical
models to predict fire activity under scenarios of 21st-century climate change.

Key Findings

Climate is a dominant control of fire activity in Alaskan boreal forest
and tundra ecosystems: spatial variability in climate can explain much
of the variability in modern fire activity. The relationship between climate
and fire is strongly nonlinear, with the likelihood of a fire occurring
within a 30-yr period much higher where mean July temperatures exceed 13.4 °C.
Under a range of 21st-century climate-change scenarios,
Alaskan ecosystems are projected to become increasingly conducive
to burning. The magnitude of change will vary across space
and throughout time, largely depending on the proximity
of a region to the temperature threshold to burning.
In particular, tundra and forest-tundra ecosystems may be particularly
vulnerable to climatically induced changes in fire activity,
with some regions projected to experience novel fire regimes relative
to the past 6000-32000 yr.
Applying statistical models outside of the observational record,
as done here for the past millennium (850-1850 CE), reveals important
limitations and sources of uncertainty; projections are particularly sensitive
to any data inaccuracies when predicting fire activity for regions
near climatic thresholds.

http://mailchi.mp/blm/webinar-sagebrush-ecosystems-in-a-changing-climate-opportunities-for-adaptive-management-2680585

We will be requesting proposals through one or more formal Funding Opportunity Notice (FON) announcements
beginning approximately early September 2017 and remaining open through November 16, 2017.

This is an early alert to investigators interested in the topics listed below so you can begin considering responsive ideas with potential partners and collaborators.

Please recognize that final decisions regarding topic selection will not be made until September, 2017, and that final topic selection may differ from that posted below.

Cohesive Strategy Potential topics directly and indirectly support
the three goals of the 2014 National
Cohesive Wildland Fire Management Strategy:

* Resilient Landscapes
• Fire Adapted Communities
• Safe and Effective Wildfire Response

FON 1- Primary

Ecological effects of fuel treatments and wildfire
management at landscape scales
Fuel treatment longevity
Relationships between prescribed fire and wildfire regimes
Effectiveness of fuel breaks and fuel break systems
Sources and distribution of ignitions and their relation
to wildfire impacts
Socio-political factors that influence the costs associated
with wildfire

FON 2 - Graduate Research Innovation (GRIN) Award

In partnership with the Association for Fire Ecology, the Joint Fire
Science Program (JFSP) will likely continue
the Graduate Research Innovation (GRIN) program
for current master and doctoral students in the field
of wildland fire and related physical, biological, and social sciences.
The purpose of these awards is to enhance student exposure
to the management and policy relevance of their research.
As a result, these awards will enable graduate students
to conduct research that will supplement and enhance
the quality, scope, or applicability of their thesis or dissertation
to develop information and products useful to managers
and decision-makers.

Proposals must describe new, unfunded work that extends
ongoing or planned research that is the subject of a thesis
or dissertation that has been approved by the graduate student’s
advisory committee. Proposals must be directly related to the mission
and goals of JFSP to be considered, and they must address management-
or policy-related questions related to one or more of the following general
topic areas: fuels management and fire behavior, emissions and air quality,
fire effects and post-fire recovery, relative impacts of prescribed fire versus wildfire,
or human dimensions of fire.

FON 3 - Fire and Smoke Model Evaluation Experiment (FASMEE)

The Joint Fire Science Program (JFSP), in partnership with
the Department of Defense, Environmental Security Technology
Certification Program (ESTCP), has completed planning
for the Fire and Smoke Model Evaluation Experiment (FASMEE; Phase 1).
It is anticipated that the JFSP September 2017
FON will include an open solicitation for proposals
to participate in Phase 2—data collection, data archival,
and initial model evaluation—of FASMEE. In brief, this experiment
is being designed as a large-scale, interagency effort to (1)
identify the critical measurements necessary to improve operational
wildland fire and smoke prediction systems, (2) collect observations
through coordinated field campaigns, and (3) use these measures
and observations to advance science and modeling capabilities
and utility to end users. FASMEE is aimed at modeling systems
in operational use today as well as the next generation
of modeling systems expected to become operationally
useful in the next five to 10 years.

The FASMEE field campaigns are anticipated to be conducted
as large operational prescribed fires targeting (1) heavier fuel
loads and high-intensity fires, (2) large fires capable of producing
significant atmospheric plume dynamics and a substantial downwind
smoke plume, and (3) where possible (particularly in the West),
free-running fire. Candidate sites include the Fishlake National Forest
in Utah, North Kaibab Ranger District in Arizona, Fort Stewart
in Georgia, and Savannah River Site in South Carolina. Research
burns are planned for ignition no earlier than late summer 2019
and no later than early spring 2022. Depending on total funding
availability, four or more burns are planned.

http://us2.campaign-archive2.com/?u=5f6de7b069a57255f980944b4&id=0ae5910163

ECRIT DE
TAY
LA CHOUETTE EFFRAIE
POUR LES DEUX FRERES "ENNEMIS" ET POURTANT AMOUREUX DES U.S.A
QUE SONT KENNEDY ET NIXON
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MessageSujet: Re: VORMÄRZ, L'HÉGÉLIANISME, LE LIBÉRALISME ET BERLIN OU Y'BECCA   Jeu 10 Aoû à 2:31

TIGNARD YANIS‏ @TIGNARDYANIS 16 hil y a 16 heures
L'ENTREPRISE TOUT EST BIEN QUI FINIT BIEN DANS LE BIENTÔT ET L'HORIZON D'ÉTHIQUE ET D'ÉVOLUTION: L'ÊTRE D'HONNEUR DE L'EXCAVATION; CREUX. Y

L'AIGUILLE DE L’ACHARNEMENT INDIQUE DES CATACLYSMES INTÉRIEUR, L'EFFORT INSENSIBLE DE PLUIE ET LA MER QUI S'INFILTRE: COLOSSAL RHODES. TAY

OEUVRES SURHUMAINES AU COUVERT D'EUPHORIQUE AMBIANCE PRÉNOMMÉE ATMOSPHÈRE SOUS CES MYSTÈRES INSOLUBLES; JE VOUS SALUE MARIE: LA MUETTE. TAY

PRÉHISTORIQUE BRANCHE COLOSSALE DE L'ÉVOLUTION OU L'ESSENTIEL RÉSIDAIT EN AINSI: L'AIGUILLE ÉTAIT CREUSE. PHÉNOMÈNE NATUREL, O ÉTERNEL. ÊTRE

DES RÉCITS SUR L'AIGUILLE CREUSE OU L'AVANT BIG BANG: NI RÉVEIL ET NI RÉVÉLATION. LE SOUFFLE DU VOLCAN TEL LE SOUFRE DE L'ÉTERNEL: SECRET. Y

LE DISPROPORTIONNÉ SE RIT DU PARFAIT SPARTIATE ET VOIT LA RÉVÉLATION DU TRAITÉ DE L'ANTARCTIQUE SUR L'ÊTRE ET L'ENVIRONNEMENT: L'ÉTHIQUE. Y

L'OMBRE ET L'ÉTHIQUE POINTE DU DOIGT, LE DISPROPORTIONNÉ OU DIABLE BOITEUX SI INFINI QUE SOIT SES CONNAISSANCES SUR LA SOCIÉTÉ, SE VOIT. TAY

PERSONNE CONNAIT LE MIRACLE IMPOSSIBLE DE L'IMPLICATION DE L'IMPORTANCE POUR LE DIABLE BOITEUX SAUF LA DISPROPORTION DE L'ANCIENNE SPARTE. Y

L'ÉVOLUTION DES CORPS ET DES ESPRITS CRIMINELS MONTRENT LA DÉRIVE DES ÊTRES DEVANT L'ÉTHIQUE DU SECOURISME: LA TRISTESSE ET LA RÉALITÉ. TAY

LA TRISTESSE N'ENFERME PAS L'ESPÉRANCE ET LA PEUR N'AVEUGLE PAS L'ESPRIT. L'UNISSON DE LA PRUDENCE EST LE PHARE DU PHÉNOMÈNE: LA SURVIE. TAY

Béatrice Brugère, ex-juge anti-terroriste : "Il faut repenser l'ensemble du dispositif institutionnel et juridique"

Béatrice Brugère, ancienne juge anti-terroriste, revient sur les attentats du 13 novembre à Paris et évoque les pistes à suivre pour lutter contre le terrorisme. Parmi celles-ci : l’inscription dans notre Constitution de mesures spécifiques destinées à éradiquer ce fléau. En revanche, elle écarte toute instauration d’un "Patriot Act" à la française, et se montre plus que sceptique sur la déchéance de nationalité ou le recours au bracelet électronique.

Gilles Gaetner : L’opinion a du mal à comprendre, à la suite des attentats de Paris du 13 novembre que de nombreux djihadistes, dont certains condamnés et forcément connus, soient passés à travers les mailles des filets des services de renseignement et de la justice… Quelles explications donnez-vous à cela ? Y-a-t-il eu des dysfonctionnements ?

Béatrice Brugère : Je ne sais pas s’il faut parler de dysfonctionnements, mais il y a certainement des raisons objectives à la situation. Les terroristes ont une intelligence stratégique et tactique qui leur permet de contourner nos systèmes de protection. Ils en connaissent toutes les failles. Ils ont investi, dans des proportions insoupçonnables, le trafic d’armes, de faux papiers, etc… Ce qui leur permet, on l’a vu, de se déplacer dans plusieurs pays et de commettre leurs crimes. Ils ont également investi la technologie, Internet et tous les moyens de communication.

Ils savent s’adapter pour employer les moyens les plus modernes, mais ils peuvent aussi utiliser les moyens les plus archaïques pour déjouer les contre-mesures qu’on essaie de leur opposer. Comme les mafieux italiens, ils peuvent par exemple, communiquer en utilisant des messagers sans passer par les systèmes de télécommunication.
La déchéance de nationalité, le recours au bracelet électronique, entre autres, vous paraissent-ils être des pistes qui permettraient de neutraliser les terroristes ?

On ne peut pas se contenter d’un catalogue à la Prévert, en piochant ici et là des propositions hétéroclites qui ont été faites sans aucune réflexion d’ensemble. La déchéance de nationalité est une mesure qui se veut essentiellement symbolique : croyez-vous vraiment que cela va impressionner un djihadiste ? Et a-t-on pensé aux conséquences pratiques ? Il devra quitter le territoire, s’il n’est pas déjà retourné dans la clandestinité, et qui vous dit qu’une fois à l’étranger il ne commanditera pas un attentat à 2 ou 3000 kilomètres de Paris ?

Il faut repenser l’ensemble du dispositif institutionnel juridique. Le djihadisme est une menace d’une exceptionnelle gravité qui va durer longtemps. Nos moyens sont inadaptés, ils ont été conçus pour d’autres situations, notamment dans la perspective d’une réinsertion et d’une réadaptation de délinquants ordinaires. Mais les djihadistes ne sont pas des délinquants ordinaires. La vie- la leur et celle des autres- n’a pour eux aucune importance. Plus encore : ils la désirent, elle fait partie de leur projet. Et il ne vaut mieux pas compter trop sur les programmes de déradicalisation, dont personne n’est en mesure de garantir l’efficacité. Tout le problème sera de ne pas tomber dans un Patriot Act à la française. Pour cela, il faudra faire le contraire de ce qu’ont fait les Américains : ils ont mis en place après le 11 septembre, un droit d’exception qui abaisse les droits constitutionnels de tous les citoyens. Il faudrait au contraire prévoir dans la Constitution la possibilité de mettre en place des mesures spécifiques concernant spécifiquement la lutte anti-terroriste. Même des mesures exceptionnelles de cette nature devraient être placées dans un cadre juridictionnel.

Et l’espace Schengen, faut-il le supprimer ?

C’est une question éminemment politique. Je n’ai pas à répondre sur ce point. Mais force est de constater que l’abaissement des frontières a constitué une aubaine non seulement pour les terroristes mais aussi pour les chefs de mafias de toutes sortes
Vous avez eu à juger des filières islamistes il y a quelques années. Le monde judiciaire avait-il conscience de l’ampleur que prendrait cette menace ?

Personnellement, j’ai eu assez vite le sentiment que l’islamisme radical constituait une menace globale. Sur un plan pédagogique, je crois que l’on n’a pas suffisamment formé les magistrats à la problématique du djihadisme en dehors du Parquet et des juges d’instruction
Que pensez-vous de l’apparition de kamikazes, phénomène semble-t-il nouveau lors de la commission d’attentats, tout du moins en France ?

Les terroristes ont une culture de la mort - la leur et celle des autres- qui ne relève pas de notre système de pensée et de notre rationalité. Des gens comme Khaled Kelkal, l’auteur des attentats de 1995 et Mohammed Merah, l’auteur, en mars 2012, de la tuerie à l’Ecole juive de Toulouse et l’assassin de militaires à Montauban, avaient parfaitement conscience que leur propre disparition faisait partie de leur programme. Ce qui est nouveau chez nous, dans les tueries du 13 novembre, c’est que les terroristes non seulement, intègrent leur mort comme issue de leur action, mais qu’ils en font un instrument de celle-ci en se faisant sauter au milieu de la foule.

Evidemment, cette nouvelle dimension du terrorisme, qui importe des méthodes employées dans les pays en guerre, nous oblige à changer totalement notre façon d’aborder la prévention du terrorisme.
Comment faire pour lutter encore plus efficacement contre le djihadisme ? Il y a vingt ans, une centaine de personnes faisaient l’objet d’une surveillance. Aujourd’hui 10 000 peut-être davantage. Que faire ? Recruter des policiers hyperspécialisés, comme les magistrats ? Et la création de JIRS ayant compétence uniquement en matière de lutte contre le terrorisme ?

Pour dire vrai je ne sais pas combien il y a de personnes à surveiller. Mais il est probable que leur nombre ne va pas diminuer. Il faudra, bien entendu, améliorer les moyens de lutte contre les menaces et, de façon générale, contre tous les phénomènes criminels de haute intensité auxquels le terrorisme est d’ailleurs connecté de nombreuses façons. Mais la manière de répondre aux questions, c’est d’abord poser les bonnes questions. A commencer par celle-ci : connaît-on les causes de ces engagements de jeunes Français ou Européens dans ces causes ? Tant qu’on n’en aura aucune idée, que pourra-t-on faire ? Car une chose au moins est sûre : ce n’est pas un simple problème de délinquance et de sécurité. Même si l’on donne plus de moyens aux services de renseignement, à la police et à la justice, la réponse devra être bien plus vaste, parce que la question est elle-même d’une toute autre ampleur.

http://www.atlantico.fr/decryptage/beatrice-brugere-juge-antiterroriste-faut-repenser-ensemble-dispositif-institutionnel-et-juridique-beatrice-brugere-gilles-2461907.html/page/0/1

--------------------------------------

Gang 'systematically groomed and abused' nearly 300 teenagers in Newcastle and Gateshead

Vulnerable girls were plied with alcohol and drugs before being raped by men at parties known as "sessions".

By Bethany Minelle, News Reporter

A police operation targeting sex abusers in the North East has so far identified 278 victims and hundreds more complainants.

Operation Sanctuary exposed the rape and abuse of underage girls in a sex ring which operated in deprived areas of Newcastle and Gateshead.

Four trials at Newcastle Crown Court heard how vulnerable girls were groomed by men who gave them alcohol and drugs before raping them at parties known as "sessions".

In what is the largest sex abuse investigation the Northumbria force has ever undertaken, 461 arrests were made after 703 potential complainants came forward.

Members of the gang have been imprisoned for a combined time of more than 300 years.

At the final trial, 17 men and one women were convicted of, or admitted to, charges including rape, supplying drugs and inciting prostitution.

Twenty young women told the court about the systematic abuse they had been subjected to over a number of years.

They told how teenagers were plied with cocaine, cannabis, alcohol and the designer drug M-CAT(mephedrone) by the gang.

They were then raped or persuaded into having sex with the lure of the drugs.

Despite the convictions, there has been criticism of the Northumbria Police for paying a convicted child rapist almost £10,000 to spy on the parties.

The trial heard that the informant had a previous conviction for drugging and raping an underage girl and inviting another man to do the same.

"The means can never justify the ends in a situation like this where you are putting a convicted child rapist in contact with very vulnerable children," said NSPCC spokesman Jon Brown said.

"It absolutely beggars belief and were are staggered at the NSPCC to understand that this has happened."

However, Chief Constable Steve Ashman suggested that the means justified the ends.

"I can categorically state that there are vulnerable women and girls today who have been safeguarded, and dangerous men behind bars, by using this tactic," he said.

Jim Hope, Head of Complex Casework for the Crown Prosecution Service, paid tribute to the "courageous" victims.

"Many of those convicted during the course of these trails have systematically been groomed and abused: vulnerable teenage girls and young women over a number of years for their own (the gang's) sexual gratification.

"Despite the abuses they have suffered, the victims have demonstrated great bravery in recounting their own distressing experiences in court.

"Through their courageous actions they may well have prevented other vulnerable women and girls from falling victim to this group."

The Newcastle case is the biggest child sex investigation since the scandals in Rotherham and Rochdale.

A report into the abuse in Rotherham, which came to light in November 2010, found that at least 1,400 children were sexually exploited between 1997 and 2013.

It branded the local council "not fit for purpose".

Then, in 2012, there was widespread public outrage after nine Asian men were jailed after grooming five girls - aged between 13 and 15 - in and around Rochdale between 2008 and 2010.

Arrests or prosecutions of groups of men for similar abuse also took place in 11 towns and cities, including Oxford, Bristol and Aylesbury.

RAPPORT DE
Y'BECCA
SOUS L'EGIDE
DE LA LUTTE CONTRE L'ESCLAVAGE, TORTURES ET VIOLS QU'ILS SOIENT PHYSIQUES ET MORALES...
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Nombre de messages : 6874
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Date d'inscription : 09/11/2005

MessageSujet: Re: VORMÄRZ, L'HÉGÉLIANISME, LE LIBÉRALISME ET BERLIN OU Y'BECCA   Jeu 10 Aoû à 2:56

Jet Propulsion Laboraty and California Institute California
NASA JPL‏Compte certifié @NASAJPL 11 hil y a 11 heures
NASA's @CassiniSaturn spacecraft is about to begin its final five orbits around Saturn https://go.nasa.gov/2wuwYxV #GrandFinale

Cassini to Begin Final Five Orbits Around Saturn

NASA's Cassini spacecraft will enter new territory in its final mission phase,
the Grand Finale, as it prepares to embark on a set of ultra-close passes
through Saturn's upper atmosphere with its final five orbits around the planet.

Cassini will make the first of these five passes over Saturn at 9:22 p.m.
PDT Sunday, Aug. 13 (12:22 a.m. EDT Monday, Aug. 14).
The spacecraft's point of closest approach to Saturn during these passes
will be between about 1,010 and 1,060 miles (1,630 and 1,710 kilometers)
above Saturn's cloud tops.

The spacecraft is expected to encounter atmosphere dense enough
to require the use of its small rocket thrusters to maintain stability --
conditions similar to those encountered during many of Cassini's close flybys
of Saturn's moon Titan, which has its own dense atmosphere.

"Cassini's Titan flybys prepared us for these rapid passes through
Saturn's upper atmosphere," said Earl Maize, Cassini project manager
at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California.
"Thanks to our past experience, the team is confident that we
understand how the spacecraft will behave at
the atmospheric densities our models predict."

Maize said the team will consider the Aug. 14 pass nominal if
the thrusters operate between 10 and 60 percent of their capability.
If the thrusters are forced to work harder --
meaning the atmosphere is denser than models predict --
engineers will increase the altitude of subsequent orbits.
Referred to as a "pop-up maneuver," thrusters will be used
to raise the altitude of closest approach on the next passes,
likely by about 120 miles (200 kilometers).

If the pop-up maneuver is not needed, and the atmosphere
is less dense than expected during the first three passes,
engineers may alternately use the "pop-down" option
to lower the closest approach altitude of the last two orbits,
also likely by about 120 miles (200 kilometers).
Doing so would enable Cassini's science instruments,
especially the ion and neutral mass spectrometer (INMS),
to obtain data on the atmosphere even closer
to the planet's cloud tops.

"As it makes these five dips into Saturn, followed
by its final plunge, Cassini will become the first Saturn atmospheric probe,
" said Linda Spilker, Cassini project scientist at JPL.
"It's long been a goal in planetary exploration to send
a dedicated probe into the atmosphere of Saturn,
and we're laying the groundwork for future exploration
with this first foray."

Other Cassini instruments will make detailed, high-resolution
observations of Saturn's auroras, temperature, and the vortexes
at the planet's poles. Its radar will peer deep into the atmosphere
to reveal small-scale features as fine as 16 miles (25 kilometers)
wide -- nearly 100 times smaller than the spacecraft could observe
prior to the Grand Finale.

On Sept. 11, a distant encounter with Titan will serve as
a gravitational version of a large pop-down maneuver,
slowing Cassini's orbit around Saturn and bending its path
slightly to send the spacecraft toward its Sept. 15 plunge into the planet.

During the half-orbit plunge, the plan is to have seven Cassini
science instruments, including INMS, turned on and reporting measurements
in near real time. The spacecraft is expected to reach an altitude where
atmospheric density is about twice what it encountered during its final
five passes. Once Cassini reaches that point, its thrusters will
no longer be able to work against the push of Saturn's atmosphere
to keep the spacecraft's antenna pointed toward Earth,
and contact will permanently be lost. The spacecraft will break up
like a meteor moments later, ending its long and rewarding journey.

The Cassini-Huygens mission is a cooperative project of NASA, ESA
(European Space Agency) and the Italian Space Agency.
NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of Caltech
in Pasadena, manages the mission for NASA's Science Mission Directorate,
Washington. JPL designed, developed and assembled the Cassini orbiter.

News Media Contact
Preston Dyches
Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif.
818-394-7013
preston.dyches@jpl.nasa.gov

Felicia Chou
NASA Headquarters, Washington
202-358-0257
felicia.chou@nasa.gov

2017-210


The Path of the Eclipse
Watch the great eclipse of August 21st, 2017, interactively! Pick your location
on the Earth, scroll through time, and see if your view will be
a partial eclipse (in the penumbra) or a total eclipse (in the umbra).

••••••••••••••
Select a location
August 21, 2017
What's Happening Now
https://www.jpl.nasa.gov/

RAPPORT DE
Y'BECCA
SOUS L’ÉGIDE DU
CITOYEN TIGNARD YANIS



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Nombre de messages : 6874
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Date d'inscription : 09/11/2005

MessageSujet: Re: VORMÄRZ, L'HÉGÉLIANISME, LE LIBÉRALISME ET BERLIN OU Y'BECCA   Jeu 10 Aoû à 3:09

NASA has selected nine proposals under its Explorers Program
that will return transformational science about the Sun
and space environment and fill science gaps between
the agency's larger missions; eight for focused scientific
investigations and one for technological development
of instrumentation. One, called Sun Radio Interferometer Space Experiment
(SunRISE), is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory,
Pasadena, California.

The broad scope of the investigations illustrates the many vital
and specialized research areas that must be explored simultaneously
in the area of heliophysics, which is the study of how the Sun
affects space and the space environment of planets.

"The Explorers Program seeks innovative ideas for small
and cost-constrained missions that can help unravel
the mysteries of the Universe," said Paul Hertz, director
of NASA's Astrophysics Division and the selection official.
"These missions absolutely meet that standard with proposals
to solve mysteries about the Sun's corona,
the Earth's atmosphere and magnetosphere,
and the solar wind."

Under the selected proposals, five Heliophysics Small Explorer missions
and two Explorer Missions of Opportunity Small Complete Missions (SCM),
concept studies will be conducted that span a broad range
of investigations focusing on terrestrial weather
in the near-Earth space environment -- magnetic energy,
solar wind, heating and energy released in the solar atmosphere.

The proposals were selected based on potential science value
and feasibility of development plans. Small Explorer mission costs
are capped at $165 million each, and Mission of Opportunity costs
are capped at $55 million each.

Each Heliophysics Small Explorer mission will receive $1.25 million
to conduct an 11-month mission concept study.
The selected proposals are:

Mechanisms of Energetic Mass Ejection -- eXplorer (MEME-X)

MEME-X will map the universal physical processes
of the lower geospace system that control the mass flux
through the upper atmosphere to space potentially transforming
our understanding of how ions leave Earth's atmosphere.
Principal investigator: Thomas Moore at NASA's Goddard Space Flight
Center in Greenbelt, Maryland

Focusing Optics X-ray Solar Imager (FOXSI)

FOXSI is a solar-dedicated, direct-imaging, Hard X-Ray telescope
that would detect hot plasma and energetic electrons in
and near energy release sites in the solar corona.
Principal investigator: Steven Christe at Goddard

Multi-Slit Solar Explorer (MUSE)

MUSE will provide data to advance understanding
of the difficult problems of mechanisms responsible
for energy release in the corona and the dynamics of the solar atmosphere.
Principal investigator: Ted Tarbell at Lockheed Martin Inc.
in Palo Alto, California

Tandem Reconnection and Cusp Electrodynamics
Reconnaissance Satellites (TRACERS)

TRACERS will fill a fundamental gap in our knowledge
of the global variability in magnetopause reconnection by providing an abundant,
well targeted set of new and unique in situ measurements.
Principal investigator: Craig Kletzing at the University of Iowa, in Iowa City

Polarimeter to Unify the Corona and Heliosphere (PUNCH)

PUNCH will advance our understanding of how coronal structures fuel
the ambient solar wind with mass and energy, and the dynamic evolution
of transient structures in the young solar wind (near the source surface).
Principal investigator: Craig DeForest at Southwest Research Institute
in Boulder, Colorado

Each Mission of Opportunity SCM will receive $400,000 to conduct
an 11-month mission concept study. The selected proposals are:

Sun Radio Interferometer Space Experiment (SunRISE)

SunRISE will consist of a constellation of cubesats operating
as a synthetic aperture radio telescope to address the critical heliophysics
problems of how solar energetic particles are accelerated and released
into interplanetary space.
Principal investigator: Justin Kasper at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor

Atmospheric Waves Experiment (AWE)

AWE will investigate how atmospheric gravity waves, including those
generated by terrestrial weather, impact the transport of energy
and momentum from the lower atmosphere into near-Earth space,
a fundamental question in Heliophysics.
Principal investigator: Michael Taylor
at Utah State University Research Foundation in Logan

A Partner Mission of Opportunity (PMO) proposal has been selected
for components and scientific analysis for three in situ payload instruments
aboard the Turbulence Heating ObserveR (THOR) mission -
one of four proposed missions currently under consideration
by ESA (European Space Agency). After ESA's final selection,
work will begin on implementation of the PMO only if THOR is selected.

The chosen PMO is:

U.S. Contributions to the THOR mission (THOR-US)

THOR-US will provide components and scientific analysis
for an investigation into how plasma is heated and accelerated
by the dissipation of turbulent fluctuations through kinetic processes.
The concept study for THOR-US was conducted prior to its selection
for NASA's Explorer Program, so the team is positioned to move
into the detailed design phase if its host mission is selected.
Principal investigator: Harald Kucharek at University
of New Hampshire in Durham

One Mission of Opportunity SCM received highly favorable review
for scientific and scientific implementation merit, but was deemed
to require more technological development of the instrument's innovative
optical design before further consideration of an implementation concept.
This proposal is offered funding for
a continued technology development study.
The SCM chosen for a technology development investigation is:

COronal Spectrographic Imager in the Extreme ultraviolet (COSIE)

COSIE would provide a missing link between the physics
of the low corona and that of the heliosphere with a unique
and innovative instrument based on the International Space Station.
Principal investigator: Leon Golub at the Smithsonian
Institution/Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory
in Cambridge, Massachusetts

The Explorers Program is the oldest continuous NASA program
designed to provide frequent, low-cost access to space using
principal investigator-led space science investigations relevant
to the agency's astrophysics and heliophysics programs.
Since the Explorer 1 launch in 1958,
which discovered Earth's radiation belts, the Explorers Program
has launched more than 90 missions, including the Uhuru and
Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) missions that led
to Nobel Prizes for their investigators.

The program is managed by Goddard for NASA's Science Mission
Directorate in Washington, which conducts a wide variety
of research and scientific exploration programs for Earth studies,
space weather, the solar system and universe.

For more information about NASA's Science Mission Directorate
activities, visit:

https://science.nasa.gov

News Media Contact
Dwayne Brown
NASA Headquarters, Washington
202-358-1726
dwayne.c.brown@nasa.gov

Elizabeth Landau
Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif.
818-354-6425
elizabeth.landau@jpl.nasa.gov

2017-207
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