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 Without the rule of law, states are doomed to powerty et TAY

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yanis la chouette



Nombre de messages : 6019
Localisation : http://yanis.tignard.free.fr/
Date d'inscription : 09/11/2005

MessageSujet: Without the rule of law, states are doomed to powerty et TAY   Jeu 11 Mai à 3:25

Melania Trump‏Compte certifié @FLOTUS
.@Potus and I celebrated 75th anniversary of Battle of the Coral Sea w/ Australia's Prime Minister Turnbull

TIGNARD YANIS‏ @TIGNARDYANIS 2 hil y a 2 heures
En réponse à @FLOTUS @POTUS
CHÈRE MADAME, JE VOUS ENVOIE CES MOTS SINCÈRES DE LA RÉPUBLIQUE DE FRANCE POUR CET ÉVÉNEMENT PARTICULIER À L'HISTOIRE DES USA. UN AMI.
TAY

TIGNARD YANIS‏ @TIGNARDYANIS 2 hil y a 2 heures
En réponse à @FLOTUS @POTUS
CETTE ANNÉE, LE DEUIL DE L'ANNIVERSAIRE DU MASSACRE DE GUERNICA DANS LE ROYAUME RÉPUBLICAINS D'ESPAGNE: JE VOUS REMERCIE DE VOS PENSÉES.
TAY

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TIGNARD YANIS‏ @TIGNARDYANIS 12 hil y a 12 heures
CONSCIENCE EST CONSTANTE DE CELUI QUI VEUT OUVRIR LES YEUX SUR UNE ÉTOILE. DÉCOUVRIR LA TERRE, PARCOURIR L'UNIVERS ET ENTENDRE LE VENT.
TAY



TIGNARD YANIS‏ @TIGNARDYANIS 1 hil y a 1 heure
LA PATIENCE EST UNE VERTU POUR CELUI QUI LA POSSÈDE. CERTAINES PERSONNES NE POSSÈDENT PAS CETTE QUALITÉ CAR IL LA CONFONDE AVEC LA MOLLESSE.

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Karen Pence‏Compte certifié @SecondLady
Pence family rabbit hops into spotlight at White House event @CNNPolitics

TIGNARD YANIS‏ @TIGNARDYANIS 2 hil y a 2 heures
En réponse à @SecondLady @CNNPolitics
AMITIÉS SINCÈRES ET RÉELLES DE LA PART DE LA RÉPUBLIQUE DE FRANCE. LA RAISON ET LA CONSCIENCE L'EMPORTE SUR LA RANCOEUR: AMITIÉ SINCÈRE.
TAY

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TIGNARD YANIS‏ @TIGNARDYANIS 11 hil y a 11 heures
LA CONSCIENCE D'UN C.R.S EST DE SAVOIR DEFENDRE DANS TOUS LES ASPECTS: POUR UN CITOYEN, TOUT COMME POUR UN CAMARADE AINSI QUE POUR LUI-MÊME.

TIGNARD YANIS‏ @TIGNARDYANIS 11 hil y a 11 heures
LES C.R.S SONT L'ORDRE ET LA SÉCURITÉ AINSI DEVANT TOUT ASPECT DE LA SOCIÉTÉ, ILS SONT GARDIENS DE CONSCIENCE ET LIBERTÉ: LOI ET SECOURISTES

TIGNARD YANIS‏ @TIGNARDYANIS 11 hil y a 11 heures
LA LUTTE CONTRE LES HOMICIDES, LES VIOLS OU TOUT AUTRES TORTURES DÉGUISÉES POUR TUER LA CONSCIENCE DE LIBERTÉ DOIT ÊTRE ENGAGÉES.
LES C.R.S

TIGNARD YANIS‏ @TIGNARDYANIS 12 hil y a 12 heures
POLICE LA COATIE ET COMPAGNIES RÉPUBLICAINES SÉCURITAIRES SONT AUSSI SECOURISTES ET ASTRONAUTES: L'ÉCOUTE SOCIAL, MR MACRON EMMANUEL.
TAY

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Chandra Observatory‏ @chandraxray
5 telescopes team up for a #stunning view of the Crab Nebula: @chandraxray @NASAHubble @NASAspitzer @ESA_XMM & VLA! http://s.si.edu/2qsbYrL

Crab Nebula: Observatories Combine to Crack Open the Crab Nebula


   A new multi-wavelength image of the Crab Nebula with data from radio waves to X-rays has been released.

   This image contains data from Chandra (purple), VLA (red), Spitzer (yellow), Hubble (green), and XMM-Newton (blue).

   The Crab supernova was observed in 1054 AD and its remnant has become one of the most famous objects in the sky.

   X-rays from Chandra reveal the structure and behavior of the high-energy particles being spewed from the Crab's central pulsar.


Astronomers have produced a highly detailed image of the Crab Nebula, by combining data from telescopes spanning nearly the entire breadth of the electromagnetic spectrum, from radio waves seen by the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) to the powerful X-ray glow as seen by the orbiting Chandra X-ray Observatory. And, in between, the Hubble Space Telescope's crisp visible-light view and the infrared perspective of the Spitzer Space Telescope.

The Crab Nebula, the result of a bright supernova explosion seen by Chinese and other astronomers in the year 1054, is 6,500 light-years from Earth. At its center is a super-dense neutron star, rotating once every 33 milliseconds, shooting out rotating lighthouse-like beams from radio waves to gamma-ray wavelengths — a pulsar. The nebula's intricate shape is caused by a complex interplay of the pulsar, a fast-moving wind of particles coming from the pulsar, and material originally ejected by the supernova explosion and by the star itself before the explosion.


Animation Credit: ESA/Hubble (M. Kornmesser & L. L. Christensen)

This image combines data from five different telescopes: The VLA (radio) in red; Spitzer Space Telescope (infrared) in yellow; Hubble Space Telescope (visible) in green; XMM-Newton (ultraviolet) in blue; and Chandra X-ray Observatory (X-ray) in purple.

The new VLA, Hubble, and Chandra observations were largely made at about the same time in November 2012. Chandra has been observing the Crab Nebula since shortly after the telescope was launched into space in 1999 and has repeatedly done so in the years since. X-ray data reveal the distribution and behavior of the high-energy particles being spewed from the pulsar at the center of the Crab, which provides important clues to the workings of this mighty cosmic generator producing energy at the rate of 1,000 suns.

A paper describing the latest multi-wavelength work on the Crab, led by Gloria Dubner (IAFE), appears in The Astrophysical Journal and is available online. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, manages the Chandra program for NASA's Science Mission Directorate in Washington. The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory in Cambridge, Massachusetts, controls Chandra's science and flight operations.
Fast Facts for Crab Nebula:
Credit   X-ray: NASA/CXC/SAO; Optical: NASA/STScI; Infrared: NASA/JPL/Caltech; Radio: NSF/NRAO/VLA; Ultraviolet: ESA/XMM-Newton
Release Date   May 10, 2017
Scale   Image is about 5 arcmin across (10 light years)
Category   Supernovas & Supernova Remnants, Neutron Stars/X-ray Binaries
Coordinates (J2000)   RA 05h 34m 32s | Dec +22° 0.0' 52.00"
Constellation   Taurus
Observation Date   48 pointings between March 2000 and Nov 2013
Observation Time   25 hours 28 min. (1 day 1 hour 28 min)
Obs. ID   769-773, 1994-2001, 4607, 13139, 13146, 13147, 13150-13154, 13204-13210, 13750-13752, 13754-13757, 14416, 14458, 14678-14682, 14685, 16245, 16257, 16357, 16358
Instrument   ACIS
Also Known As NGC 1952
References Dubner, G. et al., 2017, ApJ [in print]; arXiv: 1704.02968
Color Code   X-ray (Purple), Ultraviolet (Blue), Optical (Green), Infrared (Yellow-Green), Radio (Red)

------------------------------------------

TIGNARD YANIS‏ @TIGNARDYANIS 2 hil y a 12 heures
En réponse à @whitehouse
MR LE PRÉSIDENT TRUMP DONALD, UNE INQUIÉTUDE RÉELLE DU RENVOI PRÉSIDENTIEL
SUR UN AGENT DU FBI ET RÉJOUI DE LA DISCUSSION AVEC LA RUSSIE (DISCUTION)

TIGNARD YANIS‏ @TIGNARDYANIS 2 hil y a 12 heures
En réponse à @vp
IL EST EMOUVANT DE VOIR UN ENFANT ÉMERVEILLÉ PAR LA SILHOUETTE DE CELUI QUI
EST UN MONSIEUR POUR SES YEUX ET SON CŒUR DE FUTUR CITOYEN.
TAY

TIGNARD YANIS‏ @TIGNARDYANIS 2 hil y a 12 heures
En réponse à @whitehouse
ÉPOUX ET ÉPOUSE DE LA COMMUNAUTÉ DU FBI LIE à LA SÉCURITÉ DE USA ET à L’INTÉGRITÉ
DISONS AU SUJET DU RENVOI DE NOTRE PRÉSIDENT: "MERDE"

TIGNARD YANIS‏ @TIGNARDYANIS 2 hil y a 12 heures
En réponse à @vp
L'ADOLESCENT EST UN CITOYEN PAR LA SITUATION DE VIE. HEUREUSEMENT LE FBI ET SON
PRÉSIDENT SONT GARDIEN à LA SÉCURITÉ CITOYENNE.

TIGNARD YANIS‏ @TIGNARDYANIS 2 hil y a 12 heures
En réponse à @vp
TEL DANS LE SILENCE DES AGNEAUX? LES AGENTS DU FBI DISENT AUX YEUX DU PRÉSIDENT
DES USA POUR LE RENVOI NEXT DE LEUR PRÉSIDENT: MERDE. TAY

RAPPORT DE
Y'BECCA
SUR LE CITOYEN TIGNARD YANIS
EN TERME DE PRÉSENCE
SUR LES SECOURS...
Revenir en haut Aller en bas
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yanis la chouette



Nombre de messages : 6019
Localisation : http://yanis.tignard.free.fr/
Date d'inscription : 09/11/2005

MessageSujet: Re: Without the rule of law, states are doomed to powerty et TAY   Jeu 11 Mai à 3:29

Without the rule of law, states are doomed to powerty



Communism was an awful system for people trapped behind the Iron Curtain. The political cost was enormous. Personal rights and individual liberties were sacrificed to protect the power of the state. Human rights were abused, dissidents were imprisoned, and some killed. Communism also imposed huge economic costs. Collectivised agriculture, central planning, price controls, and government-run industries were among the policies that resulted in a debilitating misallocation of resources. And because labour and capital were poorly utilised, living standards lagged far behind Western nations.

The eventual collapse of the Soviet Empire freed hundreds of millions of people from political tyranny. And most nations that emerged have done a decent job of establishing democracy. Establishing genuine capitalism, though, has been a bigger challenge. Part of the problem is policy. And to be more specific, data from the Fraser’s Institute’s Economic Freedom of the World shows that the major difference today between Western Europe and Eastern Europe (nations that were part of the Soviet Bloc) is that the former get much better scores for “Legal System and Property Rights.” Indeed, the average ranking of Western European nations is 20.6 (with 1 being the best) while the average ranking of Eastern European countries is 67.1 (Economic Freedom of the World ranks 159 jurisdictions).

Most nations that emerged have done a decent job of establishing democracy. Establishing genuine capitalism, though, has been a bigger challenge.

Why does this matter? The Fraser Institute argues that a bad score for this variable makes widespread prosperity much harder to achieve:

“The key ingredients of a legal system consistent with economic freedom are rule of law, security of property rights, an independent and unbiased judiciary, and impartial and effective enforcement of the law… Security of property rights, protected by the rule of law, provides the foundation for both economic freedom and the efficient operation of markets… Perhaps more than any other area, this area is essential for the efficient allocation of resources. Countries with major deficiencies in this area are unlikely to prosper regardless of their policies in the other four areas.”

To be sure, looking at averages for entire regions buries some important details. Estonia, which is part of Eastern Europe, ranks 23rd in this key category. Italy, meanwhile, is ranked only at number 70, notwithstanding the fact that it is part of Western Europe. And Poland ranks 45th, much better than Greece, which ranks 62nd.

But this actually reinforces the argument. Estonia and Poland are two of the more successful nations to emerge from the wreckage of Communism. Italy and Greece, by contrast, are plagued by moribund and anaemic economies. These nations confirm that the rule of law (which is basically what is captured by “Legal System and Property Rights”) is critically important for a prosperous market economy.

Culture also matters. People behind the Iron Curtain were subjected to decades of propaganda about the supposed inequity and iniquity of the capitalist system. And even if they intellectually understand that they are better off today because the Soviet Union disintegrated, there’s still some vestigial suspicion of markets.

People behind the Iron Curtain were subjected to decades of propaganda about the supposed inequity and iniquity of the capitalist system.

To make matters worse, the transition away from Communism often exacerbated that scepticism. In some cases, the process of privatisation created windfall gains for those with special connections to government. And in cases when privatisation didn’t occur, that meant governments providing subsidies to state-owned enterprises. Yet those subsidies generally get targeted to insiders. To the degree that these examples of cronyism are perceived as being part of the capitalist system, it’s understandable that ordinary people are less than enthused about the market economy.

----------------------------------------


How pervasive is the problem? Once again, the database from Economic Freedom of the World is very instructive. If you examine the overall ratings for “size of government”, Eastern European nations are actually ranked significantly better, with an average ranking of 89.2 compared with 129.2 for Western European countries. This is because tax rates tend to be lower (many ­former Soviet Bloc nations have flat tax regimes, for instance) and welfare states aren’t as burdensome.

But if you dig into the details and examine the various components that determine size of government, there’s one area where Eastern Europe lags behind. The numbers for “Government Enterprises and Investment” are better in Western Europe. This variable is important, according to Economic Freedom or the World, because it:

“…measures the extent to which countries use private investment and enterprises rather than government investment and firms to direct resources. Governments and state-owned enterprises play by rules that are different from those to which private enterprises are subject. They are not dependent on consumers for their revenue or on investors for capital. They often operate in protected markets. Thus, economic freedom is reduced as government enterprises produce a larger share of total output.”

Politicians play too large a role in the allocation of capital in former Communist nations.

In other words, politicians play too large a role in the allocation of capital in former Communist nations. And when you combine low scores for rule of law with poor scores for government control of investment and allocation of capital, this underscores the need for further reforms in Eastern Europe. However, such changes are difficult in nations where people incorrectly think that cronyism is part of capitalism. Particularly when politicians don’t have much incentive to reform policies, since genuine capitalism means they have less ability to hand out favours in exchange for power and money.

However, there is no alternative to reform in a competitive global economy. Nations that maintain statist policies will lose jobs, investment, and entrepreneurs to countries where there is better protection of the rule of law and less economic intervention. For Eastern European nations, which already face severe demographic challenges because of ageing populations and falling birthrates, the loss of productive resources – especially the emigration of young people – is a crippling blow.

The bottom line is that post-Communist nations need to choose genuine capitalism if they want a brighter future for their citizens.

Nations that maintain statist policies will lose jobs, investment, and entrepreneurs to countries where there is better protection of the rule of law and less economic intervention.


This article was originally published in The Conservative journal, Issue 3, April 2017.

by Daniel J. Mitchell

LA LUTTE CONTRE LES HOMICIDES, LES VIOLS OU TOUT AUTRES TORTURES DÉGUISÉES POUR TUER LA CONSCIENCE DE LIBERTÉ DOIT ÊTRE ENGAGÉES.
LES C.R.S

LES C.R.S SONT L'ORDRE ET LA SÉCURITÉ AINSI DEVANT TOUT ASPECT DE LA SOCIÉTÉ, ILS SONT GARDIENS DE CONSCIENCE ET LIBERTÉ: LOI ET SECOURISTES

LA CONSCIENCE D'UN C.R.S EST DE SAVOIR DÉFENDRE DANS TOUS LES ASPECTS: POUR UN CITOYEN, TOUT COMME POUR UN CAMARADE AINSI QUE POUR LUI-MÊME.

et

POLICE LA COATIE ET COMPAGNIES RÉPUBLICAINES SÉCURITAIRES SONT AUSSI SECOURISTES ET ASTRONAUTES: L'ÉCOUTE SOCIAL, MR MACRON EMMANUEL.
TAY


------------------------------------------------------

Sans l’état de droit, les États sont voués à powerty
par Daniel J. Mitchell

Le communisme était un système horrible pour les gens pris au piège derrière le rideau de fer. Le coût politique était énorme. Droits individuels et les libertés individuelles ont été sacrifiées pour protéger le pouvoir de l’État. Droits de l’homme ont été abusés, les dissidents ont été emprisonnés et certains tués. Le communisme a également imposé des coûts économiques énormes. Collectivisation de l’agriculture, la planification centralisée, contrôle des prix et industries gérés par le gouvernement ont été parmi les politiques qui ont abouti à une débilitante une mauvaise affectation des ressources. Et parce que le travail et le capital ont été mal utilisés, les niveaux de vie décalé loin derrière les pays occidentaux.

L’effondrement de l’Empire soviétique a libéré des centaines de millions de personnes de la tyrannie politique. Et la plupart des pays qui ont émergé ont fait un travail décent de l’établissement de la démocratie. Établir le véritable capitalisme, cependant, a été un défi plus grand. Une partie du problème est politique. Et pour être plus précis, données provenant de la Fraser de la liberté de l’Institut économique du monde montre que la principale différence aujourd'hui entre l’Europe occidentale et Europe de l’est (pays qui faisaient partie du Bloc soviétique) est que l’ancien obtenir des scores beaucoup mieux pour le « Système judiciaire et les droits de propriété. » En effet, le classement moyen de l’Europe occidentale est 20,6 (1 étant la meilleure) alors que la moyenne classement des PECO pays est 67.1 (liberté économique des juridictions monde rangs 159).

La plupart des nations qui sont apparues ont fait un travail décent de l’établissement de la démocratie. Établir le véritable capitalisme, cependant, a été un défi plus grand.

Pourquoi cette question ? L’Institut Fraser soutient qu’un mauvais score pour cette variable rend la prospérité généralisée beaucoup plus difficiles à atteindre :

« Les ingrédients clés d’un système juridique compatible avec la liberté économique sont état de droit, la sécurité des droits de propriété, un système judiciaire indépendant et impartial et application impartiale et efficace de la Loi... Sécurité des droits de propriété, protégé par l’état de droit, fournit la Fondation pour la liberté économique et le fonctionnement efficace des marchés... Peut-être plus que tout autre domaine, ce domaine est essentiel pour l’affectation efficace des ressources. Pays avec des lacunes majeures dans ce domaine sont peu susceptibles de prospérer indépendamment de leurs politiques dans les quatre autres domaines. »

Pour être sûr, en regardant les moyennes pour les régions entières enterre quelques détails importants. Estonie, qui fait partie de l’Europe, est classé 23e dans cette catégorie clé. Italie, dans le même temps, se classe seulement au numéro 70, nonobstant le fait qu’il fait partie de l’Europe occidentale. Et la Pologne classe 45ème, beaucoup mieux que la Grèce, qui se classe 62e.

Mais cela renforce en fait l’argument. L’Estonie et la Pologne sont deux des nations plus réussies à sortir de l’épave du communisme. Italie et en Grèce, en revanche, sont minées par les économies moribondes et anémiques. Ces nations confirment que l’état de droit (ce qui est en fait ce qui est capturé par le « Système juridique et droits de propriété ») est crucial pour une économie de marché prospère.

La culture est aussi important. Les gens derrière le rideau de fer ont subi des décennies de propagande sur la supposée iniquité et l’iniquité du système capitaliste. Et même si intellectuellement, ils comprennent qu’ils sont mieux lotis aujourd'hui parce que l’Union soviétique s’est désintégré, il n’y a toujours quelques soupçons vestigial des marchés.

Les gens derrière le rideau de fer ont subi des décennies de propagande sur la supposée iniquité et l’iniquité du système capitaliste.

Pour aggraver les choses, la transition du communisme souvent exacerbé ce scepticisme. Dans certains cas, le processus de manne de privatisation créée gagne pour ceux qui ont des raccordements spéciaux au gouvernement. Et dans le cas lorsque la privatisation n’a pas se produire, cela signifiait gouvernements en accordant des subventions aux entreprises publiques. Pourtant ces subventions obtenir généralement destinées aux initiés. Au point que ces exemples de copinage sont perçues comme faisant partie du système capitaliste, il est compréhensible que les gens ordinaires sont moins enthousiaste au sujet de l’économie de marché.

Comment omniprésent est le problème ? Une fois de plus, la base de données de la liberté économique du monde est très instructif. Si vous examinez la notation globale pour « taille de l’État », nations d’Europe orientale occupent en fait nettement mieux, avec un classement moyen de 89,2 comparée à 129,2 pour les pays d’Europe occidentale. C’est parce que les taux d’imposition ont tendance à être inférieure (de nombreux anciens pays du Bloc soviétique ont les régimes fiscaux plat, par exemple) et les Etats-providence ne sont pas aussi lourdes.

Mais si vous creusez dans les détails et d’examinez les divers éléments qui déterminent la taille du gouvernement, il y a un domaine où l’Europe est en retard. Les numéros « Entreprises et investissements du gouvernement » sont mieux en Europe occidentale. Cette variable est importante, selon la liberté économique ou dans le monde, parce qu’il :

«.. mesures mesure dans quels pays utilisent des investissements privés et des entreprises plutôt"...

LA LUTTE CONTRE LES HOMICIDES, LES VIOLS OU TOUT AUTRES TORTURES DÉGUISÉES POUR TUER LA CONSCIENCE DE LIBERTÉ DOIT ÊTRE ENGAGÉES.
LES C.R.S

LES C.R.S SONT L'ORDRE ET LA SÉCURITÉ AINSI DEVANT TOUT ASPECT DE LA SOCIÉTÉ, ILS SONT GARDIENS DE CONSCIENCE ET LIBERTÉ: LOI ET SECOURISTES

LA CONSCIENCE D'UN C.R.S EST DE SAVOIR DÉFENDRE DANS TOUS LES ASPECTS: POUR UN CITOYEN, TOUT COMME POUR UN CAMARADE AINSI QUE POUR LUI-MÊME.

et

POLICE LA COATIE ET COMPAGNIES RÉPUBLICAINES SÉCURITAIRES SONT AUSSI SECOURISTES ET ASTRONAUTES: L'ÉCOUTE SOCIAL, MR MACRON EMMANUEL.
TAY


Revenir en haut Aller en bas
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yanis la chouette



Nombre de messages : 6019
Localisation : http://yanis.tignard.free.fr/
Date d'inscription : 09/11/2005

MessageSujet: Re: Without the rule of law, states are doomed to powerty et TAY   Jeu 11 Mai à 3:38

Energy and Environment
U.S. blocks major pipeline after 18 leaks and a 2 million gallon spill of drilling mud
By Steven Mufson May 10 at 3:31 PM

The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission has curtailed work on a natural-gas pipeline in Ohio after the owner, Energy Transfer Partners, reported 18 leaks and spilled more than 2 million gallons of drilling materials.

The pipeline regulator blocked Energy Transfer Partners, which also built the controversial Dakota Access pipeline, from starting horizontal drilling in eight areas where drilling has not yet begun. In other areas, where the company has already begun horizontal drilling, the FERC said drilling could continue.

The FERC also ordered the company to double the number of environmental inspectors and to preserve documents the commission wants to examine as it investigates the spills.

The biggest spill, in a pristine wetland along the Tuscarawas River about 50 miles south of Akron, covered 6.5 acres, the commission said, “coating wetland soils and vegetation with bentonite clay and bore-hole cuttings.” A video provided by the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency showed drilling mud a foot or two deep.

Energy Transfer Partners has asserted that the spills of nontoxic drilling mud, used to cool and lubricate drilling equipment, were inadvertent and had been predicted in its permit application to build the Rover gas pipeline. The horizontal drilling is done to place pipelines well below ground to minimize the chances of contamination of rivers or wetlands.

However, the FERC said that its staff has “serious concerns” regarding the magnitude of the largest spill, “its environmental impacts, the lack of clarity regarding the underlying reasons for its occurrence, and the possibility of future problems.”

It said that the largest spill was “several orders of magnitude greater than other documented inadvertent returns for this project.”

The commission, which regulates all natural gas pipelines, said that “a stoppage of additional drilling is warranted to facilitate a review of Rover’s efforts to search for and locate any potential releases.”

The Ohio EPA has fined Energy Transfer Partners about $400,000 and asked the FERC for support. Craig Butler, the Ohio EPA director, said the company’s response had been “dismissive,” “exceptionally disappointing” and unlike any other response he has seen from a company in his 27 years at the agency.

The Rover pipeline is $4.2 billion project that would link the shale-gas-rich regions of Appalachia to Michigan and Ontario.

It is just one of many pipelines whose fate lies in the hands of the FERC, a technocratic and relatively obscure agency. The five-member commission has lacked a quorum since early February, putting new permits on hold. That has placed an obstacle in the path of the White House.

The Trump administration late Monday nominated two new members for the commission, potentially clearing the way for controversial, multibillion-dollar pipeline and natural-gas export projects like Rover, which was one of the last permits issued in February.

The White House picked Neil Chatterjee, energy policy adviser to Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell (R-Ky.), and Robert F. Powelson, a member of the Pennsylvania Public Utility Commission since 2008.

President Trump has voiced support for new oil pipeline projects such as the Keystone XL and Dakota Access lines, and Gary Cohn, head of the White House National Economic Council, recently threw the administration’s support behind a liquefied natural gas export terminal in Oregon’s Jordan Cove that had been rejected by the FERC a few months ago.

The nominees, who must be confirmed by the Senate, would probably tilt the balance of the commission toward approving gas projects.

The Jordan Cove project was the only major LNG project the FERC has rejected. And the commission does not have jurisdiction over oil pipelines.

Nonetheless, leading Republicans and oil and gas industry groups have applauded the nominations.

Sen. James M. Inhofe (R-Okla.), a senior member of the Senate Environment Committee, said in a statement that he was “thrilled” and that the nominations would “ensure Republican leadership” of the commission and “bring a great, pro-energy perspective.”

Christopher Guith, a senior vice president at the U.S. Chamber of Commerce, called the nominations “phenomenal picks” and said, “From strained competitive markets to crucial energy infrastructure, FERC faces many challenges, and these nominees will help move America toward a more secure energy future.”

Height Securities said in a note to investors Tuesday that it would take about six weeks or more for the two nominees to be confirmed. “In the meantime, we believe FERC will continue avoiding controversial issues, even after quorum returns,” the firm said.

That could change once there is a new chairman. Height Securities said that the White House is expected to name Kevin McIntyre, co-head of the energy practice of the Cleveland-based law firm Jones Day, to serve as FERC chairman, further cementing the position of industry supporters.

Energy and Environment newsletter

The science and policy of environmental issues.

Height said that the list of pipelines delayed by the lack of a FERC quorum includes the Nexus crossing Ohio, PennEast serving Pennsylvania and New Jersey, and Mountain Valley, serving West Virginia and Virginia. The stalled merger of Westar and Great Plains, two utilities, would need the FERC’s go-ahead once they finish ironing out final terms.

“For too long, FERC has merely served as a pit stop for the fossil fuel industry on its way to constructing dirty energy infrastructure,” Sierra Club global climate policy director John Coequyt said in a statement. “This cannot continue.”

A native of Lexington, Ky., Chatterjee has played a role in the passage of major energy, highway and farm legislation. Before working for McConnell, he worked in government relations for the National Rural Electric Cooperative Association and as an aide to then-House Republican Conference Chairwoman Deborah Pryce of Ohio.

Powelson was first nominated to the Pennsylvania PUC by Gov. Edward G. Rendell (D) and appointed chairman by Gov. Tom Corbett (R) in 2011. Powelson serves as the president of National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners.

https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/energy-environment/wp/2017/05/10/pipeline-shut-down-after-18-leaks-and-a-2-million-gallon-spill-of-drilling-materials/?tid=ss_tw&utm_term=.e9f7642b2e76

-------------------------------------------------

Energy and Environment
Senate unexpectedly rejects bid to repeal a key Obama-era environmental regulation
By Juliet Eilperin and Chelsea Harvey May 10 at 2:50 PM

This story has been updated.

The Senate on Wednesday narrowly blocked a resolution to repeal an Obama-era rule restricting methane emissions from drilling operations on public lands — with three Republicans joining every Democrat to preserve the rule.

The 51-to-49 vote on a procedural motion marked the first time since Trump’s election that Republicans have failed in their attempt to use the Congressional Review Act to overturn Obama-era rules. Thirteen other resolutions, based on the 1996 law that allows Congress to overturn rules within 60 legislative workdays of their adoption, have succeeded.

Thursday is the deadline for using the Congressional Review Act this way.

The methane emissions rule, issued by the Interior Department’s Bureau of Land Management in November, addresses a potent greenhouse gas that is accelerating climate change.

[Trump officials turn to courts to block Obama-era legacy]

The rule would force oil and gas companies to capture methane that had been previously burned off or “flared” at drilling sites. According to federal estimates, the rule would prevent roughly 180,000 tons a year of methane from escaping into the atmosphere and would boost federal revenue between $3 million and $13 million a year because firms only pay royalties on the oil and gas they capture and contain.

Sen. John McCain (R-Ariz.) unexpectedly voted no against a motion to proceed with consideration of the resolution, along with GOP Sens. Susan Collins (Maine) and Lindsey O. Graham (S.C.). Two Democrats who had considered backing the rule’s elimination — Heidi Heitkamp of North Dakota and Joe Manchin III of West Virginia — voted against the motion, and sent a letter asking Interior Secretary Ryan Zinke to make it less burdensome.

In a floor speech after the vote, Sen. Tom Udall (D-N.M.), said “the very first victory” lawmakers have had in beating back a Congressional Review Act bill this year came from a combination of Democratic unity and a few Republicans’ willingness to buck their leadership. “Thank you so much for coming forward and seeing the common-sense nature of this issue,” Udall said, referring to Collins, Graham and McCain.

[Earth could break through a major climate threshold in the next 15 years, scientists warn]

Jamie Williams, president of the Wilderness Society, hailed the vote as an example of how grass-roots organizing can work. “In recent months, thousands of Americans asked the Senate to stand up for clean air and against the oil lobby, and their efforts were successful today,” he said.

Republicans and industry officials said they would now switch their focus to getting the Interior Department to rewrite the rule, and Trump officials confirmed Thursday they would seek to either change or pull it back altogether.

Barry Russell, president of the Independent Petroleum Association of America, said his group “looks forward to working with the Interior Department on a targeted, meaningful solution that will achieve the common goal of ensuring the American taxpayers receive a fair and equitable return in the form of royalties while developing a workable regulation, instead of this one-size-fits-all approach.”

[EPA dismisses half of key board’s scientific advisers; Interior suspends more than 200 advisory panels]

And Senate Environment and Public Works Committee Chairman John Barrasso (R-Wyo.) said in a statement that Interior should withdraw the regulation outright. “If left in place, this regulation will only discourage energy production, job creation, and economic opportunity across the West.”

Kate MacGregor, Interior’s acting assistant secretary for land and minerals, said in a statement that as part of President Trump’s energy plan and related executive order, Interior “has reviewed and flagged the Waste Prevention rule as one we will suspend, revise or rescind given its significant regulatory burden that encumbers American energy production, economic growth and job creation.”

“The vote today in the Senate doesn’t impact the administration’s commitment to spurring investment in responsible energy development and ensuring smart regulatory protections,” she added.

Before this year, Congress had only nullified one rule, a regulation on ergonomics former president Bill Clinton enacted during his final year in office. In less than four months, Republicans have wiped away rules covering everything from limits on the dumping of waste from surface-mining operations to enlarging states’ power to offer retirement accounts to private-sector workers.

But the move to strike a rule requiring companies to limit the practice of flaring, or leaking, methane from oil and gas operations on federal and tribal land had given some Republicans — who control 52 seats in the Senate — pause.

#senate vote on HJ Res 36, the CRA on the methane rule was NOT agreed to 49-51. Collins, Graham and McCain joined all Dems/IND against.

— Senate Press Gallery (@SenatePress) May 10, 2017

Many Republicans and fossil-fuel producers criticized the regulation after it was finalized last year, and a resolution to repeal it passed quickly in the House of Representatives at the end of January. But despite Trump’s support, the repeal measure had been sitting in the Senate for months. It had to pass by Thursday to be eligible to be signed into law.

Democrats, as well as environmental and public-health groups, ran a months-long campaign to persuade Heitkamp and Manchin not to disclose their position publicly while arguing to centrist Republicans that abolishing the rule would cost taxpayers money as well as harm the environment.

[Trump undertakes the most ambitious regulatory rollback since Reagan]

Sen. Rob Portman (R-Ohio) also remained on the fence until Monday, when he announced in a statement that he would vote to overturn the BLM regulation. Two other wavering Republicans, Cory Gardner (Colo.) and Dean Heller (Nev.), ultimately joined Portman in voting to proceed with the bill’s consideration.

“Unfortunately, the previous administration’s methane rule was not a balanced approach,” Portman said. “As written, it would have hurt our economy and cost jobs in Ohio by forcing small independent operators to close existing wells and slowing responsible energy production on federal lands. There’s a better way.”

He added that he believes the Interior Department should still work to reduce venting and flaring on public lands. Last week, Portman wrote to Interior Secretary Ryan Zinke, calling for a commitment that the department would continue to work to reduce methane waste if the Obama rule were reversed. On May 4, Zinke responded, affirming that “the Department is committed to reducing methane waste, and under my leadership, we will take important steps to accomplish this goal.”

Environmentalists urged Portman to reconsider. In a statement on Tuesday, Environmental Defense Action Fund Executive Director Fred Krupp said Zinke’s assurances were “unfounded” and argued that the strategies for reducing methane waste outlined in his letter would have little impact.

A coalition of industry groups have argued that they are taking steps to reduce fugitive methane emissions because they recognize capturing them can yield additional profits. The American Petroleum Institute noted that the Environmental Protection Agency data, released in March, shows about an 8 percent drop in methane emissions from petroleum production since 2014, largely because of improved gas venting and flaring techniques.

The legislative window for Congressional Review Act resolutions to be considered ends Thursday, though a handful of conservative analysts believe that agencies’ failure to submit a two-page report on previous rules to Congress could open the door to reconsideration of dozens of much older rules.

Curtis W. Copeland, a regulatory expert who specialized in American government at the Congressional Research Service, said in an email that regardless of how many rules this Congress ultimately overturns, “The CRA can no longer be described as ‘obscure’ or ‘little known.’ It now has to be viewed as a substantive tool of congressional oversight regarding an outgoing President’s rules, and it is likely be used again in the future.”

More from Energy & Environment:

Energy and Environment newsletter

The science and policy of environmental issues.

Scientists are conspicuously missing from Trump’s government

‘We all knew this was coming’: Alaska’s thawing soils are now pouring carbon dioxide into the air

New EPA documents reveal even deeper proposed cuts to staff and programs

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Juliet Eilperin is The Washington Post's senior national affairs correspondent, covering how the new administration is transforming a range of U.S. policies and the federal government itself. She is the author of two books—one on sharks, and another on Congress, not to be confused with each other—and has worked for the Post since 1998.
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Chelsea Harvey is a freelance journalist covering science. She specializes in environmental health and policy.
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weebirdies
8:59 AM GMT+0200
Thank goodness for our Senators that they are forward thinking!
LikeReplyShare
SSatterfield
7:02 AM GMT+0200
Susan Collins puts her vote where her mouth is lots of times.
McCain and Graham rarely do. They love to talk in front of cameras and then take the opposite vote.
Well, one good vote for them for the next 10 years. It's back to the mic and cameras for them.
LikeReplyShare
1
Ozzie M Andias
8:48 AM GMT+0200
I think they just do it to tease us, sometimes, to make us feel that they really give a s**t. I think the Republican party alternates, kind of like spin the bottle, to make those of us who believe in Democracy think that once in a while they care. Either way KUDOS to McCain and Graham.
LikeReply
1
Ozzie M Andias
9:00 AM GMT+0200
You never know when they're going to lean left or right, probably has something to do with the weight of cash in either pocket, or the source of that cash? I could be wrong.
LikeReply
1
Alternative Truth
6:11 AM GMT+0200
I applaud the Republican Senators that can actually read and make logical connections. Too bad there are not more of you.
LikeReplyShare
Darr247
6:07 AM GMT+0200
Why doesn't this article mention that methane is 40x worse than CO2 as a greenhouse gas?
LikeReplyShare
1
Ozzie M Andias
8:50 AM GMT+0200
What are you doing Darr247? How dare you bring in reality!
LikeReply
1
Kenneth J. Connor
5:18 AM GMT+0200
Folks...the wheels are coming off the Trump Train...and the ride is going to get ugly from here on out. My bet? He is out by September.
LikeReplyShare
1
Ozzie M Andias
8:52 AM GMT+0200
I will take that bet all the way to the bank. We keep underestimating the Donald, and he keeps doing what we say he can't do. And then before we can hold him to it, he's on to something else! STOP UNDERESTIMATING THE TRUMP REGIME!
LikeReply
1
Ozzie M Andias
9:02 AM GMT+0200
Oh my friend, KJ Connor. the ride is just beginning, and the wheels are square!
LikeReply
1
Parnelli
4:52 AM GMT+0200
What? Republicans showing some cajones ... really? Now it's time for others to stand up and call for an independent commission on Trump and let the cards tell the story. If not ... well, republicans will have lost all face and trust from the American people. For Heavens sake ... for once ... please ... country before party ... Donnie and his administration have to go and yes, it's 'sad'.
LikeReplyShare
1
fishinfool
4:26 AM GMT+0200
Wow. This is a pleasant surprise......
LikeReplyShare
4
Foxyriver
3:55 AM GMT+0200
I am thankful that there were 3 Republicans with balls to vote against this disastrous bill. Methane gas is much more dangerous to the environment than carbon dioxide. The methane regulation was to force oil and gas companies to plug leaks to prevent methane from polluting the air.
The methane rule has nothing to do about jobs. Trump and the Republicans are always throwing in the phase "job killer" or "this will create jobs" to get what they want. To simplify, they vote for the interest/name on the donation check they received.
This time it didn't pass but never over estimate the GOP. Pence was standing in the wings to cast the vote to break the tie. Never lower your shields.
LikeReplyShare
4
twilliamrobert
6:16 AM GMT+0200 [Edited]
Well you certainly don't understand the oil and gas industry. Methane comes from swamps, marshes and landfills. Cow farts too. Instead of flaring the gas you want the industry to "capture" the gas. And then what? Store it? Inject it back into the earth? Burn it somewhere else or perhaps compress it and make bombs? Anyway foxy river, it will cost jobs, money and the price of energy for the middle class and poor people will have to go up. But that's ok, because of global warming, people up north won't need as much heating oil or electricity.
LikeReply
Ozzie M Andias
8:57 AM GMT+0200
Thank your for your opinion twilliamrobert, it is always appreciated that someone comes to this site and expresses their view points without making derogatory or inflammatory remarks. And you do make some valid points.
Like
frank sims
2:12 AM GMT+0200
Don't worry will sell us out some how.
LikeReplyShare
1
Honest-one
1:37 AM GMT+0200
A vote for the environment. A small ray of light in a Shi.. Storm
LikeReplyShare
6
Gary Esposito
1:16 AM GMT+0200
get money out of politics;
justicedemocrats.com
LikeReplyShare
2
Kenneth J. Connor
5:19 AM GMT+0200
Good cause...bad venue for furthering it.
LikeReply
1
bodhibob
1:02 AM GMT+0200
Lets see - Cory Gardner (Colo.) voted on the side of the bog oil and gas companies - I guess that over $1 mil in campaign funds from the oil and gas companies paid off.
LikeReplyShare
5
XonEarth
12:55 AM GMT+0200
New York Times calls it a "win for environmentalists"? Absurd. It is a win for all life as we know it.
LikeReplyShare
6
twilliamrobert
6:24 AM GMT+0200 [Edited]
True. A win for all of us that don't drive a car or ride a bus or heat your home or air condition your apartment fly in a plane have your food delivered to you local whole foods by truck eat in an air conditioned restaurant with natural gas ovens and stove tops. Watch tv, listen to radio read books have street lights watch movies go to the hospital and on and on and on! Huuuuuuge win for those people.
LikeReply
Austin43
12:43 AM GMT+0200
Wow, they finally did something responsible!
LikeReplyShare
2
D Edwards
12:40 AM GMT+0200
"According to the study, the “heat index” – a measure of what temperature it feels like outside – for Persian Gulf countries could hit between 74C and 77C for at least six hours during the middle of the day.

That’s so hot that the human body is incapable of producing sweat to get rid of heat, making it dangerous even for healthy, fit people to stay outside for any length of time."
http://www.independent.co.uk/news/science/the-coun...

Earth could break through a major climate threshold in the next 15 years, scientists warn
https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/energy-environ...

(Imagine the Central American, Middle East, etc., refugees)
Considering the 120 comments and Trump's attitude on the topic, this article deserves more attention.
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3
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https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/energy-environment/wp/2017/05/10/senates-poised-to-repeal-a-final-obama-era-rule-as-soon-as-wednesday/?tid=ss_tw&utm_term=.100df535888b

---------------------------

Energy and Environment
U.S. blocks major pipeline after 18 leaks and a 2 million gallon spill of drilling mud
By Steven Mufson May 10 at 3:31 PM

The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission has curtailed work on a natural-gas pipeline in Ohio after the owner, Energy Transfer Partners, reported 18 leaks and spilled more than 2 million gallons of drilling materials.

The pipeline regulator blocked Energy Transfer Partners, which also built the controversial Dakota Access pipeline, from starting horizontal drilling in eight areas where drilling has not yet begun. In other areas, where the company has already begun horizontal drilling, the FERC said drilling could continue.

The FERC also ordered the company to double the number of environmental inspectors and to preserve documents the commission wants to examine as it investigates the spills.

The biggest spill, in a pristine wetland along the Tuscarawas River about 50 miles south of Akron, covered 6.5 acres, the commission said, “coating wetland soils and vegetation with bentonite clay and bore-hole cuttings.” A video provided by the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency showed drilling mud a foot or two deep.

Energy Transfer Partners has asserted that the spills of nontoxic drilling mud, used to cool and lubricate drilling equipment, were inadvertent and had been predicted in its permit application to build the Rover gas pipeline. The horizontal drilling is done to place pipelines well below ground to minimize the chances of contamination of rivers or wetlands.

However, the FERC said that its staff has “serious concerns” regarding the magnitude of the largest spill, “its environmental impacts, the lack of clarity regarding the underlying reasons for its occurrence, and the possibility of future problems.”

It said that the largest spill was “several orders of magnitude greater than other documented inadvertent returns for this project.”

The commission, which regulates all natural gas pipelines, said that “a stoppage of additional drilling is warranted to facilitate a review of Rover’s efforts to search for and locate any potential releases.”

The Ohio EPA has fined Energy Transfer Partners about $400,000 and asked the FERC for support. Craig Butler, the Ohio EPA director, said the company’s response had been “dismissive,” “exceptionally disappointing” and unlike any other response he has seen from a company in his 27 years at the agency.

The Rover pipeline is $4.2 billion project that would link the shale-gas-rich regions of Appalachia to Michigan and Ontario.

It is just one of many pipelines whose fate lies in the hands of the FERC, a technocratic and relatively obscure agency. The five-member commission has lacked a quorum since early February, putting new permits on hold. That has placed an obstacle in the path of the White House.

The Trump administration late Monday nominated two new members for the commission, potentially clearing the way for controversial, multibillion-dollar pipeline and natural-gas export projects like Rover, which was one of the last permits issued in February.

The White House picked Neil Chatterjee, energy policy adviser to Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell (R-Ky.), and Robert F. Powelson, a member of the Pennsylvania Public Utility Commission since 2008.

President Trump has voiced support for new oil pipeline projects such as the Keystone XL and Dakota Access lines, and Gary Cohn, head of the White House National Economic Council, recently threw the administration’s support behind a liquefied natural gas export terminal in Oregon’s Jordan Cove that had been rejected by the FERC a few months ago.

The nominees, who must be confirmed by the Senate, would probably tilt the balance of the commission toward approving gas projects.

The Jordan Cove project was the only major LNG project the FERC has rejected. And the commission does not have jurisdiction over oil pipelines.

Nonetheless, leading Republicans and oil and gas industry groups have applauded the nominations.

Sen. James M. Inhofe (R-Okla.), a senior member of the Senate Environment Committee, said in a statement that he was “thrilled” and that the nominations would “ensure Republican leadership” of the commission and “bring a great, pro-energy perspective.”

Christopher Guith, a senior vice president at the U.S. Chamber of Commerce, called the nominations “phenomenal picks” and said, “From strained competitive markets to crucial energy infrastructure, FERC faces many challenges, and these nominees will help move America toward a more secure energy future.”

Height Securities said in a note to investors Tuesday that it would take about six weeks or more for the two nominees to be confirmed. “In the meantime, we believe FERC will continue avoiding controversial issues, even after quorum returns,” the firm said.

That could change once there is a new chairman. Height Securities said that the White House is expected to name Kevin McIntyre, co-head of the energy practice of the Cleveland-based law firm Jones Day, to serve as FERC chairman, further cementing the position of industry supporters.

Energy and Environment newsletter

The science and policy of environmental issues.

Height said that the list of pipelines delayed by the lack of a FERC quorum includes the Nexus crossing Ohio, PennEast serving Pennsylvania and New Jersey, and Mountain Valley, serving West Virginia and Virginia. The stalled merger of Westar and Great Plains, two utilities, would need the FERC’s go-ahead once they finish ironing out final terms.

“For too long, FERC has merely served as a pit stop for the fossil fuel industry on its way to constructing dirty energy infrastructure,” Sierra Club global climate policy director John Coequyt said in a statement. “This cannot continue.”

A native of Lexington, Ky., Chatterjee has played a role in the passage of major energy, highway and farm legislation. Before working for McConnell, he worked in government relations for the National Rural Electric Cooperative Association and as an aide to then-House Republican Conference Chairwoman Deborah Pryce of Ohio.

Powelson was first nominated to the Pennsylvania PUC by Gov. Edward G. Rendell (D) and appointed chairman by Gov. Tom Corbett (R) in 2011. Powelson serves as the president of National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners.

https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/energy-environment/wp/2017/05/10/pipeline-shut-down-after-18-leaks-and-a-2-million-gallon-spill-of-drilling-materials/?tid=ss_tw&utm_term=.fadfdcaa90dd

TIGNARD YANIS‏ @TIGNARDYANIS 16 hil y a 16 heures
UNE DOUCE CHIMÈRE ENVAHI LE MARIN LORSQUE UNE TEMPÊTE SHAKESPEARIENNE DÉCIDE TELLE UNE ARIELLE DE REJOINDRE LE ROYAUME D'ÉOLE. KING CRIMSON

TIGNARD YANIS‏ @TIGNARDYANIS 17 hil y a 17 heures
FILIATION NATURELLE: LA NATURE DU DÉLAI ET DE LA JURISPRUDENCE IMPOSÉ PAR LE LÉGISLATEUR EST DE RAISON D'ORDRE PUBLIC POUR LE REPOS FAMILIAL


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Nombre de messages : 6019
Localisation : http://yanis.tignard.free.fr/
Date d'inscription : 09/11/2005

MessageSujet: Re: Without the rule of law, states are doomed to powerty et TAY   Jeu 11 Mai à 3:42

ROSETTA_Ice Project‏ @_ROSETTAice 8 déc. 2015
FieldSeason concludes w/HUGEprogress in final week! Compare 07Dec to 30Nov
#rossiceshelf @LamontEarth @MooreFound

NASA ICE‏Compte certifié @NASA_ICE 15 hil y a 15 heures
From today's #IceBridge flight: Melt ponds kicking off
the melt season on the surface of the Greenland ice sheet.

May 8, 2017
Alaska Tundra Source of Early-Winter Carbon Emissions
Winter sun setting over the tundra polygons in northern Alaska
Winter sun setting over the tundra polygons in northern Alaska
in November 2015. As winter sets in and snow settles, the soils
take time to freeze completely and continue to emit carbon dioxide long
into the new year.
Credits: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Charles Miller

Warmer temperatures and thawing soils may be driving an increase
in emissions of carbon dioxide from Alaskan tundra to the atmosphere,
particularly during the early winter, according to a new study supported
by NASA and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA).
More carbon dioxide released to the atmosphere will accelerate climate
warming, which, in turn, could lead
to the release of even more carbon dioxide from these soils.

A new paper led by Roisin Commane, an atmospheric researcher
at Harvard University in Cambridge, Massachusetts, finds the amount
of carbon dioxide emitted from northern tundra areas between October
and December each year has increased 70 percent since 1975.
Commane and colleagues analyzed three years of aircraft observations
from NASA’s Carbon in Arctic Reservoirs Vulnerability Experiment (CARVE)
airborne mission to estimate the spatial and seasonal distribution
of Alaska’s carbon dioxide emissions. They also studied
NOAA’s 41-year record of carbon dioxide measured from ground towers
in Barrow (the name recently changed back to Utqiagvik), Alaska.
The aircraft data provided unprecedented spatial information,
while the ground data provided long-term measurements not available
anywhere else in the Arctic. Results of the study are published today
in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

The soils that encircle the high northern reaches of the Arctic
(above 60 degrees North latitude) hold vast amounts of carbon
in the form of undecayed organic matter from dead vegetation.
This vast store, accumulated over thousands of years, contains
enough carbon to double the current amount of carbon dioxide
in Earth's atmosphere.

During the Arctic summer, the upper layers of soil thaw
and microbes decompose this organic matter, producing carbon dioxide.
When cold temperatures return in October, the thawed soil layers begin
to cool, but high rates of carbon dioxide emissions continue until
the soil freezes completely.

“In the past, refreezing of soils may have taken a month or so,
but with warmer temperatures in recent years, there are locations
in Alaska where tundra soils now take more than three months
to freeze completely,” said Commane. “We are seeing emissions
of carbon dioxide from soils continue all the way through
this early winter period."

“Data from Barrow show steady increases of both atmospheric
carbon dioxide and temperature in late fall and early winter,”
said co-author Colm Sweeney of the Cooperative Institute
for Research in Environmental Sciences in Boulder, Colorado.
“This new research demonstrates the critical importance
of these long-term monitoring sites in verifying
the subtle feedbacks, such as increases in carbon dioxide,
which may amplify the unprecedented warming
we are seeing throughout the Arctic.”


CARVE flew an instrumented NASA aircraft to measure
atmospheric carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases
over Alaska from April to November in 2012, 2013 and 2014.
These data, along with satellite data on the vegetation status
and ground data to provide a year-round context
and a long-term record, gave the scientists a detailed picture
of carbon emissions at the regional level.

“One of CARVE’s main objectives was to challenge the idea
that carbon dioxide respiration stopped as soon as the snow fell
and the land surface froze,” said Charles Miller, a scientist
at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California,
and CARVE principal investigator. “The CARVE flights prove
that microbial respiration continues in tundra soils months
after the surface has frozen.”


By comparing simultaneous measurements of atmospheric
carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide, Commane
and her co-authors split apart their estimates of
the total carbon budget of Alaska into contributions
from the three major sources of atmospheric carbon:
burning of fossil fuels by people; wildfires; and microbes
decomposing organic matter in the soil. In sparsely populated Alaska,
the soil microbes were a much bigger source of atmospheric carbon
than fossil fuel burning. Wildfires were a big source
of atmospheric carbon in just one year of the CARVE experiment, 2013.

"Tundra soils appear to be acting as an amplifier of climate change,"
said co-author Steve Wofsy, a Harvard atmospheric scientist. "
We need to carefully monitor what it's doing up there, even late
in the year when everything looks frozen and dormant."

“The entire Alaska region is responding to climate change,”
said professor Donatella Zona of San Diego State University
in California, who was not affiliated with the study.
“Surface measurements suggest that the amount of carbon lost
from Arctic ecosystems to the atmosphere in the fall might
have been increasing over the past decades. By better capturing
these cold season processes and putting previous smaller-scale
measurements into a bigger context, this study will help scientists
improve climate models and predictions of Arctic climate change."

Commane, Sweeney, Miller and their colleagues plan to expand
on this work with NASA's Arctic-Boreal Vulnerability Experiment
(ABoVE) field campaign, now in its second season in Alaska
and northwest Canada. As part of the broader ABoVE effort,
they will make airborne measurements of carbon dioxide
and methane each month from April through October.

Alan Buis
Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif.
818-354-0474
alan.buis@jpl.nasa.gov

Written by Ellen Gray
NASA Earth Science News Team

2017-134
Last Updated: May 8, 2017
Editor: Tony Greicius
Tags:  Climate, Earth, Earth Research Findings,
Ice, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Land

---------------------------------------------


Centennial Celebration of Prospect Park Lafayette Statue
   When
   10 May 2017
   4:00 PM
   9th Street entrance, Prospect Park, Brooklyn

Arthur Lenk‏Compte certifié @ArthurLenk 19 hil y a 19 heures
Terrific to welcome Faustin-Archange Touadéra,
President of Central African Republic to Jerusalem.
More growth for Israel-Africa relations.
   
CENTENNIAL CELEBRATION OF PROSPECT PARK LAFAYETTE STATUE

Commemorates Unveiling by French Dignitaries During WWI

On May 10 the American Friends of Lafayette will host
a wreath-laying ceremony commemorating the 100th anniversary
of the unveiling of Prospect Park’s sculpture of Lafayette,
French hero of the American Revolution,
accompanied by an African-American servant.

Date: May 10, 2017

Time: 4 PM

Location: 9th Street entrance, Prospect Park, Brooklyn

RAIN OR SHINE

Created by Daniel Chester French (1850-1931), sculptor
of the Lincoln Memorial, the Lafayette Memorial was unveiled
on May 10, 1917 by members of the French War Commission including
Prime Minister René Viviani and Marshall Joseph Joffre,
former Commander of the Western Front. Coming a month
after the U.S. entered WWI, the event drew thousands
of onlookers to the streets of Brooklyn waving French
and American flags and made
the front page of the Brooklyn Daily Eagle.

The sculpture has since gained attention for its inclusion
of a black servant who might be James Armistead, a slave
who served as a spy during the Battle of Yorktown.
Lafayette helped James to win his freedom in recognition
of his service to the American Revolution.

The wreath-laying will feature brief remarks by: Anne-Claire Legendre,
Consul General of France in New York; Jonathan Kuhn,
Director of Art and Antiquities, NYC Department of Parks
and Recreation; and Laura Auricchio, author of The Marquis:
Lafayette Reconsidered (Knopf, 2014). Representatives
from the Brooklyn Borough President’s Office, Lafayette College,
and the Prospect Park Alliance will be present and are expected to offer remarks.

free and open to the public

---------------------------------------

NASA Earth‏Compte certifié @NASAEarth 13 hil y a 13 heures

.@NASA_Landsat is sharing a stunning #Landsat 8 image
of Earth each day. http://landsat.gsfc.nasa.gov/landsat365/



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Nombre de messages : 6019
Localisation : http://yanis.tignard.free.fr/
Date d'inscription : 09/11/2005

MessageSujet: Re: Without the rule of law, states are doomed to powerty et TAY   Jeu 11 Mai à 3:55


Landsat365
Emi Koussi

The Landsat 8 image of Emi Koussi in Chad featured
on Landsat365 on day 15.
Tabarjal, Saudi Arabia

The Landsat 8 image of Tabarjal, Saudi Arabia featured
on Landsat365 on day 45
Florida Bay and Everglades

The Landsat 8 image of Florida Bay and Everglades National Park
featured on Landsat 365 on day 89.

Apr 27, 2017 • Each day of 2017, a project called Landsat365 is sharing
a stunning Landsat 8 image with the public. Logan Byers, conceived
of the project to celebrate the marvel of satellites and the places they image.
The University of Kansas-trained glaciologist has challenged himself
to find and share a beautiful place on Earth—captured by Landsat 8
—each day. When we talked, Byers was approaching the 100th day
of the project. Here is what he shared with us:

Could you explain the Landsat365 project?
Landsat365 is a digital art project spanning 2017, where I am posting
a selected image from the Landsat 8 archive each day.
These may be false-color composites or true-color images,
but each is the same size and original ~30m resolution.
The idea is that the images are at pixel-perfect resolution
for some Apple computers so that they can be used as desktop wallpapers,
but they are also digital images that people can download and use
or just check out. There are many places on Earth that don’t get
attention or that you may never know about. This project is capturing
some of those places and sharing the way that Landsat has seen them.


How did you first become acquainted with the Landsat program?
My first experiences with the Landsat program were during the senior year
of my undergraduate curricula. I was performing research
in a laboratory that studied glacier dynamics and ice sheet processes,
and was baffled by the concept of being able to sit in the middle
of the continental U.S. while looking at Antarctica and also cycling
through images to watch glaciers move and snow shift across
the ice sheet. It was fantastic and a little unbelievable that
there were so many free and open images from the archive.
I was also using the Landsat Image Mosaic of Antarctica (LIMA) put
together by Bob Bindschadler and others to map out crevasses
across the East Antarctic Ice Sheet, which was my first introduction
to the quantitative applications and image processing techniques
of satellite remote sensing.


For your Landsat365 project, how do you decide where
in the world to set your sights each day?
It is certainly a challenge to find diverse and interesting parts
of the planet each day. Diversity can be a challenge
to maintain day over day. I try to ensure there aren’t too many red deltas
or yellow desert scenes in a row. Earth only has so many biomes
and each image that is part of the Landsat365 collection is cropped
to the same scale and extent (about 85 km by 55 km). There is
a definite potential to exhaust certain areas and I don’t want
to do that too soon. Namibia is a great example of this concern.
There are some amazing textures and features in that country
and I am trying to hold back and save some areas for later.
You have to carefully use your resources.

Beyond that, there are the working conditions of the scene geometry
and breaks along rows that limit the areas to qualify. There are
so many interesting features that are located on or near path/row
boundaries. Path edges will continue to be an impediment, but I suspect
that some multiple along-path scenes will pop up later in the year
as I look to capture some features that were passed by earlier.

Lastly, there are some web-based tools I have been using to help search
for candidate scenes. The main interface I am using to search for scenes
is through Remote Pixel. That site features a webmap that shows
the scene boundaries overlain on a satellite basemap and quickly points
to open data repositories to download the Level 1 data. That has a been
a real benefit in terms of quickly identifying interesting features
that are soundly within a scene.


Is there an image that is your personal favorite so far?
It is challenging to pick one, of course. There is a growing set
that I adore and which continue to provide the same wonder
when I look at them as when they were posted. The image
of Emi Koussi in Chad (2017-015) is the first to come to mind.
Everything in that image calls to me—the textures, the colors,
the composition—I just love it.
The image of Tabarjal, Saudi Arabia (2017-045)
is also a favorite. That image was posted on Valentines Day
and was planned out a bit in advance. The center-pivot irrigation
systems look like poppies or some flowers and the roads
connecting settlements remind me of constellation charts.
There is a dry lake in the center of the scene that is shrouded
in gold and is shaped a bit like a bird. I think overall it is
a very ethereal scene. As a last image I will choose one that
is more grounded and recognizable as an image of Earth.
The image of Florida Bay and Everglades National Park (2017-089)
has a depth and dimensionality that isn’t too common in other images.
Driving that is luscious water that looks like satin. I think that is
a scene that will get some more advanced image processing
in the future to really take it over the top.


How do you decide which spectral band combination to use for each image?
It was more of a challenge over the first month or so as I would experiment
with 2 to 5 band combinations for any scene. I have since grown an intuition
for matching scenes with aesthetics and pretty much keep to what I know works.
Desert scenes look good when Red is replaced by SWIR and maybe
Green is replaced by Red to make the sand a little more yellow.
I have gained a much greater understanding of light mixing than
I had before this project, even though I have always enjoyed photography.
The infrared bands still surprise me in how they can alter a scene from its
true-color counterpart.


Has it been challenging to post an image each day? / How do you make time
in your day to do this?
It has been a challenge to share a post each day.
I also post on twitter and instagram which takes some additional time.
For a while I was ahead of schedule and had a decent backlog
of images that I could share. This greatly reduced the time spent on finding
and processing the images, but those days have passed.

The small description that accompanies each image can sometimes be
the most time consuming part of each day. If the image is of some remote plateau
in the Sahara, I usually try to seek out its name or some named
feature within the image to specify the location/title for the image.
In other cases I might need to write about a river in Southeast Asia
and that leads down a path of deciding on the spelling and researching
about that waterway. Sometimes it’s impossible to find the information trail
and other times I wind up with 14 open internet tabs about the area
and haven’t decided on what to write for the description.
I really wish I could put more quality into the descriptions
but it can be a total time sink.

In terms of the actual processing I have spent some upfront time setting up
scripts to automate the repeated tasks and simplify the workflow.
That has been a huge time saver and it allows for more iteration
when deciding on the exact cropping or band stretching.
I still enjoy hunting down new areas and playing with the band scalings
to see what is out there on Earth so it isn’t too much of a chore.


Has this project given you any new insights about the surface of the Earth?
There have been many new insights, but the greatest amount of knowledge
I have gained is in geography. I have a much better grasp of countries,
their shapes, their provinces/states, rivers, mountains, etc than I had before.
I am looking forward to trivia night. I have also learned more about the scale
of Earth’s features. Keeping each of the images the same size and scale reveals
the magnitude of impressive structures on Earth such as Asia’s great rivers
and volcanic shields in the Sahara Desert. Conversely, the texture and
intricacies of Landsat 8 imagery capture biologic and physical systems
operating at a completely different scale. There have been some real
insights gained into places in the U.S. that I previously visited and
have now shared as part of Landsat365.



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