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 Moise, Y'becca et le clan des hérisson ou Avant-garde.

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MessageSujet: Moise, Y'becca et le clan des hérisson ou Avant-garde.   Mar 18 Oct à 9:32

Still is the first solo album released in 1973 by Pete Sinfield, lyricist of progressive rock band King Crimson. At the time, Sinfield was involved with Emerson, Lake & Palmer, and Greg Lake assisted with vocals, while King Crimson alumni provided other assistance. The cover artwork depicts 'The Bid friend' by German artist Sulamith Wülfing.
Track listing
Night People by Peter Sinfield
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2dRVxnWKabE&list=PL94gOvpr5yt3otSfhm2eNDuokZLRG22_a&index=9
All lyrics and music composed by Pete Sinfield; except where indicated

   "The Song of the Sea Goat" (music: Antonio Vivaldi, Pete Sinfield, Phil Jump) 6:07[2]
   "Under the Sky" (music: Ian McDonald) 4:21
   "Will It Be You" (music: Alan Mennie, Pete Sinfield, Phil Jump, Richard Brunton, Steve Dolan) 2:42
   "Wholefood Boogie" (music: Alan Mennie, Pete Sinfield, Phil Jump, Richard Brunton, Steve Dolan) 3:38
   "Still" (music: Alan Mennie, Pete Sinfield, Phil Jump, Richard Brunton, Steve Dolan) 4:48
   "Envelopes of Yesterday" 6:20
   "The Piper" 2:51
   "A House of Hopes and Dreams" 4:09
   "The Night People" (music: Mel Collins, Pete Sinfield, Phil Jump, Richard Brunton) 7:54

1993 CD re-issue includes alternates mixes of all nine songs as well as two extra tracks: "Hanging Fire" and "Can You Forgive a Fool?"
Personnel

   Peter Sinfield - vocals, twelve-string guitar, synthesizer, production, cover design
   Greg Lake - vocals, electric guitar, associate producer, mixing
   W.G. Snuffy Walden - electric guitar
   Keith Christmas - guitar
   Richard Brunton - guitar
   B.J. Cole - steel guitar
   Boz Burrell - bass guitar
   John Wetton - bass guitar
   Steve Dolan - bass guitar
   Keith Tippett - piano
   Tim Hinkley - piano, electric piano
   Brian Flowers - synthesizer
   Phil Jump - glockenspiel, keyboards, Hammond organ, electric piano, organ, synthesizer, piano
   Mel Collins - alto flute, bass flute, alto saxophone, tenor saxophone, baritone saxophone, celeste, arranger, associate producer, mixing
   Don Honeywell - baritone saxophone
   Robin Miller - cor anglais
   Greg Bowen - trumpet
   Chris Pyne - trombone
   Stanley Roderick - trumpet
   Ian Wallace - drums, snare drum
   Alan Mennie - drums, percussion

[3]
References

Thompson, Dave. "Still - Peter Sinfield | Songs, Reviews, Credits, Awards | AllMusic". AllMusic. Rovi Corporation. Retrieved 16 January 2014.
based on themes from Vivaldi's Lute Concerto in D.min:"Still ~ The Song of the Sea Goat". www.songsouponsea.com. Retrieved 2011-01-09.
http://www.discogs.com/Pete-Sinfield-Still/release/4273629


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MessageSujet: Re: Moise, Y'becca et le clan des hérisson ou Avant-garde.   Mar 18 Oct à 9:46

Peter Sinfield - Envelopes Of Yesterday (Manticore 1973).
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2Nbt50B9Qu4&list=PL94gOvpr5yt3otSfhm2eNDuokZLRG22_a&index=6

Lettre de Victor Hugo à Juliette Drouet
“Il y a un éden derrière nous, et un paradis devant nous.


Victor Hugo (26 février 1802 – 22 mai 1885), géant de la littérature française et universelle, symbole de la modernité dans la littérature du XIXème siècle, esprit visionnaire et écrivain engagé avant l’heure, est l’auteur, entre autres, des Misérables. Le 22 mai 1885, ce monstre sacré des lettres françaises s’éteignait. Sa vie fût marquée par de nombreuses conquêtes, entre autres Juliette Drouet.

16 février 1860

La vie avance, l’amour persiste. Il y a un éden derrière nous, et un paradis devant nous. Car pour ceux qui se sont aimés dans la vie et qui entrent dans la mort en s’aimant, la tombe est étoilée ; c’est la porte du ciel. Que Dieu me donne la vie avec toi et la mort avec toi, voilà ce que je lui demande dans ma prière de tous les soirs. L’amour vieilli est de l’amour religieux ; il y a de la prière dans son baiser.

Cher doux ange, vieillissons donc avec joie, car le grand rajeunissement est proche. Il s’appelle l’éternité. L’amour dans l’éternité, quelle aurore ! — Aimons-nous et prions.

Victor Hugo

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Le Hérisson :

VPL Astrobiology Colloquium Series
Microbe-Mineral Interactions: Exploring the Use of Microbes for Uranium Bioremediation
Presenter Photo: Yonqin Jiao Presenter: Yonqin Jiao (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory)
When: October 18th, 2016 3PM PDT
Watch Seminars
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Depleted uranium is a widespread environmental contaminant that poses a major threat to human health. In contrast to humans and animals where small amount of uranium can cause damage to kidneys, liver and heart, it is well known that some bacteria can tolerate high levels of uranium and influence its mobility and bioavailability in the environment. As a non-pathogenic bacterium, Caulobacter crescentus is an attractive bioremediation candidate. Our results showed that Caulobacter not only endures a high concentration of uranium, but immobilizes uranium by promoting mineral precipitation, highlighting a good potential for use in uranium bioremediation. Research efforts in deciphering uranium sensing and resistance mechanisms will also be discussed.

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Presented by the Virtual Planetary Laboratory, a member of the NASA Astrobiology Institute.
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MessageSujet: Re: Moise, Y'becca et le clan des hérisson ou Avant-garde.   Mar 18 Oct à 9:51

La société américaine Orbital ATK a repris les vols de sa fusée Antares, lançant la capsule non habitée Cygnus, lundi 17 octobre, qui doit aller approvisionner la Station spatiale internationale (ISS). Pour cette nouvelle mission de fret vers l’avant-poste orbital, la sixième dans le cadre d’un contrat avec la NASA, Cygnus transporte 2,3 tonnes de matériel, dont des approvisionnements pour les six membres de l’équipage et des équipements pour des expériences scientifiques. En octobre 2014, une explosion lors du décollage de la fusée avait interrompu les vols. Cygnus, qui devrait arriver à l’ISS jeudi, récupérera 1,3 tonne de déchets de l’ISS avant de plonger dans l’atmosphère pour s’y désintégrer.

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Progressive rock (shortened as prog; sometimes known as art rock, classical rock, or symphonic rock) is a diverse subgenre of rock music[4] that originated in the United Kingdom and United States throughout the mid to late 1960s. Initially termed "progressive pop", the style was an outgrowth of psychedelic bands who abandoned standard pop traditions in favor of instrumentation and compositional techniques more frequently associated with jazz, folk, or classical music. Additional elements contributed to its "progressive" label: lyrics were more poetic, technology was harnessed for new sounds, music approached the condition of "art", and the studio, rather than the stage, became the focus of musical activity, which often involved creating music for listening, not dancing.

Prog is based on fusions of styles, approaches and genres; involving a continuous move between formalism and eclecticism. Due to its historical reception, prog's scope is sometimes limited to a stereotype of long solos, overlong albums, fantasy lyrics, grandiose stage sets and costumes, and an obsessive dedication to technical skill. While the genre is often cited for its merging of high culture and low culture, few artists incorporated literal classical themes in their work to any great degree, and only a handful of groups purposely emulated or referenced classical music.

The genre saw a high level of popularity throughout the 1970s, especially in the middle of the decade, but faded soon after. Conventional wisdom holds that the rise of punk rock caused this, although in reality a number of factors contributed to the decline.[5] Music critics, who often labeled the concepts as "pretentious" and the sounds as "pompous" and "overblown," tended to be hostile toward the genre or to completely ignore it.[6] Some bands achieved commercial success well into the 1980s, albeit with changed lineups and more compact song structures.

Proto-prog is the advanced music that slightly predates the post-1969 prog era. In 1967, "progressive rock" constituted a a diversity of loosely associated style codes. The Canterbury scene, originating in the late 1960s, denoted a subset of prog bands who emphasized the use of wind instruments, complex chord changes and long improvisations. Rock in Opposition, from the late 1970s, was more avant-garde, and when combined with the Canterbury style, created avant-prog. After the 1970s, the term "progressive rock" came to represent a non-exploratory genre, in other words, a set of conventions to be repeated and imitated, and thus ceased to be "progressive". Post-progressive feeds a more explicit return to prog, drawing upon newer developments in popular music and the avant-garde since the mid 1970s.

Contents

1 Definition
2 History
2.1 1966–70: Origins
2.1.1 Background and roots
2.1.2 Pet Sounds and Sgt. Pepper's
2.1.3 Proto-prog and psychedelia
2.2 1971–76: Peak years
2.2.1 North America
2.2.2 Europe
2.3 Late 1970s decline
2.3.1 Post-progressive
2.4 1980s
2.4.1 Commercialisation
2.4.2 Neo-progressive rock
2.4.3 Crossover with post-punk styles
2.5 1990s and 2000s
2.5.1 Third wave
2.5.2 Progressive metal
2.5.3 New prog
2.6 2010s
3 Festivals
4 Reception
5 List of progressive rock bands
6 See also
7 Notes
8 References
9 Sources
10 Bibliography
11 Further reading

Definition
For more details on this topic, see Progressive music.
See also: Progressive pop and Art rock

The term "progressive rock" is synonymous with "art rock", "classical rock", and "symphonic rock".[7] Historically, "art rock" has been used to describe at least two related, but distinct, types of rock music.[8] The first is progressive rock, while the second usage refers to groups who rejected psychedelia and the hippie counterculture in favor of a modernist, avant-garde approach.[8] Similarities between the two terms are that they both describe a mostly British attempt to elevate rock music to new levels of artistic credibility. However, art rock is more likely to have experimental or avant-garde influences.[9] "Prog" was initially devised as a shorthand term, but later became a transferable adjective, also suggesting a wider palette than that drawn on by the most popular 1970s bands.[10]

Progressive rock is varied and is based on fusions of styles, approaches and genres; tapping into broader cultural resonances that connect to avant-garde art, classical music and folk music, performance and the moving image.[11] Although a unidirectional English "progressive" style emerged in the late 1960s, by 1967, progressive rock had come to constitute a diversity of loosely associated style codes.[12] When the "progressive" label arrived, the music was dubbed "progressive pop" before it was called "progressive rock",[13][nb 1] with the term "progressive" referring to the wide range of attempts to break with standard pop music formula.[15] A number of additional factors contributed to the acquired "progressive" label: lyrics were more poetic; technology was harnessed for new sounds; music approached the condition of "art"; some harmonic language was imported from jazz and 19th-century classical music; the album format overtook singles; and the studio, rather than the stage, became the focus of musical activity, which often involved creating music for listening, not dancing.[16]

One of the best ways to define progressive rock is that it is a heterogeneous and troublesome genre – a formulation that becomes clear the moment we leave behind characterizations based only on the most visible bands of the early to mid-1970s
—Paul Hegarty and Martin Halliwell[11]

Critics of the genre often limit its scope to a stereotype of long solos, overlong albums, fantasy lyrics, grandiose stage sets and costumes, and an obsessive dedication to technical skill.[17] Author Kevin Holm-Hudson believes that "progressive rock is a style far more diverse than what is heard from its mainstream groups and what is implied by unsympathetic critics."[18] According to academics Paul Hegarty and Martin Halliwell, Bill Martin and Edward Macan are authors of major books about prog rock who "effectively accept the characterization of progressive rock offered by its critics. ... they each do so largely unconsciously."[17] Academic John S. Cotner contests Macan's view that progressive rock cannot exist without the continuous and overt assimilation of classical music into rock.[12] While progressive rock is often cited for its merging of high culture and low culture, few artists incorporated literal classical themes in their work to any great degree,[19] and only a handful of groups purposely emulated or referenced classical music.[11]

On "progressive music", Holm-Hudson writes that it "moves continuously between explicit and implicit references to genres and strategies derived not only from European art music, but other cultural domains (such as East Indian, Celtic, folk, and African) and hence involves a continuous aesthetic movement between formalism and eclecticism."[20][nb 2] Cotner also argues that "progressive rock incorporates both formal and eclectic elements. It consists of a combination of factors—some of them intramusical ("within"), others extramusical or social ("without")."[12] One way of conceptualizing rock and roll in relation to "progressive music" is that progressive music pushed the genre into greater complexity while retracing the roots of romantic and classical music.[22] Sociologist Paul Willis believes: "We must never be in doubt that 'progressive' music followed rock 'n' roll, and that it could not have been any other way. We can see rock 'n' roll as a deconstruction and 'progressive' music as a reconstruction."[23] Author Will Romano states that "rock itself can be interpreted as a progressive idea ... Ironically, and quite paradoxically, 'progressive rock', the classic era of the late 1960s through the mid- and late 1970s, introduces not only the explosive and exploratory sounds of technology ... but traditional music forms (classical and European folk) and (often) a pastiche compositional style and artificial constructs (concept albums) which suggests postmodernism."[24]
History
Further information: Timeline of progressive rock
1966–70: Origins
Background and roots
The Beatles working in the studio with their producer George Martin, circa 1965

In 1966, the degree of social and artistic dialogue among rock musicians dramatically accelerated for bands like the Beach Boys, the Beatles, and the Byrds who fused elements of composed (cultivated) music with the oral (vernacular) musical traditions of rock.[25] Rock music started to take itself seriously, paralleling earlier attempts in jazz (as swing gave way to bop, a move which did not succeed with audiences). In this period, the popular song began signaling a new possible means of expression that went beyond the three-minute love song, leading to an intersection between the "underground" and the "establishment" for listening publics.[26][nb 3]

Progressive rock was predicated on the "progressive" pop groups from the 1960s who combined rock and roll with various other music styles such as Indian ragas, oriental melodies, and Gregorian chants, like the Beatles and the Yardbirds.[28] The Beatles' Paul McCartney intimated in 1967: "we [the band] got a bit bored with 12 bars all the time, so we tried to get into something else. Then came [Bob] Dylan, the Who, and the Beach Boys. ... We're all trying to do vaguely the same kind of thing."[29] Hegarty and Halliwell identify the Beatles, the Beach Boys, the Doors, the Pretty Things, the Zombies, the Byrds, the Grateful Dead and Pink Floyd "not merely as precursors of prog but as essential developments of progressiveness in its early days."[30]

Dylan's poetry, the Mothers of Invention's album Freak Out! (1966), and the Beatles' album Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band (1967), have all been mentioned[by whom?] as important in progressive rock's development.[9] The productions of Phil Spector were key influences,[31] as they introduced the possibility of using the recording studio to create music that otherwise could never be achieved.[32] The same[vague] is said for the Beach Boys' Pet Sounds (1966), which influenced Sgt. Pepper's .[33][34] Dylan introduced a literary element to rock through his fascination with the Surrealists and the French Symbolists and his immersion in the New York City art scene of the early 1960s.[35] The trend of bands with names drawn from literature, such as the Doors, Steppenwolf and the Ides of March, were a further sign of rock music aligning itself with high culture.[36] Dylan also led the way in blending rock with folk music styles. This was followed by folk rock groups such as the Byrds, who based their initial sound on the work of Brian Wilson.[37] In turn, the Byrds' vocal harmonies inspired those of Yes,[38] and British electric folk bands such Fairport Convention, who emphasized instrumental virtuosity.[39] Some of these artists, such as the Incredible String Band and Shirley and Dolly Collins, would prove influential through their use of instruments borrowed from world music and early music.[40]
Pet Sounds and Sgt. Pepper's
Main articles: Pet Sounds and Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band

Many groups and musicians played important roles in this development process, but none more than the Beach Boys and the Beatles ... [They] brought expansions in harmony, instrumentation (and therefore timbre), duration, rhythm, and the use of recording technology. Of these elements, the first and last were the most important in clearing a pathway toward the development of progressive rock.
—Bill Martin[41]

Pet Sounds and Sgt. Pepper's, with their lyrical unity, extended structure, complexity, eclecticism, experimentalism, and influences derived from classical music forms, are largely viewed as beginnings in the progressive rock genre[42][43] and as turning points wherein rock, which previously had been considered dance music, became music that was made for listening to.[44][41] Pet Sounds was key to the development of progressive rock specifically for the way it widened the scope of pop music by using complex harmonies, inverted chords, challenging progressions, key changes and alternative instrumental choices, and it advanced rock music by anchoring it with classical sensibilities.[45]

Between Pet Sounds and Sgt. Pepper's, the Beach Boys released the single "Good Vibrations" (1966), dubbed a "pocket symphony" by Derek Taylor, who worked as a publicist for both groups. The song contained an eclectic array of exotic instruments and several disjunctive key and modal shifts.[46] Scott Interrante of Popmatters wrote that its influence on progressive rock and the psychedelic movement "can't be overstated".[47] Beatles biographer Jonathon Gould writes that "of the many ambitious pop singles released during the fall of 1966, none had a stronger influence on the Beatles".[48] Martin likened the song to the Beatles' "A Day in the Life" from Sgt. Pepper's, elaborating that they showcase "the same reasons why much progressive rock is difficult to dance to".[49]

Although Sgt. Pepper's was preceded by several albums that had begun to bridge the line between "disposable" pop and "serious" rock, it successfully gave an established "commercial" voice to an alternative youth culture[50] and marked the point at which the LP record emerged as a creative format whose importance was equal to or greater than that of the single.[51] Bill Bruford, a veteran of several progressive rock bands, said that Sgt. Pepper's transformed both musicians' ideas of what was possible and audiences' ideas of what was acceptable in music.[52] He believed that: "Without the Beatles, or someone else who had done what the Beatles did, it is fair to assume that there would have been no progressive rock."[53] LP sales first overtook those of singles in 1969.[54]
Proto-prog and psychedelia
Main articles: Proto-prog and Psychedelic music
See also: Psychedelic rock, Rock opera, and Canterbury scene
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According to AllMusic: "Prog-rock began to emerge out of the British psychedelic scene in 1967, specifically a strain of classical/symphonic rock led by the Nice, Procol Harum, and the Moody Blues (Days of Future Passed)."[55] The availability of newly affordable recording equipment coincided with the rise of a London underground scene at which LSD was commonly used. Pink Floyd and Soft Machine functioned as house bands at all-night events at locations such as Middle Earth and the UFO Club, where they experimented with sound textures and long-form songs.[56][nb 4] Many psychedelic, electric folk and early progressive bands were aided by exposure from BBC Radio 1 DJ John Peel.[59] Jimi Hendrix, who rose to prominence in the London scene and recorded with a band of English musicians, initiated the trend toward virtuosity in rock music.[60] The Scottish band 1-2-3, later renamed Clouds, were formed in 1966 and began performing at London clubs a year later. According to Mojo's George Knemeyer: "some claim [that they] had a vital influence on prog-rockers such as Yes, The Nice and Family."[61]

Symphonic rock artists in the late 1960s had some chart success, including the singles "Nights in White Satin" (The Moody Blues, 1967) and "A Whiter Shade of Pale" (Procol Harum, 1967).[62] The Moody Blues established the popularity of symphonic rock when they recorded Days of Future Passed together with the London Festival Orchestra, and Procol Harum began to use a greater variety of acoustic instruments, particularly on their 1969 A Salty Dog album.[63] Classical influences sometimes took the form of pieces adapted from or inspired by classical works, such as Jeff Beck's "Beck's Bolero" and parts of the Nice's Ars Longa Vita Brevis. The latter, along with such Nice tracks as "Rondo" and "America", reflect a greater interest in music that is entirely instrumental. Sgt. Pepper's and Days both represent a growing tendency toward song cycles and suites made up of multiple movements.[63]

Several bands that included jazz-style horn sections appeared, including Blood, Sweat & Tears and Chicago. Of these, Martin highlights Chicago in particular for their experimentation with suites and extended compositions, such as the "Ballet for a Girl in Buchannon" on Chicago II.[64] Jazz influences appeared in the music of British bands such as Traffic, Colosseum and If, together with Canterbury scene bands such as Soft Machine and Caravan. Canterbury scene bands emphasized the use of wind instruments, complex chord changes and long improvisations.[65] Martin writes that in 1968, "full-blown progressive rock" was not yet in existence, but three bands released albums who would later come to the forefront of the music: Jethro Tull, Caravan, and Soft Machine.[66]

"The Court of the Crimson King" (1969)
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Macan writes that King Crimson's album "displays every element of the mature progressive rock genre ... [and] exerted a powerful extramusical influence on later progressive rock bands".[67]
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The term "progressive rock," which appeared in the liner notes of Caravan's 1968 self-titled debut LP, came to be applied to bands that used classical music techniques to expand the styles and concepts available to rock music.[68][69] The Nice, the Moody Blues, Procol Harum and Pink Floyd all contained elements of what is now called progressive rock, but none represented as complete an example of the genre as several bands that formed soon after.[70] Almost all of the genre's major bands, including Jethro Tull, King Crimson, Yes, Genesis, Van der Graaf Generator, ELP, Gentle Giant and Curved Air, released their debut albums during the years 1968–1970. Most of these were folk-rock albums that gave little indication of what the band's mature sound would become, but King Crimson's In the Court of the Crimson King (1969) was a fully formed example of the genre.[67][nb 5] Critics assumed the album to be the logical extension and development of late 1960s proto-progressive rock exemplified by the Moody Blues, Procol Harum, Pink Floyd, and the Beatles.[71] According to Macan, the album may be the most influential to progressive rock for crystallizing the music of earlier "proto-progressive bands ... into a distinctive, immediately recognizable style".[67]
1971–76: Peak years
Yes performs in Indianapolis in 1977

Most of the genre's major bands released their most critically acclaimed albums during the years 1971–1976.[72] The genre experienced a high degree of commercial success during the early 1970s. Jethro Tull, ELP, Yes and Pink Floyd combined for four albums that reached number one in the US charts, and sixteen of their albums reached the top ten.[73] Tull alone scored 11 gold albums and 5 platinum albums.[74] Pink Floyd's 1970 album Atom Heart Mother reached the top spot on the UK charts. Their 1973 album The Dark Side of the Moon, which united their extended compositions with the more structured kind of composing employed when Syd Barrett was their songwriter,[75]:34–35 spent more than two years at the top of the charts[75]:4, 38 and remained on the Billboard 200 album chart for fifteen years.[76] Mike Oldfield's Tubular Bells (1973), an excerpt of which was used as the theme for the film The Exorcist, sold 16 million copies.[77] A number of progressive bands released singles that became pop hits.[citation needed]
North America

Progressive rock came to be appreciated overseas, but it mostly remained a European, and especially British, phenomenon. Few American bands engaged in it, and the purest representatives of the genre, such as Starcastle and Happy the Man, remained limited to their own geographic regions.[78] This is at least in part due to music industry differences between the US and Great Britain. Radio airplay was less important in the UK, where popular music recordings had limited air-time on official radio stations (as opposed to on pirate radio) until the 1967 launch of BBC Radio 1.[79] UK audiences were accustomed to hearing bands in clubs, and British bands could support themselves through touring. US audiences were first exposed to new music on the radio, and bands in the US required radio airplay for success.[80] Radio stations were averse to progressive rock's longer-form compositions, which hampered advertising sales.[81] Cultural factors were also involved, as US musicians tended to come from a blues background, while Europeans tended to have a foundation in classical music.[82]

North American progressive rock bands often represented hybrid styles such as the complex metal of Rush, the psychedelic-driven hard rock of Captain Beyond, the Southern rock-tinged prog of Kansas, the jazz fusion of Mahavishnu Orchestra and Return to Forever, and the eclectic fusion of the all-instrumental Dixie Dregs.[83][84] British progressive rock acts had their greatest US success in the same geographic areas in which British heavy metal bands experienced their greatest popularity. The overlap in audiences led to the success of arena rock bands, such as Boston, Kansas and Styx, who combined elements of the two styles.[83]
Europe
See also: Italian progressive rock, Krautrock, Berlin School of electronic music, and Zeuhl
It has been suggested that Italian progressive rock be merged into this section. (Discuss) Proposed since June 2016.

Progressive rock achieved popularity in Continental Europe more quickly than it did in the US. Italy remained generally uninterested in rock music until the strong Italian progressive rock scene developed in the early 1970s,[85] and Van der Graaf Generator were much more popular there than in their own country. Genesis were hugely successful in Continental Europe at a time when they were still limited to a cult following in Britain and the US.[86] Few of the European groups were successful outside of their own countries, with the exceptions of bands like Focus, who wrote English-language lyrics, and Le Orme and PFM, whose English lyrics were written by Peter Hammill and Peter Sinfield, respectively.[87]

"Autobahn," by Kraftwerk
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"Kosmische", or "krautrock" groups like Kraftwerk often experimented with construction of textures and did not stress virtuosity as much as other bands.[citation needed]
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Some European bands played in a style derivative of English bands.[88][verification needed][nb 6] The "Kosmische music" scene in Germany came to be labeled as "krautrock" internationally[90] and is variously seen[improper synthesis?] as part of the progressive rock genre or an entirely distinct phenomenon.[91][92] Bands such as Can, which included two members who had studied under Karlheinz Stockhausen,[93] tended to be more strongly influenced by 20th century classical music than the British bands, whose musical vocabulary leaned more toward the Romantic era. Many of these groups were very influential even among bands that had little enthusiasm for the symphonic variety of progressive rock.[94]
Late 1970s decline

Political and social trends of the late 1970s shifted away from the early 1970s hippie attitudes that had led to the genre's development and popularity. The rise in punk cynicism made the utopian ideals expressed in progressive rock lyrics unfashionable.[95] Virtuosity was rejected, as the expense of purchasing quality instruments and the time investment of learning to play them were seen as barriers to rock's energy and immediacy.[96] There were also changes in the music industry, as record companies disappeared and merged into large media conglomerates. Promoting and developing experimental music was not part of the marketing strategy for these large corporations, who focused their attention on identifying and targeting profitable market niches.[97]
Carl Palmer, of Emerson, Lake & Palmer, at Maple Leaf Gardens in Toronto, 3 February 1978

Four of the biggest bands in progressive rock ceased performing or experienced major personnel changes during the mid-1970s. Robert Fripp disbanded King Crimson in 1974[98] and said later that the genre had gone "tragically off course."[99] ELP went on hiatus the following year.[100] Genesis moved in a more mainstream direction after the 1975 departure of Peter Gabriel and especially after the 1977 departure of Steve Hackett.[101] Yes experienced lineup changes throughout the 1970s before fragmenting in 1980.[102] A number of the major bands, including Van der Graaf Generator, Gentle Giant and U.K., dissolved between 1978 and 1980.[103] Some decided that it was time to move on because they, as Caravan leader Pye Hastings admitted, had "got quite stale."[104]

Many bands had by the mid-1970s reached the limit of how far they could experiment in a rock context, and fans had wearied of the extended, epic compositions. The sounds of the Hammond, Minimoog and Mellotron had been thoroughly explored, and their use became clichéd. Those bands who continued to record often simplified their sound, and the genre fragmented from the late 1970s onward.[105] Corporate artists and repertoire staff exerted an increasing amount of control over the creative process that had previously belonged to the artists,[106] and established acts were pressured to create music with simpler harmony and song structures and fewer changes in meter. This simplification can be heard as a softer, pop orientation in such albums as Genesis' ...And Then There Were Three..., Renaissance's A Song for All Seasons, and the Moody Blues' Octave. A number of symphonic pop bands, such as Supertramp, 10cc, the Alan Parsons Project and the Electric Light Orchestra, brought the orchestral-style arrangements into a context that emphasized pop singles while allowing for occasional instances of exploration. Jethro Tull, Gentle Giant and Pink Floyd opted for a harder sound in the style of arena rock.[1]

"Crime of the Century," by Supertramp
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Supertramp brought progressive rock's sophisticated arrangements and conceptual lyrics into a pop context
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Few new progressive rock bands formed during this era, and those who did found that record labels were not interested in signing them.[107] The short-lived supergroup U.K. was a notable exception, although they tended to carry on in the style of previous bands and did little to advance the genre.[108] Some of the genre's more important development at this time occurred in its influence on other styles, as several guitarists with European ties brought a progressive rock approach to heavy metal and laid the groundwork for the future progressive metal style. Michael Schenker, of UFO, and Uli Jon Roth, who replaced Schenker in Scorpions, expanded the modal vocabulary available to guitarists.[109] Roth studied classical music with the intent of using the guitar in the way that classical composers used the violin.[110] Finally, the Dutch-born and classically trained Alex and Eddie Van Halen formed Van Halen, who redefined the standard for rock virtuosity[111] and paved the way for the "shred" music of the 1980s.[112]
Post-progressive
Main article: Post-progressive

In Fripp's opinion, once "progressive rock" ceased to cover new ground – becoming a set of conventions to be repeated and imitated – the genre's premise had ceased to be "progressive".[113] According to Hegarty and Halliwell: "Post-progressive identifies progressive rock that stems from sources other than progressive rock. This does not spread the net to include all avant-rock from the 1980s and 1990s ... post-progressive rock feeds a more explicit return to prog: in other words, a return that is not one. This trend is best exemplified by two British avant-rock acts of the 1980s and early 1990s: David Sylvian and Talk Talk."[114]
1980s
Commercialisation

Some established bands moved toward music that was simpler and more commercially viable.[115][verification needed] Echoes of progressive rock complexity could be heard in arena rock bands like Journey, Kansas, Styx, GTR, ELO and Foreigner, all of which either had begun as progressive rock bands or included members with strong ties to the genre. These bands retained some elements of the orchestral-style arrangements, but they moved away from lyrical mysticism in favor of teen-oriented songs about relationships.[116] Genesis transformed into a successful pop act, and a reformed Yes released the relatively mainstream 90125, which yielded their only US number-one single, "Owner of a Lonely Heart". These radio-friendly groups have been called "prog lite".[117] One band who did experience great 1980s success while maintaining a progressive approach was Pink Floyd, who released The Wall late in 1979. The album, which brought punk anger into progressive rock,[118] was a huge success and was later filmed as Pink Floyd – The Wall.[citation needed][nb 7]
Neo-progressive rock
Main article: Neo-progressive rock

"The King of Sunset Town," by Marillion
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Marillion and other neo-progressive rock bands played a style of music that resembled an updated, less-experimental version of 1970s symphonic prog
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A second wave[126] of progressive rock bands appeared in the early 1980s and have since been categorized as a separate "neo-progressive rock" subgenre.[127] These largely keyboard-based bands played extended compositions with complex musical and lyrical structures.[128] Most of the genre's major acts released debut albums between 1983 and 1985 and shared the same manager, Keith Goodwin, a publicist who had been instrumental in promoting progressive rock during the 1970s.[129] The previous decade's bands had the advantage of appearing during a large countercultural movement that provided them with a large potential audience, but the neo-progressive bands were limited to a niche audience and found it difficult to attract a following. Only Marillion[130] and Saga[131] experienced international success.

Neo-prog bands tended to derive their sound and visual style from the symphonic prog bands of a decade earlier.[not in citation given] The genre's most successful band, Marillion, suffered particularly from accusations of similarity to Genesis, although they used a different vocal style and a sound with more of a hard rock element.[132] Authors Paul Hegarty and Martin Halliwell have pointed out that the neo-progressive bands were not so much plagiarizing progressive rock as they were creating a new style from progressive rock elements, just as the bands of a decade before had created a new style from jazz and classical elements.[133] Author Edward Macan counters by pointing out that these bands were at least partially motivated by a nostalgic desire to preserve a past style rather than a drive to innovate.[134]
Crossover with post-punk styles

Progressive rock's influence was felt in the work of some post-punk bands, although these bands tended not to draw on classical rock or Canterbury bands as influences but rather Roxy Music and krautrock bands, particularly Can. Groups showed some influence of prog along with their more usually recognized punk influences.[135][verification needed] Julian Cope of the Teardrop Explodes wrote a history of the krautrock genre, Krautrocksampler.[136] New wave bands tended to be less hostile toward progressive rock than were the punks, and there were crossovers, such as Robert Fripp's and Brian Eno's involvement with Talking Heads, and Yes' replacement of Rick Wakeman and Jon Anderson with the pop duo the Buggles.[137]

Punk and prog were not necessarily as opposed as is commonly believed. Both genres reject commercialism,[138] and punk bands did see a need for musical advancement, as evidenced by the albums London Calling, by the Clash, and My War, by Black Flag.[139] Sex Pistols frontman Johnny Rotten famously wore a T-shirt that read "I hate Pink Floyd,"[107] but he expressed admiration for Van der Graaf Generator,[140] Can,[141] and Pink Floyd themselves.[142] Brian Eno expressed a preference for the approach of the punk and new wave bands in New York, as he found them to be more experimental and less personality-based than the English bands.[143]
1990s and 2000s
Third wave
Porcupine Tree performs in 2007

A third wave of progressive rock bands, who might more properly be described as a second generation of neo-progressive bands,[126] emerged in the 1990s. The use of the term "progressive" to describe groups that follow in the style of bands from ten to twenty years earlier is somewhat controversial, as it has been seen as a contradiction of the spirit of experimentation and progress.[144][145] These new bands were aided in part by the availability of personal computer-based recording studios, which reduced album production expenses, and the Internet, which made it easier for bands outside of the mainstream to reach widely spread audiences.[146] Record stores specializing in progressive rock appeared in large cities.[144]

The shred music of the 1980s was a major influence on the progressive rock groups of the 1990s.[144] Some of the newer bands, such as the Flower Kings, Spock's Beard, and Glass Hammer, played a 1970s-style symphonic prog but with an updated sound.[147] A number of them began to explore the limits of the CD in the way that earlier groups had stretched the limits of the vinyl LP.[148]
Progressive metal
Main article: Progressive metal

"A Change of Seasons," by Dream Theater
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A multipart suite by Dream Theater that combines elements of progressive rock and heavy metal
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Progressive rock and heavy metal have similar timelines. Both emerged from late-1960s psychedelia to achieve great early-1970s success despite a lack of radio airplay and support from critics, then faded in the late 1970s and experienced revivals in the early 1980s. Each genre experienced a fragmentation of styles at this time, and many metal bands from the new wave of British heavy metal onward displayed progressive rock influences.[149] Progressive metal reached a point of maturity with Queensrÿche's 1988 concept album Operation: Mindcrime and Voivod's 1989 Nothingface, which featured abstract lyrics and a King Crimson-like texture.[150]

Progressive rock elements appear in other metal subgenres. Black metal is conceptual by definition, due to its prominent theme of questioning the values of Christianity.[151] Its guttural vocals are sometimes used by bands who can be classified as progressive, such as Mastodon, Mudvayne and Opeth.[152] Symphonic metal is an extension of the tendency toward orchestral passages in early progressive rock.[153] Progressive rock has also served as a key inspiration for genres such as post-rock,[154] post-metal and avant-garde metal,[155] math rock,[156] power metal, and neo-classical metal.[157]
New prog
Not to be confused with Neo-progressive rock.

New prog describes the wave of progressive rock bands in the 2000s who revived the genre. According to Entertainment Weekly's Evan Serpick: "Along with recent success stories like System of a Down and up-and-comers like the Dillinger Escape Plan, Lightning Bolt, and Coheed and Cambria, the Mars Volta create incredibly complex and inventive music that sounds like a heavier, more aggressive version of ’70s behemoths such as Led Zeppelin and King Crimson."[158]
2010s

Progressive rock continues to appeal to its longtime fans and is also able to attract new audiences. The Progressive Music Awards were launched in 2012 by Prog Magazine to honor the genre's innovators and to promote its newer bands. Honorees, however, are not invited to perform at the awards ceremony, as the promoters want an event "that doesn't last three weeks."[159]
Festivals

Many prominent progressive rock bands got their initial exposure at large rock festivals that were held in Great Britain during the late 1960s and early 1970s. King Crimson made their first major appearance at the 1969 Hyde Park free concert, before a crowd estimated to be as large as 650,000, in support of the Rolling Stones.[160] Emerson, Lake & Palmer debuted at the 1970 Isle of Wight Festival, at which Supertramp, Family and Jethro Tull also appeared.[161] Jethro Tull were also present at the 1969 Newport Jazz Festival, the first year in which that festival invited rock bands to perform. Hawkwind appeared at many British festivals throughout the 1970s, although they sometimes showed up uninvited, set up a stage on the periphery of the event, and played for free.[162]

Renewed interest in the genre in the 1990s led to the development of progressive rock festivals.[144] ProgFest, organized by Greg Walker and David Overstreet in 1993, was first held in UCLA's Royce Hall,[163] and featured Sweden's Änglagård, the UK's IQ, Quill and Citadel. CalProg was held annually in Whittier, California during the 2000s.[164] The North East Art Rock Festival, or NEARfest,[146] held its first event in 1999 in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania and held annual sold-out concerts until 2012's NEARfest Apocalypse, which featured headliners U.K. and Renaissance.[165] Other festivals include the annual ProgDay (the longest-running and only outdoor prog festival) in Chapel Hill, North Carolina, the annual Rites of Spring Festival (RoSfest)[166] in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, The Rogue Independent Music Festival in Atlanta, Georgia, Baja Prog in Mexicali, Mexico, ProgPower USA in Atlanta, Georgia and ProgPower Europe in Baarlo, Netherlands. Progressive Nation tours were held in 2008 and 2009 with Dream Theater as the headline act.
Reception

The genre has received both a great amount of critical acclaim and criticism throughout the years. Progressive rock has been described as parallel to the classical music of Igor Stravinsky and Béla Bartók.[163] This desire to expand the boundaries of rock, combined with some musicians' dismissiveness toward mainstream rock and pop music, insulted critics and led to accusations of elitism. Its intellectual, fantastic and apolitical lyrics and its shunning of rock's blues roots were abandonments of the very things that many critics valued in rock music.[167] Progressive rock also represented the maturation of rock as a genre, but there was an opinion among critics that rock was and should remain fundamentally tied to adolescence, so that rock and maturity were mutually exclusive.[168] Criticisms over the complexity of their music provoked some bands to create music that was even more complex.[citation needed][nb 8]

The genre has always had its greatest appeal for white males.[69] Most of the musicians involved were male, as was the case for most rock music of the time,[172] Female singers were better represented in the progressive folk bands,[173] who displayed a broader range of vocal styles than the progressive rock bands[174] with whom they frequently toured and shared band members.[175]

British and European audiences typically followed concert hall behavior protocols associated with classical music performances, and they were more reserved in their behavior than were audiences of other forms of rock. This confused musicians during US tours, as they found that American audiences were less attentive and more prone to outbursts during quiet passages.[176]

These aspirations toward high culture reflect progressive rock's origins as a music created largely by upper- and middle-class, white-collar, college-educated males from Southern England. The music never reflected the concerns of or was embraced by working-class listeners,[177] except in the US, where listeners appreciated the musicians' virtuosity.[178] Progressive rock's exotic, literary topics were considered particularly irrelevant to British youth during the late 1970s, when the nation suffered from a poor economy and frequent strikes and shortages.[179] Even King Crimson leader Robert Fripp dismissed progressive rock lyrics as "the philosophical meanderings of some English half-wit who is circumnavigating some inessential point of experience in his life."[180] Bands whose darker lyrics avoided utopianism, such as King Crimson, Pink Floyd and Van der Graaf Generator, experienced less critical disfavor.[181]
List of progressive rock bands
Main article: List of progressive rock bands
See also

Progressive rock portal 1960s portal icon1970s portal

Characteristics of progressive rock
Electric folk
Free jazz
List of musical works in unusual time signatures
Minimal music
Musique concrète
Second Viennese School
Serialism
Third stream
Timeline of progressive rock
Category:Progressive rock record labels

Notes

From about 1967, "pop music" was increasingly used in opposition to the term "rock music", a division that gave generic significance to both terms.[14]
Formalism refers to a preoccupation with established external compositional systems, structural unity, and the autonomy of individual art works. Electicism, like formalism, connotates a predilection toward style synthesis, or integration. However, contrary to formalist tendencies, eclecticism foregrounds discontinuities between historical and contemporary styles and electronic media, sometimes referring simultaneously to vastly different musical genres, idioms, and cultural codes. Examples include the Beatles' "Within You, Without You" (1967) and Jimi Hendrix's 1969 version of "The Star-Spangled Banner".[21]
Allan Moore writes: "It should be clear by now that, although this history appears to offer a roughly chronological succession of styles, there is no single, linear history to that thing we call popular song. ... Sometimes it appears that there are only peripheries. Sometimes, audiences gravitate towards a centre. The most prominent period when this happened was in the early to mid 1960s when it seems that almost everyone, irrespective of age, class or cultural background, listened to the Beatles. But by 1970 this monolothic position had again broken down. Both the Edgar Broughton Band's 'Apache dropout' and Edison Lighthouse's 'Love grows' were released in 1970 with strong Midlands/London connections, and both were audible on the same radio stations, but were operating according to very different aesthetics.[27]
Beatles member John Lennon is known to have attended at least one such event, a happening called the 14 Hour Technicolor Dream.[57] Paul McCartney was deeply connected to the underground through his involvement with the Indica Gallery.[58]
They are also generally credited as the first global standard-bearers of symphonic rock.[62]
This can be heard in Triumvirat, an organ trio in the style of ELP; Ange and Celeste who have had a strong King Crimson influence.[88] Others brought national elements to their style: Spain's Triana introduced flamenco elements, groups such as the Swedish Samla Mammas Manna drew from the folk music styles of their respective nations, and Italian bands such as Il Balletto di Bronzo, Rustichelli & Bordini, leaned toward an approach that was more overtly emotional than that of their British counterparts.[89]
Pink Floyd were unable to repeat that combination of commercial and critical success, as their sole follow-up, The Final Cut, was several years in coming[119] and was essentially a Roger Waters solo project[120] that consisted largely of material that had been rejected for The Wall.[121] The band later reunited without Waters and restored many of the progressive elements that had been downplayed in the band's late-1970s work.[122] This version of the band was very popular,[123] but critical opinion of their later albums is less favorable.[124][125]

Yes' Tales from Topographic Oceans[169] and "The Gates of Delirium"[170] were both responses to such criticisms. Jethro Tull's Thick As a Brick, a self-satirising concept album that consisted of a single 45-minute track, arose from the band's disagreement with the labeling of their previous Aqualung as a concept album.[171]

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O'Brien, Lucy (1999), Sounds of the Psychedelic Sixties, britannica.com, retrieved 18 June 2013

Bibliography

Boone, edited by John Covach & Graeme M. (1997), Understanding Rock: Essays in Musical Analysis ([Online-Ausg.]. ed.), New York: Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-510005-0
Boone, edited by John Covach & Graeme M. (1997), Understanding Rock: Essays in Musical Analysis ([Online-Ausg.]. ed.), New York: Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-510005-0
Bowman, Durrell S. (2001), K. Holm-Hudson, ed., "'Let Them All Make Their Own Music:' Individualism, Rush, and the Progressive/Hard Rock Alloy, 1976–77", Progressive Rock Reconsidered, Taylor & Francis
Bruford, Bill (2012), Theo Cateforis, ed., "Reflections on Progressive Rock", The Rock History Reader, Routledge
Cateforis, Theo (2011), Are We Not New Wave? Modern Pop at the Turn of the 1980s, University of Michigan Press, ISBN 978-0-472-11555-6
Cotner, John Sidney (2001), Archetypes of progressiveness in rock, ca. 1966–1973, University of Wisconsin-Madison
Cotner, John S. (2000). "Music Theory and Progressive Rock Style Analysis". Reflections on American Music: The Twentieth Century and the New Millennium. Pendragon Press. ISBN 978-1-57647-070-1.
Covach, John (1997), John Covach; Graeme M. Boone, eds., "Progressive Rock, 'Close to the Edge,' and the Boundaries of Style", Understanding Rock: Essays in Musical Analysis, New York: Oxford University Press
Curtis, Jim (1987), Rock Eras: Interpretations of Music and Society, 1954–1984, Bowling Green, OH: Bowling Green State University Popular Press
Friedlander, Paul (1998), Rock and Roll: A Social History, Boulder, CO: Westview Press
Haworth, John Trevor; Smith, Michael A. (1975). Work and Leisure: An Interdisciplinary Study in Theory, Education and Planning. Lepus Books.
Hegarty, Paul; Halliwell, Martin (2011), Beyond and Before: Progressive Rock Since the 1960s, New York: The Continuum International Publishing Group, ISBN 978-0-8264-2332-0
Holm-Hudson, Kevin (2008). Genesis and The Lamb Lies Down on Broadway. Ashgate. ISBN 978-0-7546-6139-9.
Holm-Hudson, Kevin, ed. (2013). Progressive Rock Reconsidered. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-135-71022-4.
Lucky, Jerry (2000), Progressive Rock, Burlington, Ontario: Collector's Guide Publishing, Inc.
Macan, Edward (1997), Rocking the Classics: English Progressive Rock and the Counterculture, Oxford: Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-509887-0
Martin, Bill (1996), Music of Yes: Structure and Vision in Progressive Rock, Chicago: Open Court
Martin, Bill (1998), Listening to the Future: The Time of Progressive Rock, Chicago: Open Court, ISBN 0-8126-9368-X
Martin, Bill (2002), Avant Rock: Experimental Music from the Beatles to Bjork, Chicago: Open Court
Maske, Dan (2007), Progressive Rock Keyboard, Milwaukee, WI: Hal Leonard Corporation
Moore, Allan (2004). Jethro Tull's Aqualung. Bloomsbury Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4411-1315-3.
Moore, Allan F. (2016). Song Means: Analysing and Interpreting Recorded Popular Song. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-317-05265-4.* Sarig, Roni (1998), The Secret History of Rock: The Most Influential Bands You\'ve Never Heard, Crown Publishing Group
Philo, Simon (2014). British Invasion: The Crosscurrents of Musical Influence. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. ISBN 978-0-8108-8627-8.
Prown, Pete; Newquist, Harvey P. (1997). Legends of Rock Guitar: The Essential Reference of Rock's Greatest Guitarists. Hal Leonard Corporation. ISBN 978-0-7935-4042-6.
Romano, Will (2010). Mountains Come Out of the Sky: The Illustrated History of Prog Rock. Milwaukee, WI: Backbeat Books. p. 17. ISBN 978-0-87930-991-6.
Sweers, Britta (2004), Electric Folk: The Changing Face of English Traditional Music, New York: Oxford University Press
Tamm, Eric (1995), Brian Eno: His Music and the Vertical Color of Sound, Da Capo Press, ISBN 0-306-80649-5
Willis, Paul E. (2014). Profane Culture. Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-1-4008-6514-7.

Further reading
Library resources about
Progressive rock

Resources in your library
Resources in other libraries

Lucky, Jerry. The Progressive Rock Files. Burlington, Ontario: Collector's Guide Publishing, Inc (1998), 304 pages, ISBN 1-896522-10-6 (paperback). Gives an overview of progressive rock's history as well as histories of the major and underground bands in the genre.
Lucky, Jerry. The Progressive Rock Handbook. Burlington, Ontario: Collector's Guide Publishing, Inc. (2008), 352 pages, ISBN 978-1-894959-76-6 (paperback). Reviews hundreds of progressive rock bands and lists their recordings. Also provides an updated overview, similar to The Progressive Rock Files.
Snider, Charles. The Strawberry Bricks Guide To Progressive Rock. Chicago, Ill.: Lulu Publishing (2008) 364 pages, ISBN 978-0-615-17566-9 (paperback). A veritable record guide to progressive rock, with band histories, musical synopses and critical commentary, all presented in the historical context of a timeline.
Stump, Paul. The Music's All That Matters: A History of Progressive Rock. London: Quartet Books Limited (1997), 384 pages, ISBN 0-7043-8036-6 (paperback). Smart telling of the history of progressive rock focusing on English bands with some discussion of American and European groups. Takes you from the beginning to the early 1990s.
Weingarten, Marc. Yes Is The Answer: (And Other Prog-Rock Tales). Barnacle Book/Rare Bird Books (2013), 280 pages, ISBN 978-0-9854902-0-1. Defense of the genre.
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MessageSujet: Re: Moise, Y'becca et le clan des hérisson ou Avant-garde.   Mar 18 Oct à 9:52

Avant-garde
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For other uses, see Avant-garde (disambiguation).
The Love of Zero, a 1927 film by Robert Florey

The avant-garde (from French, "advance guard" or "vanguard", literally "fore-guard")[1] are people or works that are experimental, radical, or unorthodox,[1] with respect to art, culture, and society.[2][3][page needed] It may be characterized by nontraditional, aesthetic innovation and initial unacceptability,[4] and it may offer a critique of the relationship between producer and consumer.[2]

The avant-garde pushes the boundaries of what is accepted as the norm or the status quo, primarily in the cultural realm. The avant-garde is considered by some to be a hallmark of modernism, as distinct from postmodernism. Many artists have aligned themselves with the avant-garde movement and still continue to do so, tracing a history from Dada through the Situationists to postmodern artists such as the Language poets around 1981.[5][not in citation given]

The avant-garde also promotes radical social reforms. It was this meaning that was evoked by the Saint Simonian Olinde Rodrigues in his essay "L'artiste, le savant et l'industriel" ("The artist, the scientist and the industrialist", 1825), which contains the first recorded use of "avant-garde" in its now customary sense: there, Rodrigues calls on artists to "serve as [the people's] avant-garde", insisting that "the power of the arts is indeed the most immediate and fastest way" to social, political and economic reform.[6]

Contents

1 Theories
2 Relation to mainstream society
3 Examples
3.1 Music
3.2 Theatre
4 Avant-garde art movements
5 See also
6 References
7 Further reading
8 External links

Theories
Marcel Duchamp, Fountain, 1917. Photograph by Alfred Stieglitz

Several writers have attempted, with limited success, to map the parameters of avant-garde activity.[improper synthesis?] The Italian essayist Renato Poggioli provides one of the best-known[according to whom?] analyses of vanguardism as a cultural phenomenon in his 1962 book Teoria dell'arte d'avanguardia (The Theory of the Avant-Garde). Surveying the historical, social, psychological and philosophical aspects of vanguardism, Poggioli reaches beyond individual instances of art, poetry, and music to show that vanguardists may share certain ideals or values which manifest themselves in the non-conformist lifestyles they adopt: He sees vanguard culture as a variety or subcategory of Bohemianism.[7] Other authors have attempted both to clarify and to extend Poggioli's study. The German literary critic Peter Bürger's Theory of the Avant-Garde (1974) looks at the Establishment's embrace of socially critical works of art and suggests that in complicity with capitalism, "art as an institution neutralizes the political content of the individual work".[8]

Bürger's essay also greatly influenced the work of contemporary American art-historians such as the German Benjamin H. D. Buchloh (born 1941). Buchloh, in the collection of essays Neo-avantgarde and Culture Industry (2000) critically argues for a dialectical approach to these positions.[9] Subsequent criticism theorized the limitations of these approaches, noting their circumscribed areas of analysis, including Eurocentric, chauvinist, and genre-specific definitions.[10]
Relation to mainstream society
See also: Media culture and Spectacle (critical theory)
This section possibly contains original research. Please improve it by verifying the claims made and adding inline citations. Statements consisting only of original research should be removed. (August 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

The concept of avant-garde refers primarily to artists, writers, composers and thinkers whose work is opposed to mainstream cultural values and often has a trenchant social or political edge. Many writers, critics and theorists made assertions about vanguard culture during the formative years of modernism, although the initial definitive statement on the avant-garde was the essay Avant-Garde and Kitsch by New York art critic Clement Greenberg, published in Partisan Review in 1939.[11] As the essay’s title suggests,[improper synthesis?] Greenberg argued that vanguard culture has historically been opposed to "high" or "mainstream" culture, and that it has also rejected the artificially synthesized mass culture that has been produced by industrialization. Each of these media is a direct product of Capitalism—they are all now substantial industries—and as such they are driven by the same profit-fixated motives of other sectors of manufacturing, not the ideals of true art. For Greenberg, these forms were therefore kitsch: phony, faked or mechanical culture, which often pretended to be more than they were by using formal devices stolen from vanguard culture. For instance, during the 1930s the advertising industry was quick to take visual mannerisms from surrealism, but this does not mean that 1930s advertising photographs are truly surreal. On the contrary, they express a style without underlying substance. In this sense Greenberg carefully distinguished true avant-garde creativity from the market-driven fashion change and superficial stylistic innovation that are sometimes used[by whom?] to claim privileged status for these manufactured forms of the new consumer culture.[citation needed]
Max Horkheimer (front left), Theodor Adorno (front right), and Jürgen Habermas in the background, right, in 1965 at Heidelberg, West Germany.

Various members of the Frankfurt School argued similar views: thus Theodor Adorno and Max Horkheimer in their essay The Culture Industry: Enlightenment as Mass-Deception (1944), and also Walter Benjamin in his highly influential "The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction" (1936).[12] Where Greenberg used the German word kitsch to describe the antithesis of avant-garde culture, members of the Frankfurt School coined the term "mass culture" to indicate that this bogus culture is constantly being manufactured by a newly emerged culture industry (comprising commercial publishing houses, the movie industry, the record industry, and the electronic media).[13] They also pointed out that the rise of this industry meant that artistic excellence was displaced by sales figures as a measure of worth: a novel, for example, was judged meritorious solely on whether it became a best-seller, music succumbed to ratings charts and to the blunt commercial logic of the Gold disc. In this way the autonomous artistic merit so dear to the vanguardist was abandoned and sales increasingly became the measure, and justification, of everything. Consumer culture now ruled.[original research?]

The avant-garde's co-option by the global capitalist market, by neoliberal economies, and by what Guy Debord called The Society of the Spectacle, have made contemporary critics speculate on the possibility of a meaningful avant-garde today. Paul Mann's Theory-Death of the Avant-Garde demonstrates how completely the avant-garde is embedded within institutional structures today, a thought also pursued by Richard Schechner in his analyses of avant-garde performance.[14]

Despite the central arguments of Greenberg, Adorno and others, various sectors of the mainstream culture industry have co-opted and misapplied the term "avant-garde" since the 1960s, chiefly as a marketing tool to publicise popular music and commercial cinema. It has become common to describe successful rock musicians and celebrated film-makers as "avant-garde", the very word having been stripped of its proper meaning. Noting this important conceptual shift, major contemporary theorists such as Matei Calinescu in Five Faces of Modernity: Modernism, Avant-garde, Decadence, Kitsch, Postmodernism (1987),[page needed] and Hans Bertens in The Idea of the Postmodern: A History (1995),[page needed] have suggested that this is a sign our culture has entered a new post-modern age, when the former modernist ways of thinking and behaving have been rendered redundant.[15]

Nevertheless, the most incisive[according to whom?] critique of vanguardism as against the views of mainstream society was offered by the New York critic Harold Rosenberg in the late 1960s.[16][page needed] Trying to strike a balance between the insights of Renato Poggioli and the claims of Clement Greenberg, Rosenberg suggested that from the mid-1960s onward progressive culture ceased to fulfill its former adversarial role. Since then it has been flanked by what he called "avant-garde ghosts" to the one side, and a changing mass culture on the other, both of which it interacts with to varying degrees. This has seen culture become, in his words, "a profession one of whose aspects is the pretense of overthrowing it".[17]
Examples
Music
Main article: Avant-garde music

Avant-garde in music can refer to any form of music working within traditional structures while seeking to breach boundaries in some manner.[18] The term is used loosely to describe the work of any musicians who radically depart from tradition altogether.[19] By this definition, some avant-garde composers of the 20th century include Arnold Schoenberg,[20] Charles Ives,[21] Igor Stravinsky,[20] Anton Webern,[22] George Antheil (in his earliest works only), Alban Berg,[22] Henry Cowell (in his earliest works), Philip Glass, Harry Partch, John Cage, Morton Feldman, Richard Strauss (in his earliest work),[23] Karlheinz Stockhausen,[24] Edgard Varèse, and Iannis Xenakis.[20] Although most avant-garde composers have been men, this is not exclusively the case. Women avant-gardists include Pauline Oliveros, Diamanda Galás, Meredith Monk, and Laurie Anderson.[25]

There is another definition of "Avant-gardism" that distinguishes it from "modernism": Peter Bürger, for example, says avant-gardism rejects the "institution of art" and challenges social and artistic values, and so necessarily involves political, social, and cultural factors.[19] According to the composer and musicologist Larry Sitsky, modernist composers from the early 20th century who do not qualify as avant-gardists include Arnold Schoenberg, Anton Webern, and Igor Stravinsky; later modernist composers who do not fall into the category of avant-gardists include Elliott Carter, Milton Babbitt, György Ligeti, Witold Lutosławski, and Luciano Berio, since "their modernism was not conceived for the purpose of goading an audience."[26]
Theatre
Main article: Experimental theatre

Whereas the avant-garde has a significant history in 20th-century music, it is more pronounced in theatre and performance art, and often in conjunction with music and sound design innovations, as well as developments in visual media design. There are movements in theatre history that are characterized by their contributions to the avant-garde traditions in both the United States and Europe. Among these are Fluxus, Happenings, and Neo-Dada.
Avant-garde art movements

Abstract expressionism
COBRA
Conceptual art
Constructivism
Cubism
Dadaism
De Stijl
Expressionism
Fauvism
Fluxus
Futurism
Happening
Imaginism
Imagism
Impressionism
Incoherents
Land art
Les Nabis
Lyrical Abstraction
Minimal art
Orphism
Pop art
Precisionism
Primitivism
Rayonism
Suprematism
Surrealism
Symbolism
Tachisme
Universalismo Constructivo
Viennese Actionism
Vorticism

See also

Avant-garde – Wikipedia book

Anti-art
Bauhaus
Experimental film
Experimental literature
Experimental music
Experimental theatre
L'enfant terrible
List of avant-garde artists
Outsider art
Russian avant-garde
Vanguardism

References

"Avant-garde". Dictionary.com. Lexico Publishing Group, LLC. Retrieved 2007-03-14.
Picchione, John (2004). The New Avant-garde in Italy: Theoretical Debate and Poetic Practices. University of Toronto Press. p. 64. ISBN 978-0-8020-8994-6.
Peter Bürger (1984). Theory of the Avant-Garde. English translation by Michael Shaw, Forward by Jochen Schulte-Sasse, Theory and History of Literature, Volume 4, (Manchester University Press, University of Minnesota Press
Kostelanetz, Richard, A Dictionary of the Avant-Gardes, Routledge, May 13, 2013, ISBN 1136806202
UBU Web List of artists from Dada to the present day aligning themselves with the avant-garde
Matei Calinescu (1987). The Five Faces of Modernity: Modernism, Avant-Garde, Decadence, Kitsch, Postmodernism. Duke University Press. p. [page needed].
Renato Poggioli (1981). The Theory of the Avant-Garde. Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-88216-4., translated from the Italian by Gerald Fitzgerald, 2nd ed.[page needed]
Peter Bürger (1974). Theorie der Avantgarde. Suhrkamp Verlag. English translation (University of Minnesota Press) 1984: 90.
Benjamin Buchloh (2001). Neo-avantgarde and Culture Industry: Essays on European and American Art from 1955 to 1975. Cambridge: MIT Press. ISBN 0-262-02454-3.
James M. Harding: Cutting Performances: Collage Events, Feminist Artists, and the American Avant-Garde (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2010):[page needed].
Clement Greenberg. "Avant-Garde and Kitsch".
The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction Archived 5 December 2006 at the Wayback Machine. by Walter Benjamin
Theodor W. Adorno (1963), "Culture Industry Reconsidered: Selected Essays on Mass Culture", London: Routledge, 1991
Richard Schechner, "The Conservative Avant-Garde." New Literary History 41.4 (Autumn 2010): 895–913.
Calinescu 1987,[page needed]; Bertens 1995.[page needed]
Harold Rosenberg (1983). The De-Definition of Art: Action Art to Pop to Earthworks. Chicago University Press. ISBN 0-226-72673-8. Originally published: New York: Horizon Press, 1972; reprinted New York: Collier Books, 1973.
George Dickie (1975). Edward Kamarck (ed.), ed. "Symposium on Marxist aesthetic thought: commentary on the papers by Rudich, San Juan, and Morawski". Arts in Society: Art and Social Experience: Our Changing Outlook on Culture. 12 (2 (Summer–Fallz)): 232.
David Nicholls (ed.), The Cambridge History of American Music (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1998), 122–24. ISBN 0-521-45429-8 ISBN 978-0-521-54554-9
Jim Samson, "Avant garde", The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, second edition, edited by Stanley Sadie and John Tyrrell (London: Macmillan Publishers, 2001).
Larry Sitsky, Music of the Twentieth-Century Avant-Garde: A Biocritical Sourcebook (Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press, 2002), xiv. ISBN 0-313-29689-8.
Larry Sitsky, Music of the Twentieth-Century Avant-Garde: A Biocritical Sourcebook (Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press, 2002), 222. ISBN 0-313-29689-8.
Larry Sitsky, Music of the Twentieth-Century Avant-Garde: A Biocritical Sourcebook (Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press, 2002), 50. ISBN 0-313-29689-8.
Larry Sitsky, Music of the Twentieth-Century Avant-Garde: A Biocritical Sourcebook (Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press, 2002), xiii–xiv. ISBN 0-313-29689-8.
Elliot Schwartz, Barney Childs, and James Fox (eds.), Contemporary Composers on Contemporary Music (New York: Da Capo Press, 1998), 379. ISBN 0-306-80819-6
Larry Sitsky, Music of the Twentieth-Century Avant-Garde: A Biocritical Sourcebook (Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press, 2002), xvii. ISBN 0-313-29689-8.

Larry Sitsky, Music of the Twentieth-Century Avant-Garde: A Biocritical Sourcebook (Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press, 2002), xv. ISBN 0-313-29689-8.

Further reading

Barron, Stephanie, and Maurice Tuchman. 1980. The Avant-garde in Russia, 1910–1930: New Perspectives: Los Angeles County Museum of Art [and] Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C. Los Angeles, CA: Los Angeles County Museum of Art ISBN 0-87587-095-3 (pbk.); Cambridge, MA: Distributed by the MIT Press ISBN 0-262-20040-6 (pbk.)
Bazin, Germain. 1969. The Avant-garde in Painting. New York: Simon and Schuster. ISBN 0-671-20422-X
Berg, Hubert van den, and Walter Fähnders (eds.). 2009. Metzler Lexikon Avantgarde. Stuttgart: Metzler. ISBN 3-476-01866-0 (German)
Crane, Diana. 1987. The Transformation of the Avant-garde: The New York Art World, 1940–1985. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-11789-8
Daly, Selina, and Monica Insinga (eds.). 2013. The European Avant-garde: Text and Image. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars. ISBN 978-1443840545.
Fernández-Medina, Nicolás, and Maria Truglio (eds.). Modernism and the Avant-garde Body in Spain and Italy. Routledge, 2016.
Harding, James M., and John Rouse, eds. Not the Other Avant-Garde: The Transnational Foundations of Avant-Garde Performance. University of Michigan, 2006.
Kostelanetz, Richard, and H. R. Brittain. 2000. A Dictionary of the Avant-Gardes, second edition. New York: Schirmer Books. ISBN 0-02-865379-3. Paperback edition 2001, New York: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-93764-7 (pbk.)
Kramer, Hilton. 1973. The Age of the Avant-garde; An Art Chronicle of 1956−1972. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. ISBN 0-374-10238-4
Léger, Marc James (ed.). 2014. The Idea of the Avant Garde—And What It Means Today. Manchester and New York: Manchester University Press; Oakland: Left Curve. ISBN 9780719096914.
Maerhofer, John W. 2009. Rethinking the Vanguard: Aesthetic and Political Positions in the Modernist Debate, 1917-1962. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Press. ISBN 1-4438-1135-1
Mann, Paul. The Theory-Death of the Avant-Garde. Indiana University Press, 1991.
Novero, Cecilia. 2010. Antidiets of the Avant-Garde: From Futurist Cooking to Eat Art. (University of Minnesota Press)
Pronko, Leonard Cabell. 1962. Avant-garde: The Experimental Theater in France. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Roberts, John. 2015. Revolutionary Time and the Avant-Garde. London and New York: Verso. ISBN 9781781689127 (cloth); ISBN 9781781689134 (pbk).
Schechner, Richard. "The Five Avant-Gardes or ... [and] ... or None?" The Twentieth-Century Performance Reader, 2nd ed., ed. Michael Huxley and Noel Witts (New York and London: Routledge, 2002).
Schmidt-Burkhardt, Astrit. 2005. Stammbäume der Kunst: Zur Genealogie der Avantgarde. Berlin Akademie Verlag. ISBN 3-05-004066-1 [online version is available]
Sell, Mike. The Avant-Garde: Race, Religion, War. Seagull Books, 2011.
Shishanov, V. A. 2007. Vitebskii muzei sovremennogo iskusstva: istoriia sozdaniia i kollektsii (1918–1941). Minsk: Medisont. ISBN 978-985-6530-68-8 Online edition (Russian)

External links

Historic Avant-Garde Periodicals for Digital Research, The Blue Mountain Project, Princeton University Library
Avant-garde and Modernist Magazines (Monoskop)
Magazines in Bibliothèque Kandinsky, Centre Pompidou, Paris
Periodicals in Iowa Digital Library, University of Iowa Libraries
Digital Dada Library of International Dada Archive, University of Iowa Libraries
Magazines in Digital Collections of Beinecke Rare Book & Manuscript Library
Avant-Garde Periodicals Meet Digital Archives, New York Public Library
Dada, Surrealism, & De Stijl Magazines on UbuWeb Historical
Index of Modernist Magazines, Davidson College
Modernist Journal Project, Brown University and University of Tulsa
Spanish and Italian Modernist Studies Forum, Pennsylvania State University
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MessageSujet: Re: Moise, Y'becca et le clan des hérisson ou Avant-garde.   Mar 18 Oct à 10:20

Indian Independence Act 1947
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Indian Independence Act 1947
Parliament of the UK
Long title An Act to make provision for the setting up in India of two independent Dominion states, to substitute other provisions for certain provisions of the Government of India Act, 1935, which apply outside those Dominions, and to provide for other matters consequential on or connected with the setting up of those Dominions.
Citation 1947 c. 30
(10 & 11. Geo. 6.)
Dates
Royal assent 18 July 1947
Status: Spent

The Indian Independence Act 1947 (1947 c. 30 (10 & 11. Geo. 6.)), is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that partitioned British India into the two new independent dominions of India and Pakistan. The Act received the royal assent on 18 July 1947, and Pakistan came into being on 15 August at the same time as Indian independence. However, due to Mountbatten's need to be in New Delhi for the transfer of power, Pakistan celebrated its formation a day ahead on 14 August 1947 to enable the viceroy Lord Mountbatten to attend both events.[1]

The legislation was formulated by the government of Prime Minister Clement Attlee and the Governor General of India Lord Mountbatten, after representatives of the Indian National Congress,[2] the Muslim League,[3] and the Sikh community[4] came to an agreement with the Viceroy of India, Lord Mountbatten of Burma, on what has come to be known as the 3 June Plan or Mountbatten Plan. This plan was the last plan for independence.

Contents

1 The background to the Act
1.1 Attlee’s announcement
1.2 3 June Plan
2 The Act's provisions
3 Salient features of the Act
4 Princely states
5 Aftermath
5.1 India
5.2 Pakistan
5.3 Partition
5.4 Legal
6 See also
7 Notes
8 References

The background to the Act
Attlee’s announcement

The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom announced on 20 February 1947 that:

British Government would grant full self-government to British India by June 1948 at the latest,
The future of Princely States would be decided after the date of final transfer is decided.[5]

3 June Plan

This was also known as the Mountbatten Plan. The British government proposed a plan announced on 3 June 1947 that included these principles:

Principle of Partition of India was accepted by the British Government
Successor governments would be given dominion status
Implicit right to secede from the British Commonwealth

The Indian Independence Act 1947 was the implementation of 3 June Plan..
The Act's provisions

The Act's most important provisions were:

division of British India into the two new and fully sovereign dominions of India and Pakistan, with effect from 15 August 1947;
partition of the provinces of Bengal and Punjab between the two new countries;
establishment of the office of Governor-General in each of the two new countries, as representatives of the Crown;
conferral of complete legislative authority upon the respective Constituent Assemblies of the two new countries;
termination of British suzerainty over the princely states, with effect from 15 August 1947, and recognised the right of states to accede to either dominion
abolition of the use of the title "Emperor of India" by the British monarch (this was subsequently executed by King George VI by royal proclamation on 22 June 1948).
the Dominion of India may be regarded as an expression of the desire for self-government of the Hindus in India, and the Dominion of Pakistan as the expression of the demand for self-government by the Muslims.

The Act also made provision for the division of joint property, etc. between the two new countries, including in particular the division of the armed forces.
Salient features of the Act

Two new dominion states: Two new dominions were to emerge from the Indian Union, Pakistan and India.The Dominion of India may be regarded as an expression of the desire for self-government of the Hindus in India, and the Dominion of Pakistan as the expression of the demand for self-government by the Muslims.
Appointed Date: 15 August 1947 was declared as the appointed date for the partition.
Territories:
Pakistan: East Bengal, West Punjab, Sind, and Chief Commissioner’s Province of Baluchistan.
The fate of North West Frontier Province (now Pakhtunkhwa) was subject to the result of referendum.
Bengal & Assam:
The province of Bengal as constituted under the Government of India Act 1935 ceased to exist;
In lieu thereof two new provinces were to be constituted, to be known respectively as East Bengal and West Bengal.
The fate of District Sylhet, in the province of Assam, was to be decided in a referendum.
Punjab:
The province as constituted under the Government of India Act 1935 ceased to exist;
Two new provinces were to be constituted, to be known respectively as West Punjab & East Punjab
The boundaries of the new provinces were to be determined by, whether before or after the appointed date, by the award of a boundary commission to be appointed by the Governor General.
Constitution for the New Dominions: until the time of framing of new constitution, the new dominions and the provinces thereof were to be governed by the Government of India Act 1935. (Temporary Provisions as to the Government of Each New Dominion.)
The Governors General of the new dominions:
For each of the new dominion a new Governor-General was to be appointed by the Crown, subject to the law of the legislature of either of the new dominions.
Same person as Governor General of both dominions: if unless and until provision to the contrary was made by a law of the legislature of either of the new dominions, the same person could be the Governor General of both.
Powers of Governor General: (Section-9)
The Governor General was empowered to bring this Act in force.
Division of territories, powers, duties, rights, assets, liabilities, etc., was the responsibility of Governor General
To adopt, amend, Government of India Act 1935, as the Governor-General may consider it necessary.
power to introduce any change was until 31 March 1948, after that it was open to the constituent assembly to modify or adopt the same Act. (Temporary Provisions as to the Government of Each New Dominion.)
Governor-General had full powers to give assent to any law.
Legislation for the new dominions:
The existing legislative setup was allowed to continue as Constitution making body as well as a legislature. (Temporary Provisions as to the Government of Each New Dominion.)
The legislature of each dominion was given full powers to make laws for that dominion, including laws having extraterritorial operation.
No Act of Parliament of UK passed after the appointed date would be extended to the territories of new dominions.
No law and provision of any law made by the legislature of the new dominions shall be void or inoperative on the ground that it is repugnant to the law of England.
The Governor-General of each dominion had full powers to give assent in His Majesty’s name to any law of the legislature. [Configuration of Pakistan’s Constitution Assembly (CAP I): 69 members of the central legislature + 10 immigrant members= 79]
Consequences of setting up of the new dominions:
His Majesty’s Government lost all the responsibility to the new dominions
The suzerainty of His Majesty’s Government over the Indian States lapsed.
All the treaties or agreements in force at the passing of the Act lapsed.
The title of "Emperor of India" was dropped from the titles of British Crown.
The office of Secretary of State for India was abolished and the provisions of GOI Act 1935 relating to the appointments to the civil service or civil posts under the crown by the secretary of the state ceased to operate
Civil servants: Section 10 provided for the continuance of service of the government servants appointed on or before 15 August 1947 under the Governments of new Dominions with full benefits.
Armed Forces: Sections 11, 12, & 13 dealt with the future of Indian Armed Forces. A Partition Committee was formed on 7 June 1947, with two representatives from each side and the viceroy in the chair, to decide about the division thereof. As soon as the process of partition was to start it was to be replaced by a Partition Council with a similar structure.
First and Second Schedules:
First Schedule listed the districts provisionally included in the new province of East Bengal:
Chittagong Division: Chittagong, Noakhali & Tippera.
Dacca Division: Bakarganj, Dacca, Faridpur, & Mymensingh.
Presidency Division: Jessor, Murshidabad & Nadia
Rajshahi Division: Bogra, Dinajpur, Malda, Rajshahi & Rangpur.
Second Schedule listed the districts provisionally included in the new province of West Punjab:
Lahore Division: Gujranwala, Gurdaspur, Lahore, Sheikhupura & Sialkot.
Rawalpindi Division: Attock, Gujrat, Jehlum, Rawalpindi & Shahpur.
Multan Division: Dera Ghazi Khan, Jhang, Lyallpur, Montgomery, Multan & Muzaffargarh [6]

Princely states
Main articles: Princely states of Pakistan and Princely states of India

On 4 June 1947 Mountbatten held a press conference in which he addressed the question of the princely states, of which there were then a total of 535. The treaty relations between Britain and the Indian States would come to an end, and on 15 August 1947 the suzerainty of the British Crown was to lapse. Consequently, the princely states would assume independent status. They would be free to choose to accede to one or the other of the new dominions.[7][non-primary source needed]

In the event, between August 1947 and March 1948 the rulers of several Muslim-majority states signed an Instrument of Accession to join Pakistan. These included Amb, Bahawalpur, Chitral, Dir, Kalat, Khairpur, Kharan, Las Bela, Makran, and Swat.[8]
Aftermath
India

Lord Mountbatten of Burma, the last Viceroy, was asked by the Indian leaders to continue as the Governor-General of India. Jawaharlal Nehru became the Prime Minister of India and Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel became the Home Minister. Over 560 princely states acceded to India. The state of Jammu and Kashmir, which was expected to accede to Pakistan on account of its 77% Muslim majority and its cultural and commercial links to West Punjab (Pakistan),[9][10] but whose Hindu ruler chose to remain initially independent (and later succeeded to India due to a fear of Pakistani invasion), became a disputed territory.[9] The states of Junagadh and Hyderabad, with majority Hindu populations but with Muslim rulers, were merged into India soon after Lord Mountbatten left India in 1948.
Pakistan

Muhammad Ali Jinnah became the Governor-General of Pakistan, and Liaquat Ali Khan became the Prime Minister of Pakistan.

Three princely states geographically inalienable to Pakistan joined the Dominion.[11]
Partition
Main articles: Partition of India and Radcliffe Line

There was much violence, and many Muslims from what would become India fled to Pakistan; and Hindus and Sikhs from what would become Pakistan fled to India. Many people left behind all their possessions and property to avoid the violence and flee to their new country.[12]
Legal

The act was subsequently repealed in the article 395 of the Constitution of India and article 221 of the Constitution of Pakistan of 1956 to obtain true independence for the new states. Though the new constitutions did not have legal authority to repeal the act, it was done to sever the legal chain of validity and establish the constitution as an independent legal system.[13] It has not been repealed in the United Kingdom, where it is still current legislation, although some sections have been repealed.
See also

Pakistan Movement
Indian independence movement
Political integration of India

Notes

Hoshiar Singh, Pankaj Singh; Singh Hoshiar. Indian Administration. Pearson Education India. p. 10. ISBN 978-81-317-6119-9. Retrieved 2 January 2013.
represented by Jawaharlal Nehru, Vallabhbhai Patel, and Acharya Kripalani
represented by Muhammad Ali Jinnah, Liaqat Ali Khan, and Sardar Abdul Rab Nishtar
represented by Sardar Baldev Singh
Ghose, Sankar (1993). Jawaharlal Nehru : a biography (1. publ. ed.). New Delhi [u.a.]: Allied Publ. p. 151. ISBN 9788170233695.
"Salient features of the act" (PDF). Retrieved 9 February 2013.
Indian Independence Act 1947. Opsi.gov.uk. Retrieved on 12 July 2013.
Z. H. Zaidi, ed., Jinnah Papers: The states: Historical and Policy Perspectives and Accession to Pakistan, vol. VIII (Quaid-i-Azam Papers Project, Government of Pakistan, 2003), p. 113
Stein, Burton; Arnold, David (2010), A History of India, John Wiley & Sons, p. 359, ISBN 978-1-4051-9509-6, retrieved 27 July 2012
Bose, Sumantra (2005), Kashmir: Roots of Conflict, Paths to Peace, Harvard University Press, p. 33, ISBN 978-0-674-01817-4 Quote: "On 15 August 1947, meanwhile, the maharaja's government had concluded a so-called standstill agreement—normally the precursor to accession—with the government of Pakistan."
"Dominion of Pakistan". Retrieved 9 February 2013.
"The history of partition". Retrieved 9 February 2013.

"India's benign constitutional revolution". Retrieved 20 October 2015.

References
Wikisource has original text related to this article:
Indian Independence Act 1947

Indian Independence Bill,1947
"Indian Independence Act 1947 (c.30)" (PDF). Original Statute from The UK Statute Law Database. Office of Public Sector Information, National Archives, UK. Retrieved 2010-04-30.
"Indian Independence Act 1947 (c.30)". Revised Statute from The UK Statute Law Database. Office of Public Sector Information, National Archives, UK. Archived from the original on 15 October 2008. Retrieved 2008-06-02.

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1947–48 Civil War in Mandatory Palestine
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Civil War in Palestine (1947–48)
Part of the 1948 Palestine War
Katamon.jpg
Jewish soldiers at Katamon, Jerusalem.
Date 30 November 1947 – 14 May 1948
(5 months and 2 weeks)
Location Mandatory Palestine
Result

Jewish forces overcome Palestinian Arab forces
Collapse of the Arab society in Palestine
Beginning of the 1948 Palestinian exodus
Beginning of the Jewish exodus from Muslim countries
Israeli Declaration of Independence
Invasion of Palestine by the Arab League

Belligerents

Jews of Palestine

Haganah
Palmach
Irgun
Lehi
Foreign Volunteers
Allied Bedouin tribes



Arabs of Palestine

Army of the Holy War
Arab Liberation Army

Transjordan

Arab Legion



United Kingdom

Mandatory Palestine United Kingdom military forces in Mandatory Palestine

Commanders and leaders
David Ben-Gurion
Yaakov Dori
Yigael Yadin
Yigal Allon
Menachem Begin Fawzi al-Qawuqji
Abd al-Qadir al-Husayni † Mandatory Palestine Gordon MacMillan
Strength
15,000 (start)[1]
35,000 (end) A few thousands ~70,000
Casualties and losses
1/4 : 895[2]
15/5 : ~ 2,000[3] 1/4 : 991[2] 1/4 : 123[2]
Total withdrawal

The 1947–48 Civil War in Mandatory Palestine was the first phase of the 1948 Palestine war. It broke out after the General Assembly of the United Nations adopted a resolution on 29 November 1947 recommending the adoption of the Partition Plan for Palestine.[4] When the British Mandate of Palestine expired on 14 May 1948, and with the Declaration of the Establishment of the State of Israel, the surrounding Arab states, Egypt, Transjordan, Iraq and Syria invaded what had just ceased to be Mandatory Palestine,[5] and immediately attacked Israeli forces and several Jewish settlements.[6] The conflict then turned into the 1948 Arab–Israeli War.

During the civil war, the Jewish and Arab communities of Palestine clashed (the latter supported by the Arab Liberation Army) while the British, who had the obligation to maintain order,[7][8] organized their withdrawal and intervened only on an occasional basis.

Contents

1 Background
2 Beginning of the Civil War (30 November 1947 – 1 April 1948)
2.1 The Powers' Policies
2.2 The Population Suffering
2.3 Fighters and Arms from Abroad
2.4 Death toll
3 War of the roads and blockade of Jerusalem
3.1 Geographic situation of the Jewish zones
3.2 Siege of Jerusalem
3.3 Death toll and analysis
4 Intervention of foreign forces in Palestine
5 Morale of the fighters
6 The first wave of Palestinian refugees
7 Policies of foreign powers
7.1 Britain and the Jordanian choice
7.2 The American U-turn
7.3 The logistical support of the Eastern bloc
7.4 Arab leaders' refusal of direct involvement
8 The arms problem
8.1 Civil war beginning (until 1 April 1948)
8.2 Haganah on the offensive (1 April – 15 May 1948)
8.3 Later
9 Reorganisation of Haganah
10 Plan Dalet
11 Haganah offensive (1 April – 15 May 1948)
11.1 Operation Nachshon (2–20 April)
11.2 The Battle of Mishmar HaEmek (4–15 April)
11.3 Deir Yassin massacre
11.4 Hadassah medical convoy massacre
11.5 The Battle of Ramat Yohanan and the defection of the Druze
11.6 The siege of mixed localities
11.7 Operation Yiftah (20 April – 24 May)
11.8 Meeting of Golda Meir and King Abdullah I of Jordan (10 May)
11.9 Kfar Etzion massacre
11.10 Jerusalem: Operations Yevusi & Kilshon ("Pitchfork") (13–18 May)
11.11 Operation Ben-Ami (13–22 May)
11.12 Main wave of the Palestinian Arab exodus
11.13 Preparations made by the Arab League
12 Results and aftermath
13 See also
14 Footnotes
15 References
16 Further reading
16.1 Online sources
16.2 Film

Background

Under the control of a British administration since 1920, the area of Palestine found itself the object of a battle between Jewish Zionist nationalists and Palestinian Arab nationalists, who opposed one another just as much as they both opposed the British mandate.

The Palestinian Arab backlash culminated in the 1936–1939 Arab revolt in Palestine. Directed by Palestinian Arab nationalists, the rebels opposed Zionism, the British presence in Palestine and Palestinian Arab politicians who called for pan-Arabic nationalism at the same time. Both the British and the Zionist organizations of the time opposed the revolt; nonetheless, the Palestinian Arab nationalists did obtain from the British a drastic reduction of Jewish immigration, legislated by the 1939 White Paper. However, the consequences of the unsuccessful uprising were heavy. Nearly 5,000 Arabs and 500 Jews died; the various paramilitary Zionist organizations were reinforced, and the majority of the members of the Palestinian Arab political elite exiled themselves, such as Mohammad Amin al-Husayni, leader of the Arab Higher Committee.

After World War II and The Holocaust, the Zionist movement gained attention and sympathy. In Mandatory Palestine, Zionist groups fought against the British occupation. In the two and a half years from 1945 to June 1947, British law enforcement forces lost 103 dead, and sustained 391 wounded from Jewish militants.[9] The Palestinian Arab nationalists reorganized themselves, but their organization remained inferior to that of the Zionists. Nevertheless, the weakening of the colonial British Empire reinforced Arab countries and the Arab League.

The Haganah was initially involved in the post-war attacks against the British in Palestine but withdrew following the outrage caused by the 1946 Irgun bombing of the British Army Headquarters in the King David Hotel. In May 1946, on the assumption of British neutrality in the future hostilities, a Plan C was formulated that envisaged guidelines for retaliation if and when Palestinian Arab attacks took place on the Yishuv. As the countdown ticked down, the Haganah implemented assaults involving the torching and demolition by explosives against economic infrastructures, the property of Palestinian politicians and military commanders, villages, town neighbourhoods, houses and farms that were deemed to be bases or used by inciters and their accomplices. The killing of armed irregulars and adult males was also foreseen. On 15 August 1947, on suspicion it was a terrorist headquarters, they blew up the house of the Abu Laban family, prosperous Palestinian orange growers, near Petah Tikva. Twelve occupants, including a woman and six children, were killed.[10] After November 1947, the dynamiting of houses formed a key component of most Haganah retaliatory strikes.[11]

Diplomacy failed to reconcile the different points of view concerning the future of Palestine. On 18 February 1947, the British announced their withdrawal from the region. Later that year, on 29 November, the General Assembly of the United Nations voted to recommend the adoption and implementation of the partition plan with the support of the big global powers, but not of Britain nor of the Arab States.
Beginning of the Civil War (30 November 1947 – 1 April 1948)
Aftermath of the car bomb attack on the Ben Yehuda St., which killed 53 and injured many more.

In the aftermath of the adoption of Resolution 181(II) by the General Assembly of the United Nations recommending the adoption and implementation of the Plan of Partition,[12] the manifestations of joy of the Jewish community were counterbalanced by protests by Arabs throughout the country[13] and after 1 December, the Arab Higher Committee enacted a general strike that lasted three days.[14]

A 'wind of violence'[15] rapidly took hold of the country, foreboding civil war between the two communities.[16] Murders, reprisals, and counter-reprisals came fast on each other's heels, resulting in dozens of victims killed on both sides in the process. The impasse persisted as British forces did not intervene to put a stop to the escalating cycles of violence.[17][18][19][20]

The first casualties after the adoption of Resolution 181(II) by the General Assembly were passengers on a Jewish bus driving on the Coastal Plain near Kfar Sirkin on 30 November. An eight-man gang from Jaffa ambushed the bus killing five and wounding others. Half an hour later they ambushed a second bus, southbound from Hadera, killing two more. Arab snipers attacked Jewish buses in Jerusalem and Haifa.[18]

Irgun and Lehi followed their strategy of placing bombs in crowded markets and bus-stops.[21] As on 30 December, in Haifa, when members of Irgun, threw two bombs at a crowd of Arab workers who were queueing in front of a refinery, killing 6 of them and injuring 42. An angry crowd massacred 39 Jewish people in revenge, until British soldiers reestablished calm.[19][22] In reprisals, some soldiers from the strike force, Palmach and the Carmeli brigade, attacked the village of Balad ash-Sheikh and Hawassa. According to different historians, this attack led to between 21 and 70 deaths.[20]

According to Benny Morris, much of the fighting in the first months of the war took place in and on the edges of the main towns, and was initiated by the Arabs. It included Arab snipers firing at Jewish houses, pedestrians, and traffic, as well as planting bombs and mines along urban and rural paths and roads.[23]

From January onwards, operations became increasingly militarized.

In all the mixed zones where both communities lived, particularly Jerusalem and Haifa, increasingly violent attacks, riots, reprisals and counter-reprisals followed each other. Isolated shootings evolved into all-out battles. Attacks against traffic, for instance, turned into ambushes as one bloody attack led to another.

On 22 February 1948, supporters of Mohammad Amin al-Husayni organized, with the help of certain British deserters, three attacks against the Jewish community. Using car bombs aimed at the headquarters of the pro-Zionist Palestine Post newspaper, the Ben Yehuda St. market and the backyard of the Jewish Agency's offices, they killed 22, 53 and 13 Jewish people respectively, and injured hundreds.[24][25] In revenge, Lehi put a landmine on the railroad track in Rehovot on which a train from Cairo to Haifa was travelling, killing 28 British soldiers and injuring 35.[26] This would be copied on 31 March, close to Caesarea Maritima, which would lead to the death of forty people, injuring 60, who were, for the most part, Arab civilians.[27]

Having recruited a few thousand volunteers, al-Husayni organized the blockade of the 100,000 Jewish residents of Jerusalem.[28] To counter this, the Yishuv authorities tried to supply the city with convoys of up to 100 armoured vehicles, but the operation became more and more impractical as the number of casualties in the relief convoys surged. By March, Al-Hussayni's tactic had paid off. Almost all of Haganah's armoured vehicles had been destroyed, the blockade was in full operation, and hundreds of Haganah members who had tried to bring supplies into the city were killed.[29] The situation for those who dwelt in the Jewish settlements in the highly isolated Negev and North of Galilee was even more critical.

According to the Arab League general Safwat:

Despite the fact that skirmishes and battles have begun, the Jews at this stage are still trying to contain the fighting to as narrow a sphere as possible in the hope that partition will be implemented and a Jewish government formed; they hope that if the fighting remains limited, the Arabs will acquiesce in the fait accompli. This can be seen from the fact that the Jews have not so far attacked Arab villages unless the inhabitants of those villages attacked them or provoked them first.[30]

Although a certain level of doubt took hold among Yishuv supporters, their apparent defeats were due more to their wait-and-see policy than to weakness.[citation needed] David Ben-Gurion reorganized Haganah and made conscription obligatory. Every Jewish man and woman in the country had to receive military training.
The Powers' Policies

This situation caused the US to withdraw their support for the Partition plan, thus encouraging the Arab League to believe that the Palestinian Arabs, reinforced by the Arab Liberation Army, could put an end to the plan for partition. The British, on the other hand, decided on 7 February 1948, to support the annexation of the Arab part of Palestine by Transjordan.[31]
The Population Suffering

While the Jewish population had received strict orders requiring them to hold their ground everywhere at all costs,[32] the Arab population was more affected by the general conditions of insecurity to which the country was exposed. Up to 100,000 Arabs, from the urban upper and middle classes in Haifa, Jaffa and Jerusalem, or Jewish-dominated areas, evacuated abroad or to Arab centres eastwards.[33]
Fighters and Arms from Abroad

Thanks to funds raised by Golda Meir from sympathisers in the United States, and Stalin's decision to support the Zionist cause, the Jewish representatives of Palestine were able to sign very important armament contracts in the East. Other Haganah agents recuperated stockpiles from the Second World War, which helped improve the army's equipment and logistics. Operation Balak allowed arms and other equipment to be transported for the first time by the end of March.

There was an intervention of a number of Arab Liberation Army regiments inside Palestine, each active in a variety of distinct sectors around the different coastal towns. They consolidated their presence in Galilee and Samaria.[34] Abd al-Qadir al-Husayni came from Egypt with several hundred men of the Army of the Holy War.
Death toll

Morris says that by the end of March 1948, the Yishuv had suffered about a thousand dead.[35] Ilan Pappé estimates that 400 Jews and 1,500 Arabs were killed by January 1948.[36] In December the Jewish death toll was estimated over 200 and, according to Alec Kirkbride, by 18 January 333 Jews and 345 Arabs were killed while 643 Jews and 877 Arabs were injured.[37] The overall death toll between December 1947 and January 1948 (including British personal) was estimated at around 1,000 people, with 2,000 injured.[38] According to Yoav Gelber, by the end of March there was a total of 2,000 dead and 4,000 wounded.[2] These figures correspond to an average of more than 100 deaths and 200 casualties per week in a population of 2,000,000.
War of the roads and blockade of Jerusalem
Geographic situation of the Jewish zones
Map of Jewish settlements and roads in Palestine by 1 December 1947

Apart from on the coastline, Jewish yishuvim, or settlements, were very dispersed. Communication between the coastal area—which was the most developed in terms of Jewish settlements—and the peripheral settlements was carried out by road links. These road links were an easy target for attacks, as the majority of them passed through or near entirely Arab localities. The isolation of the 100,000 Jewish people in Jerusalem and other Jewish settlements outside the coastal zone, such as kibbutz Kfar Etzion, halfway on the strategic road between Jerusalem and Hebron, the 27 settlements in the Southern region of Negev[39] and the settlements to the north of Galilee, were a weak strategic point for Yishuv.

The possibility of evacuating these difficult to defend zones was considered, but the policy of Haganah was set by David Ben-Gurion. He stated that 'what the Jewish people have has to be conserved. No Jewish person should abandon his or her house, farm, kibbutz or job without authorization. Every outpost, every colony, whether it is isolated or not, must be occupied as though it were Tel Aviv itself.[32] No Jewish settlement was evacuated until the invasion of May 1948. Only a dozen kibbutzim in Galilee as well as those of Gush Etzion sent women and children into the safer interior zones.[40]

Ben-Gurion gave instructions that the settlements of Negev be reinforced in number of men and goods,[39] in particular the kibbutzim of Kfar Darom and Yad Mordechai (both close to Gaza), Revivim (south of Beersheba) and Kfar Etzion. Conscious of the danger that weighed upon Negev, the supreme command of Haganah assigned a whole Palmach battalion there.[41]

Jerusalem and the great difficulty of accessing the city became even more critical to its Jewish population, who made up one sixth of the total Jewish population in Palestine. The long and precipitous route from Tel Aviv to Jerusalem, after leaving the Jewish zone at Hulda, went through the foothills of Latrun. Then, the 28-kilometre route between Bab al-Wad and Jerusalem took no less than 3 hours,[42] and the route passed the vicinity of the Arab villages of Saris, Qaluniya, Al-Qastal and Deir Yassin.[43]
Siege of Jerusalem
Abd al-Qadir al-Husayni, prominent military leader during the Palestinian Civil War.
An Arab road block, at the main road to Jerusalem
Palestinian irregulars near a burnt armored Haganah supply truck, the road to Jerusalem, 1948
Jerusalem convoy, 1948
Shielded Jewish convoy during the blockade of Tel Aviv–Jerusalem road
Main article: Battle for Jerusalem (1948)

Abd al-Qadir al-Husayni arrived in Jerusalem with the intent to surround and besiege its Jewish community.[28] He moved to Surif, a village to the southwest of Jerusalem, with his supporters—around a hundred fighters who were trained in Syria before the war and who served as officers in his army, Jihad al-Muqadas, or Army of the Holy War. He was joined by a hundred or so young villagers and Arab veterans of the British Army.[44] His militia soon had several thousand men,[45] and it moved its training quarters to Bir Zeit, a town near Ramallah. Its zone of influence extended up to Lydda and Ramleh,[46] where Hasan Salama—a veteran of the 1936–1939 Arab revolt in Palestine—commanded 1,000 men and coordinated, with al-Husayni, a plan of disruption and harassment of road traffic.[47][48]

On 10 December, the first organized attack occurred when ten members of a convoy between Bethlehem and Kfar Etzion were killed.[47]

On 14 January, Abd al-Qadir himself commanded and took part in an attack against Kfar Etzion, in which 1,000 Palestinian Arab combatants were involved. The attack was a failure, and 200 of al-Husayni's men died. Nonetheless, the attack did not come without losses of Jewish lives: a detachment of 35 Palmach men who sought to reinforce the establishment were ambushed and killed.[49]

On 25 January, a Jewish convoy was attacked near the Arab village of al-Qastal.[50] The attack went badly and several villages to the northeast of Jerusalem answered a call for assistance, although others did not, for fear of reprisals.[50] The campaign for control over the roads became increasingly militaristic in nature, and became a focal point of the Arab war effort.[50] After 22 March, supply convoys to Jerusalem stopped, due to a convoy of around thirty vehicles having been destroyed in the gorges of Bab-el-Wad.[51]

On 27 March, an important supply convoy from Kfar Etzion was taken in an ambush in southern Jerusalem. They were forced to surrender all of their arms, ammunition and vehicles to al-Husayni's forces. The Jews of Jerusalem requested the assistance of the United Kingdom after 24 hours of combat. According to a British report, the situation in Jerusalem, where a food rationing system was already in application, risked becoming desperate after 15 May.[52]

The situation in other areas of the country was as critical as the one of Jerusalem. The settlements of Negev were utterly isolated, due to the impossibility of using the Southern coastal road, which passed through zones densely populated by Arabs.[52] On 27 March, a convoy of supplies (the Yehiam convoy)[29] that was intended for the isolated kibbutzim north-west of Galilee was attacked in the vicinity of Nahariya. In the ensuing battle, 42–47 Haganah combatants and around a hundred fighters of the Arab Liberation Army were killed, and all vehicles involved were destroyed.[51][52][53]
Death toll and analysis

In the last week of March alone, the losses sustained by Haganah were particularly heavy: they lost three large convoys in ambushes, more than 100 soldiers and their fleet of armoured vehicles.[29]

All in all, West Jerusalem was gradually 'choked;' the settlements of Galilee could not be reached in any other way but via the valley of Jordan and the road of Nahariya. This along with the foreseen attack of the Arab states in May and the earlier projected departure date of the British pushed Haganah to the offensive and to apply Plan Dalet from April onwards.
Intervention of foreign forces in Palestine
Arab volunteers fighting in Palestine in 1947

Violence kept intensifying with the intervention of military units. Although responsible for law and order up until the end of the mandate, the British did not try to take control of the situation, being more involved in the liquidation of the administration and the evacuation of their troops.[54][55] Furthermore, the authorities felt that they had lost enough men already in the conflict.

The British either could not or did not want to impede the intervention of foreign forces into Palestine.[56][57] According to a special report by the UN Special Commission on Palestine:[58]

During the night of 20–21 January, a troop composed of 700 Syrians in battle dress, equipped well and in control of mechanized transport, enters Palestine 'via Transjordan.'
On 27 January, 'a band of 300 men from outside Palestine, was established in the area of Safed in Galilee and was probably responsible for the intensive heavy weapon and mortar attacks the following week against the settlement of Yechiam.'
In the night of 29–30 January, a battalion commanded by Fawzi al-Qawuqji that consisted of 950 men in 19 vehicles was deployed by the Arab Liberation Army and entered Palestine 'via Adam Bridge and dispersed itself around the villages of Nablus, Jenin and Tulkarem.'

This description corresponds to the entry of Arab Liberation Army troops between 10 January and the start of March:[34]

The Second regiment of Yarmouk, under the orders of Adib Shishakli[59] entered Galilee via Lebanon on the night of 11–12 January. The battalion passed through Safed and then settled in the village of Sasa. A third of the regiment's fighters were Palestinian Arab, and a quarter were Syrian.
The 1st Yarmouk regiment, commanded by Muhammad Tzafa, entered Palestine on the night of 20–21 January, via the Bridge of Damia from Jordan and disperses around Samaria, where it established its HQ, in the Northern Samarian city of Tubas. The regiment is composed chiefly of Palestinian Arabs and Iraqis.
The Hittin regiment, commanded by Madlul Abbas, settled in the west of Samaria with its headquarters in Tulkarem.
The Hussein ibn Ali regiment provided reinforcement in Haifa, Jaffa, Jerusalem and several other cities.
The Qadassia regiment were reserves based in Jab'a.

Fawzi al-Qawuqji, Field Commander of the Arab Liberation Army, arrived, according to himself, on 4 March, with the rest of the logistics and around 100 Bosniak volunteers in Jab'a, a small village on the route between Nablus and Jenin. He established a headquarters there and a training centre for Palestinian Arab volunteers.

Alan Cunningham, the British High Commissioner in Palestine, thoroughly protested against the incursions and the fact that 'no serious effort is being made to stop incursions'. The only reaction came from Alec Kirkbride, who complained to Ernest Bevin about Cunningham's 'hostile tone and threats'.[60]

The British and the information service of Yishuv expected an offensive for 15 February, but it would not take place, seemingly because the Mufti troops were not ready.[61]

In March, an Iraqi regiment of the Arab Liberation Army came to reinforce the Palestinian Arab troops of Salameh in the area around Lydda and Ramleh, while Al-Hussayni started a headquarters in Bir Zeit, 10 km to the north of Ramallah.[62] At the same time, a number of North African troops, principally Libyans, and hundreds of members of the Muslim Brotherhood entered Palestine. In March, an initial regiment arrived in Gaza and certain militants among them reached Jaffa.
Morale of the fighters

The Arab combatants' initial victories reinforced morale among them.[63] The Arab Higher Committee was confident and decided to prevent the set-up of the UN-backed partition plan. In an announcement made to the Secretary-General on 6 February, they declared:[64]
“ The Palestinian Arabs consider any attempt by Jewish people or by whatever power or group of power to establish a Jewish state in an Arab territory to be an act of aggression that will be resisted by force [...]

The prestige of the United Nations would be better served by abandoning this plan and by not imposing such an injustice [...]
The Palestinian Arabs make a grave declaration before the UN, before God and before history that they will never submit to any power that comes to Palestine to impose a partition. The only way to establish a partition is to get rid of them all: men, women, and children.


At the beginning of February 1948, the morale of the Jewish leaders was not high: 'distress and despair arose clearly from the notes taken at the meetings of the Mapai party.'[65] 'The attacks against the Jewish settlements and main roads worsened the direction of the Jewish people, who underestimated the intensity of the Arab reaction.[66] The situation of the 100,000 Jews situated in Jerusalem was precarious, and supplies to the city, already slim in number, were likely to be stopped. Nonetheless, despite the setbacks suffered, the Jewish forces, in particular Haganah, remained superior in number and quality to those of the Arab forces.[31]
The first wave of Palestinian refugees
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Main article: 1948 Palestinian exodus

The high morale of the Arab fighters and politicians was not shared by the Palestinian Arab civilian population. The UN Palestine Commission reported 'Panic continues to increase, however, throughout the Arab middle classes, and there is a steady exodus of those who can afford to leave the country.[63] 'From December 1947 to January 1948, around 70,000 Arabs fled,[67] and, by the end of March, that number had grown to around 100,000.[33]

These people were part of the first wave of Palestinian refugees of the conflict. Mostly the middle and upper classes fled, including the majority of the families of local governors and representatives of the Arab Higher Committee.[33] Non-Palestinian Arabs also fled in large numbers. Most of them did not abandon the hope of returning to Palestine once the hostilities had ended.[68]
Policies of foreign powers

Many decisions were made abroad that had an important influence over the outcome of the conflict.
Britain and the Jordanian choice

Britain did not want a Palestinian state led by the Mufti, and opted unofficially instead, on 7 February 1948, to support the annexation of the Arab part of Palestine by Abdullah I of Jordan.[31] At a meeting in London between the commander of Transjordan's Arab Legion, Glubb Pasha, and Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs, Ernest Bevin, the two parties agreed that they would facilitate the entry of the Arab Legion into Palestine on 15 May and that the Arab part of Palestine be occupied by it. However, they held that the Arab Legion not enter the vicinity of Jerusalem or the Jewish state itself.[31] This option did not envisage a Palestinian Arab state. Although the ambitions of King Abdullah are known, it is not apparent to what extent the authorities of Yishuv, the Arab Higher Committee or the Arab League knew of this decision.
The American U-turn

In Mid-March, after the increasing disorder in Palestine and faced with the fear, later judged unfounded, of an Arab petrol embargo,[69] the American administration announced the possible withdrawal of its support for the UN's partition plan and for the dispatching of an international force to guarantee its implementation. The US, instead, suggested that Palestine be put under UN supervision.[70][71] On 1 April, the UN Security Council voted on the American proposal of a convocation of a special assembly intended to reconsider the Palestinian problem, a proposal for which the Soviets abstained from voting.[72] This U-turn from the Americans caused concern and debate among Yishuv authorities, who could not, after the withdrawal of British troops, afford to face the Arab troops without the support of the USA. In this context, Elie Sasson, the director of the Arab section of Jewish Agency, and several other personalities, ended up convincing David Ben-Gurion and Golda Meyerson to advance a diplomatic initiative towards the Arabs. The job of negotiation was delegated to Joshua Palmon, who was prohibited from limiting the Haganah's liberty of action but was authorized to declare that 'the Jewish people were ready with a truce.'[73]
The logistical support of the Eastern bloc

In the context of the embargo imposed upon Palestinian belligerents—Jewish and Arab alike—and the dire lack of goods in Palestine, Soviet premier Joseph Stalin's decision to not adhere to the embargo and to support the country by exporting Czechoslovakian goods to it played a role in the war that was differently appreciated.[74] However, Syria too bought from Czechoslovakia a quantity of arms for the Arab Liberation Army but the shipment never arrived due to Hagana force intervention.[75]

Motivations advanced as possibly being those behind Stalin's choice include his support towards the UN Partition plan and his interest in financially aiding Czechoslovakia to lessen their financial frustration after he refused to allow them to receive Marshall Plan assistance.[76]

The extent of this support and the concrete role that it played is up for debate. Figures advanced by historians tend to vary. Yoav Gelber spoke of 'small deliveries from Czechoslovakia arriving by air [...] from April 1948 onwards'[77] whereas various historians have argued that there was an unbalanced level of support in favour of Yishuv, given that the Palestinian Arabs did not benefit from an equivalent level of Soviet support.[78] In any case, the embargo that was extended to all Arab states in May 1948 by the UN Security Council caused great problems to them.[79][80]
Arab leaders' refusal of direct involvement

Arab leaders did what they possibly could to avoid being directly involved[81]' in support for the Palestinian cause.[82]

At the Arab League summit of October 1947, in Aley, the Iraqi general, Ismail Safwat, painted a realist picture of the situation. He underlined the better organization and greater financial support of the Jewish people in comparison to the Palestinians. He recommended the immediate deployment of the Arab armies at the Palestinian borders, the dispatching of weapons and ammunition to the Palestinians, and the contribution of a million pounds of financial aid to them. His proposals were rejected, other than the suggestion to send financial support, which was not followed up on. Nonetheless, a techno-military committee was established to coordinate assistance to the Palestinians. Based in Cairo, it was directed by Sawfat, who was supported by Lebanese and Syrian officers and representatives of the Higher Arab Committee. A Transjordian delegate was also appointed, but he did not participate in meetings.

At the December 1947 Cairo summit, under pressure by public opinion, the Arab leaders decided to create a military command that united all the heads of all the major Arab states, headed by Safwat. They still ignored his calls for financial and military aid, preferring to defer any decision until the end of the Mandate,[83] but, nevertheless, decide to form the Arab Liberation Army, which would go into action in the following weeks.[84] On the night of 20–21 January 1948, around 700 armed Syrians entered Palestine via Transjordan.[85] In February 1948, Safwat reiterated his demands, but they fell on deaf ears: the Arab governments hoped that the Palestinians, aided by the Arab Liberation Army, could manage on their own until the International community renounced the partition plan.[83]
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MessageSujet: Re: Moise, Y'becca et le clan des hérisson ou Avant-garde.   Mar 18 Oct à 10:23

The arms problem
Civil war beginning (until 1 April 1948)
Sten submachine gun

The Arab Liberation Army was, in theory, financed and equipped by the Arab League. A budget of one million pounds sterling had been promised to them,[86] due to the insistence of Ismail Safwat. In reality, though, funding never arrived, and only Syria truly supported the Arab volunteers in concrete terms. Syria bought from Czechoslovakia a quantity of arms for the Arab Liberation Army but the shipment never arrived due to Hagana force intervention.[75]

According to Lapierre & Collins, on the ground, logistics were completely neglected, and their leader, Fawzi al-Qawuqji, envisaged that his troops survive only on the expenses accorded to them by the Palestinian population.[87] However, Gelber says that the Arab League had arranged the supplies through special contractors.[88] They were equipped with diffent types of light weapons, light and medium-sized mortars, a number of 75 mm and 105 mm guns, and armoured vehicles but their stock of shells was small.[89][90]

The situation that the Army of the Holy War and the Palestinian forces were in was worse. They could not rely on any form of foreign support and had to get by on the funds that Mohammad Amin al-Husayni could raise. The troops' armament was limited to what the fighters already had. To make things even worse, they had to be content with arms bought on the black market or pillaged from British warehouses, and, as a result, did not really have enough arms to wage war.[91]

Until March, Haganah suffered also a lack of arms. The Jewish fighters benefitted from a number of clandestine factories that manufactured some light weapons,[92] ammunition and explosives. The one weapon of which there was no shortage was locally produced explosives.[93] However, they had far less than what was necessary to carry out a war: in November, only one out of every three Jewish combatants was armed, rising to two out of three within Palmach.[94]

The Hagana sent agents to Europe and to the USA, in order to arm and equip this army. To finance all of this, Golda Meir managed, by the end of December, to collect $25 million through a fundraising campaign set about in the USA to capitalize on American sympathisers to the Zionist cause.[95] Out of the 129 million US dollars raised between October 1947 and March 1949 for the Zionist cause, more than $78 million, over 60%, were used to buy arms and munition.[96]
Haganah on the offensive (1 April – 15 May 1948)

A leased transport plane was used for the Operation Balak first arms ferry flight from Czechoslovakia on the end of March 1948. At the beginning of April 1948, a shipment of thousands of rifles and hundreds of machine guns arrived at Tel Aviv harbor. With this big shipment, the Hagana could supply weapons to a concentrated effort, without taking over the arms of other Jewish territory and risking them being with no weapons.[97] The Hagana went into the offensive, although still lacking heavy weapons.
Later

After the Arab states invasion at 15 May, during the first weeks of the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, the arms advantage leant in favour of the Arab states. From June, onwards, there was also a flow of heavy arms. From June, after the first truce, the advantage leant clearly towards the Israelis. This situation's changing was due to the contacts made in November 1947 and afterwards.

The Yishuv purchased rifles, machine guns and munitions from Czechoslovakia,[97][98] which were mainly supplied after the British navy blockade was lifted on 15 May 1948, at the end of the British mandate.[90] The Yishuv obtained from Czechoslovakia a supply of Avia S-199 fighter planes too[99] and, later on in the conflict, Supermarine Spitfires. In the stockpiles left over from World War II, the Yishuv procured all the necessary equipment, vehicles and logistics needed for an army. In France, they procured armoured vehicles despite the ongoing embargo.[100] The Yishuv bought machines to manufacture arms and munitions, forming the foundations of the Israeli armament industry.[101]

The Yishuv bought at the United States, bombers and transport aircraft, which during Operation Balak were used to ferry arms and dismantled Avia S-199 fighter planes from Czechoslovakia to Israel, in defiance of the U.N embargo, for 3 months, starting at 12 May 1948.[102] Some ships were also leased out from various European ports so that these goods could be transported by 15 May.

However, for Ben-Gurion, the problem was also constructing an army that was worthy to be a state army.[103]
Reorganisation of Haganah
Theatre of Operation of each Haganah brigade.

After 'having gotten the Jews of Palestine and of elsewhere to do everything that they could, personally and financially, to help Yishuv,' Ben-Gurion's second greatest achievement was his having successfully transformed Haganah from being a clandestine paramilitary organization into a true army.[104] Ben-Gurion appointed Israel Galili to the position of head of the High Command counsel of Haganah and divided Haganah into 6 infantry brigades, numbered 1 to 6, allotting a precise theatre of operation to each one. Yaakov Dori was named Chief of Staff, but it was Yigael Yadin who assumed the responsibility on the ground as chief of Operations. Palmach, commanded by Yigal Allon, was divided into 3 elite brigades, numbered 10–12, and constituted the mobile force of Haganah.[105] Ben-Gurion's attempts to retain personal control over the newly formed IDF lead later in July to The Generals' Revolt.

On 19 November 1947, obligatory conscription was instituted for all men and women aged between 17 and 25. By end of March 21,000 people had been conscripted.[106][107] On 30 March the call-up was extended to men and single women aged between 26 and 35. Five days later a General Mobilization order was issued for all men under 40.[108]

"From November 1947, the Haganah, (...) began to change from a territorial militia into a regular army. (...) Few of the units had been well trained by December. (...) By March–April, it fielded still under-equipped battalion and brigades. By April–May, the Haganah was conducting brigade size offensive.[109]
Plan Dalet
Main article: Plan Dalet
Yaakov Dori, Haganah's Chief of Staff, and his right-hand man, Yigael Yadin, Chief of Operations.

Plan Dalet was finalized on 10 March 1948, under the direction of Yigael Yadin. 75 pages long, it laid down the rules and the objects that were to be followed by Haganah during the second phase of the war. Its principal objective was to secure Yishuv's uninterrupted territorial connections, particularly in response to the war of the roads carried out by Al-Hussayni and in preparation for the Arab states' declared intervention. Plan Dalet caused quite a controversy among historians. Some see it as a plan that was primarily defensive and military in nature and a preparation against invasion,[110] whereas others think that the plan was offensive in nature and aimed at conquering as much of Palestine as possible.[111]
Haganah offensive (1 April – 15 May 1948)

The second phase of the war, which began in April, marked a huge change in direction, as Haganah moved to the offensive.

In this stage, Arab forces were composed of around 10,000 men among which between 3,000 and 5,000 foreign volunteers serving in the Arab Liberation Army.[112][113][114] Haganah and Palmach forces were steadily increasing. In March, they aligned around 15,000 men[115] and in May around 30,000 who were better equipped, trained and organized.[116][117][118]

The armed Palestinian groups were roundly defeated, Yishuv took control of some of the principal routes that linked the Jewish settlements, and as a consequence, Jerusalem was able to receive supplies again. Palestinian society collapsed. Many mixed cities were taken by the Haganah as well as Jaffa. A massive exodus was triggered.
Operation Nachshon (2–20 April)
Main article: Operation Nachshon
Theatre of operations
Haganah soldier in Al-Qastal on 5 April 1948.
Palestinian irregulars of the Holy War Army, approaching al-Qastal village near Jerusalem to take it back from Palmach.

At the end of March 1948, Hussayni's troops prevented supply convoys from reaching Jerusalem. The city was besieged and the Jewish population was forced to adhere to a rationing system. Ben-Gurion decided to launch the operation Nachshon to open up the city and provide supplies to Jerusalem.[119] Operation Nachshon marked the Haganah shift to the offensive, even before launching plan D.[120]

The first orders were given on 2 April 1948 with diversion attacks including Qastel.[121] Between 5–20 April 1500 men from the Givati and Harel brigades took control of the road to Jerusalem[122] and allowed 3 or 4 convoys to reach the city.[123]

The operation was a military success. All the Arab villages that blocked the route were either taken or destroyed, and the Jewish forces were victorious in all their engagements. Nonetheless, not all the objectives of the operation were achieved, since only 1800 tonnes of the 3,000 envisaged were transported to the city, and two months of severe rationing had to be assumed.[124]

Abd al-Qadir al-Husayni was killed during the night of 7–8 April, in the midst of the battles taking place in Al-Qastal. The loss of this charismatic Palestinian leader 'disrupted the Arab strategy and organization in the area of Jerusalem.'[125] His successor, Emil Ghuri, changed tactics: instead of provoking a series of ambushes throughout the route, he had a huge road block erected at Bab al-Wad, and Jerusalem was once again isolated as a consequence.[126]

Operation Nachshon exposed the poor military organization of the Palestinian paramilitary groups. Due to lack of logistics, particularly food and ammunition, they were incapable of maintaining engagements that were more than a few hours away from their permanent bases.[127]

Faced with these events, the Arab Higher Committee asked Alan Cunningham to allow the return of the Mufti, the only person capable of redressing the situation. Despite obtaining permission, the Mufti did not get to Jerusalem. His declining prestige cleared the way for the expansion of the influence of the Arab Liberation Army and of Fawzi Al-Qawuqji in the Jerusalem area.[127]
The Battle of Mishmar HaEmek (4–15 April)
Women training at Mishmar HaEmek
Jewish soldiers at the entry of the Mishmar Ha'emek, 1948
Main article: Battle of Mishmar HaEmek

Mishmar HaEmek is a kibbutz that was founded by Mapam in 1930, in the Jezreel Valley, close to the road between Haifa and Jenin that passes the Megiddo kibbutz. It is situated in a place that Haganah officers considered to be on one of the most likely axes of penetration for a 'major Arab attack' against the Yishuv.[128][129]

On 4 April, the Arab Liberation Army launched an attack on the kibbutz with the support of artillery. The attack was fought off by the members of the kibbutz, who were supported by Haganah soldiers. The artillery fire that had almost totally destroyed the kibbutz was stopped by a British column, who arrived on the scene by order of General MacMillan, and, on 7 April, Fawzi Al-Qawuqji accepted a 24-hour ceasefire, but required that the kibbutz be surrendered. The inhabitants of the kibbutz evacuated their children, and, after having consulted Tel Aviv, refused to surrender.[129][130]

On 8 or 9 April, Haganah prepared a counter-offensive. Yitzhak Sadeh was put in charge of operations, with the order to 'clean out' the region. The battle lasted until 15 April. Sadeh's men besieged all the villages around the kibbutz, and the Arab Liberation Army had to retreat to its bases in Jabba. The majority of the inhabitants of the region fled, but those who did not were either imprisoned or expelled to Jenin. The villages were plundered by some kibbutznikim and razed to the ground with explosives with accordance to Plan Dalet[131] · .[132]

According to Morris, the Arab Liberation Army soldiers were demoralized by reports of the Deir Yassin massacre and the death of Abd al-Qadir al-Husayni. Throughout battle, they had generally been forced to withdraw and to abandon the people of the villages.[133] Dominique Lapierre and Larry Collins report that Joshua Palmon, head of a unit of 6 men, failed to seize invaluable pieces of artillery, and they depict the events[? clarification needed] as a débâcle for which Fawzi Al-Qawuqji offered extravagant excuses, declaring in particular that the Jewish forces has 120 tanks, six squadrons of fighter and bomber aircraft and that they were supported by a regiment of gentile Russian volunteers.[134] According to Morris, "according to Ben-Gurion, some 640 Haganah soldiers had faced about twenty-five hundred ALA troops, with superior firepower—and bested them".[135] When the battle finished, Palmach forces continued 'cleaning' operations until 19 April, destroying several villages and forcing those who inhabited them to flee. Some villages were also evacuated under the instruction of Arab authorities.[136]

In May, Irgun engaged in several operations in the region, razing a number of villages and killing some of their inhabitants, as did some detachments from the Golani and Alexandroni brigades.[137]
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MessageSujet: Re: Moise, Y'becca et le clan des hérisson ou Avant-garde.   Mar 18 Oct à 10:23

The Language poets (or L=A=N=G=U=A=G=E poets, after the magazine of that name) are an avant garde group or tendency in United States poetry that emerged in the late 1960s and early 1970s. The poets included: Leslie Scalapino, Stephen Rodefer, Bruce Andrews, Charles Bernstein, Ron Silliman, Barrett Watten, Lyn Hejinian, Bob Perelman, Rae Armantrout, Carla Harryman, Clark Coolidge, Hannah Weiner, Susan Howe, and Tina Darragh.

Language poetry emphasizes the reader's role in bringing meaning out of a work. It played down expression, seeing the poem as a construction in and of language itself. In developing their poetics, members of the Language school took as their starting point the emphasis on method evident in the modernist tradition, particularly as represented by Gertrude Stein, William Carlos Williams, and Louis Zukofsky. Language poetry is an example of poetic postmodernism. Its immediate postmodern precursors were the New American poets, a term including the New York School, the Objectivist poets, the Black Mountain School, the Beat poets, and the San Francisco Renaissance.

Certain aspects of the writing of language poets became strongly associated with the members of this group: writing that challenged the "natural" presence of a speaker behind the text; writing that emphasized disjunction and the materiality of the signifier; and prose poetry, especially in longer forms than had previously been favored by English-language writers, as well as other non-traditional and usually non-narrative forms.

Language poetry has been a controversial topic in American letters from the 1970s to the present. Even the name has been controversial: while a number of poets and critics have used the name of the journal to refer to the group, many others have chosen to use the term, when they used it at all, without the equals signs. The terms "language writing" and "language-centered writing" are also commonly used, and are perhaps the most generic terms. None of the poets associated with the tendency has used the equal signs when referring to the writing collectively. Its use in some critical articles can be taken as an indicator of the author's outsider status.[1]

Online writing samples of many language poets can be found on internet sites, including blogs and sites maintained by authors and through gateways such as the Electronic Poetry Center, PennSound, and UbuWeb.

Contents

1 History
2 Poetics of language writing: theory and practice
2.1 Language poetry in the early 21st century
3 See also
4 Further reading
4.1 Anthologies
4.2 Books: Poetics and Criticism
4.3 Books: Cross-genre & Cultural writing
4.4 Articles
5 External links

History

The movement has been highly decentralized. On the West Coast, an early seed of language poetry was the launch of This magazine, edited by Robert Grenier and Watten, in 1971. L=A=N=G=U=A=G=E, edited by Bruce Andrews and Charles Bernstein, ran from 1978 to 1982, and was published in New York. It featured poetics, forums on writers in the movement, and themes such as "The Politics of Poetry" and "Reading Stein." Ron Silliman's poetry newsletter Tottel's (1970–81),[2] Bruce Andrews's selections in a special issue of Toopick (1973), as well as Lyn Hejinian's editing of Tuumba Press, and James Sherry's editing of ROOF magazine also contributed to the development of ideas in language poetry. The first significant collection of language-centered poetics was the article, "The Politics of the Referent," edited by Steve McCaffery for the Toronto-based publication, Open Letter (1977).

In an essay from the first issue of This, Grenier declared: "I HATE SPEECH". Grenier's ironic statement (itself a speech act), and a questioning attitude to the referentiality of language, became central to language poets. Ron Silliman, in the introduction to his anthology In the American Tree, appealed to a number of young U.S. poets who were dissatisfied with the work of the Black Mountain and Beat poets.

"I HATE SPEECH" — Robert Grenier

"Thus capitalized, these words in an essay entitled "On Speech," the second of five short critical pieces by Robert Grenier in the first issue of This, the magazine he cofounded with Barrett Watten in winter, 1971, announced a breach - and a new moment in American writing.

Ron Silliman[3]

The range of poetry published that focused on "language" in This, Tottel's, L=A=N=G=U=A=G=E, and also in several other key publications and essays of the time, established the field of discussion that would emerge as Language (or L=A=N=G=U=A=G=E) poetry.

During the 1970s, a number of magazines published poets who would become associated with the Language movement. These included A Hundred Posters (edited by Alan Davies), Big Deal, Dog City, Hills, Là Bas, MIAM, Oculist Witnesses, QU, and Roof. Poetics Journal, which published writings in poetics and was edited by Lyn Hejinian and Barrett Watten, appeared from 1982 to 1998. Significant early gatherings of Language writing included Bruce Andrews's selection in Toopick (1973); Silliman's selection "The Dwelling Place: 9 Poets" in Alcheringa, (1975), and Charles Bernstein's "A Language Sampler," in The Paris Review (1982).

Certain poetry reading series, especially in New York, Washington, D.C. and San Francisco, were important venues for the performance of this new work, and for the development of dialogue and collaboration among poets. Most important were Ear Inn reading series in New York, founded in 1978 by Ted Greenwald and Charles Bernstein and later organized through James Sherry's Segue Foundation and curated by Mitch Highfill, Jeanne Lance, Andrew Levy, Rob Fitterman, Laynie Brown, Alan Davies, and others; Folio Books in Washington, D.C., founded by Doug Lang; and the Grand Piano reading series in San Francisco, which was curated by Barrett Watten, Ron Silliman, Tom Mandel, Rae Armantrout, Ted Pearson, Carla Harryman, and Steve Benson at various times.

Poets, some of whom have been mentioned above, who were associated with the first wave of Language poetry include: Rae Armantrout, Stephen Rodefer (1940-2015), Steve Benson, Abigail Child, Clark Coolidge, Tina Darragh, Alan Davies, Carla Harryman, P. Inman, Lynne Dryer, Madeline Gins, Michael Gottlieb, Fanny Howe, Susan Howe, Jackson Mac Low (1922—2004), Tom Mandel, Bernadette Mayer, Steve McCaffery, Michael Palmer, Ted Pearson, Bob Perelman, Nick Piombino, Peter Seaton (1942—2010), Joan Retallack, Erica Hunt, James Sherry, Jean Day, Kit Robinson, Ted Greenwald, Leslie Scalapino (1944—2010), Diane Ward, Rosmarie Waldrop, and Hannah Weiner (1928—1997). This list accurately reflects the high proportion of female poets across the spectrum of the Language writing movement.[4] African-American poets associated with the movement include Hunt, Nathaniel Mackey, and Harryette Mullen.
Poetics of language writing: theory and practice

Language poetry emphasizes the reader's role in bringing meaning out of a work. It developed in part in response to what poets considered the uncritical use of expressive lyric sentiment among earlier poetry movements. In the 1950s and 1960s, certain groups of poets had followed William Carlos Williams in his use of idiomatic American English rather than what they considered the 'heightened,' or overtly poetic language favored by the New Criticism movement. New York School poets like Frank O'Hara and the Black Mountain group emphasized both speech and everyday language in their poetry and poetics.

In contrast, some of the Language poets emphasized metonymy, synecdoche and extreme instances of paratactical structures in their compositions, which, even when employing everyday speech, created a far different texture. The result is often alien and difficult to understand at first glance, which is what Language poetry intends: for the reader to participate in creating the meaning of the poem.[5]

Watten's & Grenier's magazine This (and This Press which Watten edited), along with the magazine L=A=N=G=U=A=G=E, published work by notable Black Mountain poets such as Robert Creeley and Larry Eigner. Silliman considers Language poetry to be a continuation (albeit incorporating a critique) of the earlier movements. Watten has emphasized the discontinuity between the New American poets, whose writing, he argues, privileged self-expression, and the Language poets, who see the poem as a construction in and of language itself. In contrast, Bernstein has emphasized the expressive possibilities of working with constructed, and even found, language.

Gertrude Stein, particularly in her writing after Tender Buttons, and Louis Zukofsky, in his book-length poem A, are the modernist poets who most influenced the Language school. In the postwar period, John Cage, Jackson Mac Low, and poets of the New York School (John Ashbery, Frank O'Hara, Ted Berrigan) and Black Mountain School (Robert Creeley, Charles Olson, and Robert Duncan) are most recognizable as precursors to the Language poets. Many of these poets used procedural methods based on mathematical sequences and other logical organising devices to structure their poetry. This practice proved highly useful to the language group. The application of process, especially at the level of the sentence, was to become the basic tenet of language praxis. Stein's influence was related to her own frequent use of language divorced from reference in her own writings. The language poets also drew on the philosophical works of Ludwig Wittgenstein, especially the concepts of language-games, meaning as use, and family resemblance among different uses, as the solution to the Problem of universals.
Language poetry in the early 21st century

In many ways, what Language poetry is is still being determined. Most of the poets whose work falls within the bounds of the Language school are still alive and still active contributors. During the late 1980s and early 1990s, Language poetry was widely received as a significant movement in innovative poetry in the U.S., a trend accentuated by the fact that some of its leading proponents took up academic posts in the Poetics, Creative Writing and English Literature departments in prominent universities (University of Pennsylvania, SUNY Buffalo, Wayne State University, University of California, Berkeley, University of California, San Diego, University of Maine, the Iowa Writers' Workshop).

Language poetry also developed affiliations with literary scenes outside the States, notably England, Canada (through the Kootenay school of writing in Vancouver), France, the USSR, Brazil, Finland, Sweden, New Zealand, and Australia. It had a particularly interesting relation to the UK avant-garde: in the 1970s and 1980s there were extensive contacts between American Language poets and veteran UK writers like Tom Raworth and Allen Fisher, or younger figures such as Caroline Bergvall, Maggie O'Sullivan, cris cheek, and Ken Edwards (whose magazine Reality Studios was instrumental in the transatlantic dialogue between American and UK avant-gardes). Other writers, such as J.H. Prynne and those associated with the so-called "Cambridge" poetry scene (Rod Mengham, Douglas Oliver, Peter Riley) were perhaps more skeptical about language poetry and its associated polemics and theoretical documents, though Geoff Ward wrote a book about the phenomena.

A second generation of poets influenced by the Language poets includes Eric Selland (also a noted translator of modern Japanese poetry), Lisa Robertson, Juliana Spahr, the Kootenay School poets, Conceptual Writing, Flarf collectives, and many others.

A significant number of women poets, and magazines and anthologies of innovative women's poetry, have been associated with language poetry on both sides of the Atlantic. They often represent a distinct set of concerns. Among the poets are Leslie Scalapino, Madeline Gins, Susan Howe, Lyn Hejinian, Carla Harryman, Rae Armantrout, Jean Day, Hannah Weiner, Tina Darragh, Erica Hunt, Lynne Dreyer, Harryette Mullen, Beverly Dahlen, Johanna Drucker, Abigail Child, and Karen Mac Cormack; among the magazines HOW/ever, later the e-based journal HOW2; and among the anthologies Out of Everywhere: Linguistically Innovative Poetry by Women in North America & the UK, edited by Maggie O'Sullivan for Reality Street Editions in London (1996) and Mary Margaret Sloan's Moving Borders: Three Decades of Innovative Writing by Women (Jersey City: Talisman Publishers, 1998).

The Grand Piano describes itself as "an experiment in collective autobiography". It was begun over email by ten poets, each of whom was at one time involved with running the reading series at the Haight Street, San Francisco, coffee house by that name, who sought to reconnect their writing practices and to "recall and contextualize events from the period of the late 1970s."[6] The Grand Piano consists of ten parts, in each of which the ten authors appear in a different sequence, often responding to prompts and problems arising in the series. One additional member of the project, Alan Bernheimer, served as an archivist and contributed one essay on the filmmaker Warren Sonbert.

Some poets, such as Norman Finkelstein, have stressed their own ambiguous relationship to "Language poetry", even after decades of fruitful engagement. Finkelstein, in a discussion with Mark Scroggins about The Grand Piano, points to a "risk" when previously marginalized poets try to write their own literary histories, "not the least of which is a self-regard bordering on narcissism".[7]
See also

List of poetry groups and movements
List of literary movements

Further reading
Anthologies

Allen, Donald, ed. The New American Poetry 1945-1960. New York: Grove Press, 1960.
Andrews, Bruce, and Charles Bernstein, eds. The "L=A=N=G=U=A=G=E" Book. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1984.
Bernstein, Charles, ed. "Language Sampler," Paris Review, 1982
"43 Poets (1984)." boundary 2
The Politics of Poetic Form: Poetry and Public Policy. New York: Roof, 1990.
Hejinian, Lyn and Barrett Watten, eds.."A Guide to Poetics Journal: Writing in the Expanded Field, 1982–1998." Wesleyan University Press, 2013
Hoover, Paul, ed. Postmodern American Poetry: A Norton Anthology. New York: Norton, 1994.
Messerli, Douglas, ed. Language Poetries. New York: New Directions, 1987.
Silliman, Ron, ed. In the American Tree. Orono, Me.: National Poetry Foundation, 1986; reprint ed. with a new afterword, 2002. An anthology of language poetry that serves as a very useful primer.

Books: Poetics and Criticism

Andrews, Bruce. Paradise and Method. Evanston: Northwestern University Press, 1996.
Beach, Christopher, ed. Artifice and Indeterminacy: An Anthology of New Poetics. Tuscaloosa: The University of Alabama Press, 1998
Bernstein, Charles. Content's Dream: Essays 1975-1984. Los Angeles: Sun & Moon Press, 1985
A Poetics. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1992
My Way; Speeches and Poems. University of Chicago Press, 1999
Attack of the Difficult Poems: Essays and Inventions. University of Chicago Press, 2011
"Pitch of Poetry." University of Chicago Press, 2016.
Davies, Alan. Signage. New York: Roof Books, 1987.
Friedlander, Ben. Simulcast: Four Experiments in Criticism. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 2004.
Hartley, George. Textual Politics and the Language Poets. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1989.
Hejinian, Lyn. The Language of Inquiry. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2000.
Howe, Susan. My Emily Dickinson. Berkeley: North Atlantic Books, 1988. Rpt, New Directions, 2007.
The Birth-Mark: Unsettling the Wilderness in American Literary History. Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press, 1993.
Huk, Romana, ed. Assembling Alternatives: Reading Postmodern Poetries Transnationally. Middletown, Conn.: Wesleyan University Press, 2003.
Lutzkanova-Vassileva, Albena, "The Testimonies of Russian and American Postmodern Poetry: Reference, Trauma, and History." New York: Bloomsbury, 2013
McCaffery, Steve. North of Intention: Critical Writings 1973-1986. New York: Roof Books, 1986.
Prior to Meaning: The Protosemantic and Poetics. Evanston: Northwestern UP, 2001.
Perelman, Bob. The Marginalization of Poetry: Language Writing and Literary History. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1996.
Piombino, Nick. Boundary of Blur. New York: Roof Books, 1993
Theoretical Objects. Green Integer Press, 1999.
Ratcliffe, Stephen. Listening to Reading. Abany, NY: State University of New York Press, 2000
Reinfeld, Linda. Language Poetry: Writing as Rescue. Baton Rouge: LSU Press, 1992.
Silliman, Ron. The New Sentence. New York: Roof Books, 1987. An early collection of talks and essays that situates language poetry into contemporary political thought, linguistics, and literary tradition. See esp. section II.
Scalapino, Leslie. How Phenomena Appear to Unfold. Elmwood: Potes & Poets, 1989.
Objects in the Terrifying Tense / Longing from Taking Place. Roof Books, 1994.
The Public World / Syntactically Impermanence. Wesleyan University Press, 1999.
How Phenomena Appear to Unfold. Litmus Press, 2011.
Vickery, Ann. Leaving Lines of Gender: A Feminist Genealogy of Language Writing. Middletown, Conn.: Wesleyan University Press, 2000.
Ward, Geoff. Language Poetry and the American Avant-Garde. Keele: British Association for American Studies, 1993.
Watten, Barrett. The Constructivist Moment: From Material Text to Cultural Poetics. Middletown, Conn.: Wesleyan University Press, 2003. See esp. chaps. 2 and 3.
Total Syntax. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1984.

Books: Cross-genre & Cultural writing

Armantrout, Rae. True. Berkeley, CA: Atelos | (Small Press Distribution), 1998. ISBN 978-1-891190-03-2
Armantrout, Rae. Collected Prose. San Diego: Singing Horse, 2007.
Davies, Alan. Candor. Berkeley, CA, 1990.
Perelman, Bob, et al.. The Grand Piano: An Experiment in Collective Autobiography. Detroit, MI: Mode A/This Press, 2006. ISBN 978-0-9790198-0-7 - this work is described as an ongoing experiment in collective autobiography by ten writers[8] identified with Language poetry in San Francisco. The project will consist of 10 volumes in all.
Piombino, Nick. Fait Accompli. Queens, NY: Factory School, 2006.
Scalapino, Leslie. Zither & Autobiography. Middletown, CT: Wesleyan, 2003.
Silliman, Ron. Under Albany. Cambridge, UK: Salt Publishing, 2004. ISBN 978-1-84471-051-5
Watten, Barrett. Bad History. Berkeley, CA: Atelos | Small Press Distribution, 1998. ISBN 978-1-891190-02-5

Articles

Bruce Andrews, "L=A=N=G=U=A=G=E," in The Little Magazine in Contemporary America, ed. Ian Morris and Joanne Diaz (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2015) [9]
Charles Bernstein, "The Expanded Field of L=A=N=G=U=A=G=E," Routledge Companion to Experimental Literature, ed. Joe Bray, Alison Gibbons, Brian McHale (2012)
Michael Greer, "Ideology and Theory in Recent Experimental Writing or, the Naming of "Language Poetry," boundary 2, Vol. 16, No. 2/3 (Winter - Spring, 1989), pp. 335–355
Perloff, Marjorie. "The Word as Such: LANGUAGE: Poetry in the Eighties." American Poetry Review (May–June 1984), 13(3):15-22.[10]
Bartlett, Lee, "What is 'Language Poetry'?" Critical Inquiry 12 (1986): 741-752. Available through JStor.

Michael Greer's article, "Ideology and Theory in Recent Experimental Writing or, the Naming of 'Language Poetry,'" boundary 2, Vol. 16, No. 2/3 (Winter - Spring, 1989), pp. 335-355; and in Bob Perelman, The Marginalization of Poetry; Lyn Hejinian, The Language of Inquiry; Barrett Watten, The Constructivist Moment; Ron Silliman, The New Sentence; and Charles Bernstein, My Way: Speeches and Poems.
available on-line at the Eclipse archive, link here: Tottel's Magazine
"Introduction: Language, Realism, Poetry," In The American Tree (See below "Further reading: Anthologies")
Ann Vickery (2000), Leaving Lines of Gender: A Feminist Genealogy of Language Writing, Wesleyan University Press
See, for example, Ronald Johnson's RADI OS in L=A=N=G=U=A=G=E, volume 1.
for additional details, commentary, and links see Barrett Watten's piece How The Grand Piano Is Being Written and James Sherry's commentaries in Jacket The Ten-Tone Scale
Mark Scroggin, "The Toy Piano", Culture Industry blog, with commentary by Norman Finkelstein
The ten writers are Bob Perelman, Barrett Watten, Steve Benson, Carla Harryman, Tom Mandel, Ron Silliman, Kit Robinson, Lyn Hejinian, Rae Armantrout, and Ted Pearson. This book further describes itself as follows: "It takes its name from a coffeehouse at 1607 Haight Street, where from 1976-79 the authors took part in a reading and performance series. The writing project, begun in 1998, was undertaken as an online collaboration, first via an interactive web site and later through a listserv"
this article on line link here

this article on line link here

External links

Introduction to *Language Poetries,* New Directions, 1987, with 2003 afterword b Douglas Messerli
On First Looking into Wikipedia's "Language" by Barrett Watten
'Meaning, Unmeaning and the Poetics of L=A=N=G=U=A=G=E' -- an article by Suman Chakraborty
Electronic Poetry Center
L=A=N=G=U=A=G=E Magazine online archive
Bruce Andrews-edited issue of Toothpick
The Dwelling Place: 9 Poets Ron Silliman-edited issue of Alcheringa
Index for full run of This magazine
THE POETICS OF L=A=N=G=U=A=G=E by Bruce Andrews
In the Un-American Tree( The L=A=N=G=U=A=G=E Poetries and Their Aftermath, with a Special Reference to Charles Bernstein Translated ). This piece by Leevi Lehto was presented as one of the Keynote Addresses at the opening session of International Conference on 20th Century American Poetry, hosted by Central China Normal University, Wuhan, China, July 21, 2007
Silliman's Blog: A weblog focused on contemporary poetry and poetics
Charles Bernstein author page and web log
New Poetics Colloquium proceedings (1985)
Bleed-Over and Decadence, or: No Bones About It, They're Talking About Language Poetry by poet Robert Archambeau which first appeared on his blog.
The Grand Piano website devoted to the 10 volumes of "Collective Autobiography" by 10 of the so-called "West Coast" group of Language poets.
Geoff Ward, Language Poetry and the American Avant-Garde (1993)
Andrew Epstein, "Verse vs. Verse: The Language Poets are taking over the academy. But will success spoil their integrity?" (Lingua Franca, Sept. 2000: 45-54)
Jerome McGann, "Contemporary Poetry, Alternate Routes" a piece by Jerome McGann
"This L=A=N=G=U=A=G=E" by Kate Lilley essay by Kate Lilley @ Jacket Magazine site
Language Poetry: Dissident Practices and the Makings of a Movement links to 7 articles by Eleana Kim & an extensive bibliography of articles & books relating to Language writing
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MessageSujet: Re: Moise, Y'becca et le clan des hérisson ou Avant-garde.   Mar 18 Oct à 10:24

Deir Yassin massacre
Main article: Deir Yassin massacre

Deir Yassin is a village located 5 kilometres west of Jerusalem. On 9 April 1948, independently of operation Nachshon, around 120 Irgun and Lehi men attacked the village. They massacred between 100 and 120 inhabitants of the village, mostly civilians.[138] The Haganah had approved the attack and assisted in it, but was not involved in the massacre.[138]

The massacre led to indignation from the international community, the more so since the press of the time reported that the death toll was 254. Ben-Gurion roundly condemned it,[139] as did the principal Jewish authorities: the Haganah, the Great Rabbinate and the Jewish Agency for Israel, who sent a letter of condemnation, apology and condolence to King Abdullah I of Jordan.[140]

According to Morris, "the most important immediate effect of the atrocity and the media campaign that followed it was how one started to report the fear felt in Palestinian towns and villages, and, later, the panicked fleeing from them."[140] Another important repercussion was within the Arab population of neighbouring Arab states, which, once again, increased its pressure on the representatives of these states to intervene and come to the aid of the Palestinian Arabs.[140][141]
Hadassah medical convoy massacre
Main article: Hadassah medical convoy massacre

On 13 April, partly in revenge for the Deir Yassin massacre, a convoy that was driving towards Jerusalem's Hadassah Hospital on Mount Scopus was attacked by hundreds of Arabs. In the seven-hour battle 79 Jews were killed including doctors and patients.[75] Thirteen British soldiers were present, but they stood by, only putting in a perfunctory attempt at intervention in the last moments of the massacre.[142]

Lieutenant-Colonel Jack Churchill was present at the scene, and later testified that he had attempted to assist the Hadassah convoy by radioing for support, only for the request to be turned down.[143]
The Battle of Ramat Yohanan and the defection of the Druze

Following the 'fiasco'[144] of Mishmar HaEmek, Fawzi Al-Qawuqji ordered the Druze regiment of the Arab Liberation Army into action, to carry out diversion operations. Druze soldiers took position in several Arab villages 12 kilometres to the east of Haifa,[145] whence they occasionally attacked traffic and Jewish settlements, including Ramat Yohanan.[137]

The Kibbutznikim and the Haganah soldiers that supported them forced back their attacks and razed the villages from which they launched their attacks. Having run out of ammunition, the Druze withdrew to their base in Shefa-'Amr, with one hundred casualties.[146][147] After an initial failure, a battalion-sized Carmeli force on the night of 15–16 April overran the two villages. The Druze Battalion, on 16 April assaulted the Carmeli positions nine times but the Carmeli troops fought back. By afternoon, the exhausted Druze troops retreated. An Haganah report praised “the well trained and very brave enemy forces.”[148]

The Druze had already made contact on several occasions with Yishuv agents and following their defeat at Ramat Yohanan, the Druze officers offered to defect and to join the ranks of Haganah. This proposition was discussed with Yigael Yadin, who refused the proposal but suggested that they could help to carry out sabotage operations behind the backs of the Arabs and to influence their comrades into deserting the army. By the start of May, 212 Wahab soldiers deserted. Taking into account the attitude of his men, Wahab met with Jewish liaison officers on 9 May and agreed to cooperate with Haganah. The two parties avoided clashes, and Wahab created a neutral enclave in the centre of Galilee. Wahab's army did not respond to calls for it to help fight Haganah's occupation of Acre, and avoided being present while Haganah occupied the police fortress of Shefa-'Amr during its evacuation by the British.[146]

The position that the Druze took influenced their fate after the war. Given the good relationship between the Druze and Yishuv from 1930 onwards despite their collaboration with the Arab Higher Council and the Arab League, Ben-Gurion insisted that the Druze, as well as the Circassians and the Maronites benefit from a different position to that of the other Arabs.[149]
The siege of mixed localities

In the context of Plan Dalet[citation needed], mixed urban centres, or those on the borders of the Jewish state, were attacked and besieged by Jewish forces. Tiberias was attacked on 10 April and fell six days later; Haifa fell on 23 April, after only one day of combat (Operation Bi'ur Hametz), and Jaffa was attacked on 27 April but fell only after the British abandoned it (Operation Hametz). Safed and Beisan (Operation Gideon) fell on 11 May and 13 May respectively, within the framework of Operation Yitfah, and Acre fell on 17 May, within the framework of Operation Ben-Ami.

The Arab inhabitants of these towns fled or were expelled en masse. In these 6 cities, only 13,000 of the total of 177,000 Arab inhabitants remained by the end of May. This phenomenon ricocheted also in the suburbs and the majority of the zone's Arab villages.
Operation Yiftah (20 April – 24 May)
Main article: Operation Yiftach
Theatre of operations

Galilee Panhandle, a zone in northeastern Galilee, between the Lake Tiberias and Metula, was the Jewish-controlled area that was the most distant and isolated from the area most densely populated by Jews, the coastal plain. The presence of the Lebanese border to the north, the Syrian border to east and the Arab presence in the rest of Galilee made it a probable target for intervention of the Arab armies.[150] Within the framework of the Dalet plan, Yigael Yadin entrusted Yigal Allon, commander of the Palmach, with the responsibility of managing Operation Yiftah, whose objectives were to control all the aforementioned area and consolidate it ahead of the Arab attack that was planned for 15 May.[151]

Allon was in charge the 1st and 3rd Palmach battalions, which had to face the populace of Safed and several dozen Arab villages. The situation was made more problematic by the presence of the British, although they began their evacuation of the area. According to his analysis, it was essential that they empty the zone of any Arab presence to completely protect themselves; the exodus would also encumber the roads that the Arab forces would have to penetrate.[152]

On 20 April, Allon launched a campaign that mixed propaganda, attacks, seizing control of strongholds that the British had abandoned, and destroying conquered Arab villages. On 1 May, a counter-offensive was launched by Arab militiamen against Jewish settlements but was ultimately unsuccessful. On 11 May, Safed fell, and the operation finished on 24 May after the villages of the valley of Hula were burnt down. Syrian forces' planned offensive in the area failed and, by the end of June, Galilee panhandle from Tiberias to Metula, incorporating Safed, was emptied of all its Arab population.[153]
Meeting of Golda Meir and King Abdullah I of Jordan (10 May)
Golda Meir in 1943

On 10 May, Golda Meir and Ezra Danin secretly went to Amman, to the palace of King Abdullah to discuss the situation with him. The situation that Abdullah found himself in was difficult. On one hand, his personal ambitions, the promises made by the Yishuv in November 1947[citation needed] and the British approval of these promises pushed him to consider annexing the Arab part of Palestine without intervening against the future state of Israel. On the other hand, the pressure exerted by his people in reaction to the massacre of Deir Yassin, combined with their feelings with regard to the Palestinian exodus and his agreements with other members of the Arab League pushed him to be more strongly involved in the war against Israel.[154] He also found himself in a position of power, having the benefit of military support from not only the Arab League, but the British. In his diary, Ben-Gurion wrote about Golda Meir's reaction to the meeting:
“ We met [on 10 May] amicably. He was very worried and looks terrible. He did not deny that there had been talk and understanding between us about a desirable arrangement, namely that he would take the Arab part [of Palestine]. (...) But Abdullah had said that he could now, on 10 May, only offer the Jews "autonomy" within an enlarged Hashemite kingdom. He added that while he was not interested in invading the areas allocated for Jewish statehood, the situation was volatile. But he voiced the hope that Jordan and the Yishuv would conclude a peace agreement once the dust had settled. ”

[155]

Historical analyses of the motivations and conclusions of this meeting differ. According to Dominique Lapierre and Larry Collins – as well as Israeli historiographers[156] – the intention behind the Yishuv's negotiation was to obtain a peace treaty and avoid an attack by Arab forces. At that time, the balance of power was not favourable for them, but Meir did not manage to convince the King.
King Abdullah of Jordan

According to Morris,[157] Abdullah 'reconsidered the promises that he made in November to not be opposed to the partition plan,' but left Meir with the impression that he would make peace with the Jewish state once the civil war had finished.

Avi Shlaim[31] spoke of a 'tacit' agreement to prevent the division of Palestine with the Palestinians, arguing the idea that there was a collusion between the Hashemite Kingdom and Yishuv. The historian Yoav Gelber, however, rejected this idea and devoted an entire work to dismounting it.[158]

Pierre Razoux indicated that 'the majority of experts consider it probable'[better source needed] that Ben-Gurion and King Abdullah had an understanding over dividing Palestine, and that only the pressure from the Arab states on Abdullah constrained him from following up on his promise. According to Razoux, this idea explains the attitude of the British, who, following this plan, would thereby fulfill the promises made by Arthur Balfour to the Yishuv and the Hashemite empire at the same time. He states that the presence of Arab Legion troops, before 15 May, near strategic positions held by the British is in this way easy to understand.[159]

Ilan Pappé[160] stressed that neither Abdullah's ministers, nor the Arab world itself, seemed to be privy to the discussions held between him and the Yishuv, even if his ambitions on Palestine were widely known. He also stated that Sir Alec Kirkbride and Glubb Pasha thought at the time that, at the very least, Azzam Pasha, the Secretary of the Arab League, must have known about Abdullah's double game.

It is certain, on the other hand, that Golda Meir and King Abdullah did not come to an agreement on the status of Jerusalem. On 13 May, the Arab Legion took Kfar Etzion,[161] strategically located halfway along the road between Hebron and Jerusalem. On 17 May, Abdullah ordered Glubb Pasha, commander of the Arab Legion, to launch an attack against the Holy City.
Kfar Etzion massacre
Main article: Kfar Etzion massacre
Theatre of operations
Jewish prisoners taken after the fall of Gush Etzion

Kfar Etzion is a group of four settlements established on the strategic route between Hebron and Jerusalem, right in the middle of Arab inhabited territory. It had 400 inhabitants at the end of 1947. After the adoption of Resolution 181(II), it was the object of Arab attacks. Ben-Gurion reinforced it on 7 December, protecting it with a Palmach division, but on 8 January, he authorized the evacuation of the women and children of the settlements.

After 26 March, the last date on which a supply convoy successfully reached it, despite heavy losses of life, the defenders were completely isolated.

On 12 May, Arab Legion units started to attack the settlements. The motivations advanced include their desire to protect one of their last supply convoys before the embargo took effect, which had to travel down the road by Kfar Etzion. Another theory is that the block of settlements obstructed the deployment of the Legion in the area around Hebron, whose attack was one of Abdullah's principal objectives.[162] External defences fell quickly, and, on 13 May, the first kibbutz was captured, and those who were taken prisoner were massacred; only four survived.[163][164] Of the 131 defenders, 127, including 21 women, were killed, or massacred after they surrendered.[165] The other three establishments surrendered, and the kibbutzim were first plundered, then razed to the ground. In March 1949 320 prisoners from the Etzion settlements were released from the "Jordan POW camp at Mafrak", including 85 women.[166]

The events that took place at Kfar Etzion made apparent the limitations of the policy prohibiting evacuation. Although it was effective during civil war, when facing militias, isolated Jewish settlements could not resist the firepower of a regular army, and an evacuation could have made it possible to avoid the captivity or death of those who defended the settlements.[163]

According to Yoav Gelber, the fall and massacre of Kfar Etzion influenced Ben-Gurion's decision to engage the Arab Legion on its way to Jerusalem, although the Haganah General Staff were divided about whether the Legion should be challenged inside Jerusalem itself as such a move could harm the Jews in the city. Ben-Gurion left the final decision to Shaltiel. The battle for Jerusalem was thus set in motion.[163]
Jerusalem: Operations Yevusi & Kilshon ("Pitchfork") (13–18 May)
Palmach soldiers attack the San Simon monastery in Katamon, Jerusalem, April 1948 (battle reconstruction)
Bevingrad, centre of the British security zone in Jerusalem
Main article: Operation Yevusi
Main article: Operation Kilshon

Operation Yevusi lasted two weeks, from 22 April 1948 to 3 May 1948. Not all objectives were achieved before the British enforced a cease-fire. A Palmach force occupied the strategically located San Simon monastery in Katamon. Arab irregulars attacked the monastery and a heavy battle evolved. Both sides had a lot of wounded and killed fighters. The Palmach considered a retreat while the wounded fighters would blow themselves up, but then it was realized that the Arab force was exhausted and could not continue the fighting. As a result, the Arab residents left the suburb and the southern besieged Jewish suburbs were released.[167]

The Haganah intended to capture the Old City during the final days of the Mandate.[168] Its attacks on the seam between East and West Jerusalem from 13–18 May (known as Operation Kilshon) were planned as the initial phase of this conquest.[168]

In Jerusalem, the British held several strategically located security zones named "Bevingrads", at its centre. The city's radio station, telephone exchange and government hospital were located there, along with a number of barracks and the Notre Dame hostel, which dominated the city.[169] One of the main objectives of Operation Kilshon was to take control of these zones of strategic importance while the British withdrew. On 13 May the Haganah extended its control of the Old City's Jewish Quarter and on 14th (having obtained the precise schedule of the evacuation with British complicity) took control of the Bevingrads, including the central post office and the Russian Church compound at 04:00.[168][170] They surprised the Arab troops, who offered no resistance.[171]

A secondary objective of Operation Kilshon was to simultaneously create a continuous frontline between the various isolated Jewish localities. For this aim, Brigadier General David Shaltiel, Haganah's former envoy to Europe, was deployed along with a troop of 400 Haganah soldiers and 600 militia soldiers. Emil Ghuri, the new leader of the Army of the Holy War, also envisaged taking these districts and mobilized 600 soldiers for the mission, but prepared no specific operation.

The secondary aim was also successful. In the North of the city, Jewish forces seized Arab-populated Sheikh Jarrah, made a connection with Mount Scopus, and took the villages surrounding the American colony.[168] In the South, they ensured the connection of the German and Greek colonies with Talpiot and Ramat Rahel, after having taken the Allenby barracks. A Palmach unit even re-established contact with the Jewish district in the Old City via the Zion Gate.[172]

The irregular Arabic forces were rendered impotent and yielded to panic, calling the situation hopeless and announcing the imminent fall of the city.[173]
Operation Ben-Ami (13–22 May)
Theatre of operations
Main article: Operation Ben-Ami
Air dropping supplies to besieged Yehiam, 1948

Within the framework of Plan Dalet, Yigael Yadin intended to make a breakthrough in the west of Galilee, wherein a number of isolated Jewish settlements were situated. This zone, which covers the land from Acre all the way to the Lebanese border, was allocated to the Arabs by the Partition plan, but was on the road through which Lebanese forces intended to enter into Palestine.[174]

The command of this operation was entrusted to Moshe Carmel, head of the Carmeli brigade. It consisted of two phases: the first began on the evening of 13 May, when a column of Haganah's armoured vehicles and lorries advanced along the coast with no resistance. The forces of the Arab Liberation Army fled without entering battle, and the first phase of the operation finished when Acre was taken on 18 May. In the second phase, from 19 May to 21 May, troops went as far as the Yehi'am kibbutz by the Lebanese border, connecting it and conquering and destroying a number of Arab villages on the way.[175]
Main wave of the Palestinian Arab exodus
Main articles: 1948 Palestinian exodus and Causes of the 1948 Palestinian exodus
Palestinian Arab refugees in 1948

Haganah's move to offensive operations during the second phase of the war was accompanied by a huge exodus that involved 350,000 Arab refugees, adding to the 100,000 displaced during the First wave. The term 'Palestinian exodus' is often used to refer to both these and two subsequent waves. These two waves gained a considerable amount of press interest and were widely relayed in the press of the time, more so than most other Palestine-related events.[176]

The causes of and responsibility for this exodus are highly controversial topics among commentators on the conflict and even historians who specialize in this era. Among the various possible causes, Efraim Karsh attributes the exodus mainly to Arab authorities' instructions to escape,[177] whereas others argue that a policy of expulsion had been organized by the Yishuv authorities and implemented by Haganah.[178] Others yet reject these two assumptions and see the exodus as the cumulative effect of all the civil war's consequences.[179]
Preparations made by the Arab League

During the last meeting of the Arab League in February 1948, the Arab leaders expressed their convictions in the capacity of the Arab Liberation Army to help the Palestinians and to force the international community to give up on the UN-backed partition plan.[83] The following summit took place in Cairo on 10 April, with the situation having clearly developed with the death of Al-Hussayni and the debacle at Mishmar Ha'emek.

Once again, Ismail Safwat called for the immediate deployment of the Arab state armies at the borders of Palestine, and for the need to go beyond the established policy of participating in little more than small-scale raids towards taking part in large-scale operations. For the first time, the Arab leaders discussed the possibility of intervening in Palestine.[180]

Syria and Lebanon declared themselves ready to intervene immediately, but King Abdullah refused to let the Arab Legion forces intervene immediately in favour of the Palestinians, a move which irritated the Secretary-General of the League, who declared that Abdallah only cedes to the British diktat.

Nonetheless, Abdullah declared himself ready to send the Legion to assist the Palestinian cause after 15 May. In response, Syria insisted that the Egyptian army also take part, and, in spite of the opposition of Egypt's prime minister, King Farouk responded favourably to the Syrian request, but due to his aim of curbing the Jordanians' hegemonic goals rather than his desire to help the Palestinians.[180]

Later on, following the visit of several Palestinian dignitaries in Amman, and despite the opposition of Syria and the Mufti, Haj Amin al-Husseini, Azzam Pasha accepted Abdullah's proposition and sent Ismail Safwat to Amman to organize a coordination between the Arab Liberation Army and Jordan's Arab Legion. It was decided that command over the operations would be reserved for King Abdullah, and that the Iraqis would deploy a brigade in Transjordan to prepare for intervention on 15 May.[181]

On 26 April, the 'intention to occupy Palestine' was officially announced at the Transjordanian parliament and the Jewish people were 'invited to place themselves beneath King Abdullah's jurisdiction.' The intention to spare their lives was also promised. Yishuv perceived this declaration as being one of war and encourages the Western world to pressure the King, through diplomatic means, to prevent his intervention.[182]

On 30 April, Jordanians, Egyptians and Iraqis disputed the command of Abdullah. Abdullah received the honorary title of Commander-in-Chief, while the Iraqi general, Aldine Nur Mahmud, was named Chief of Staff. Despite this show of unity, it was agreed that each army would act independent of each other in the theatre of operations.[183]

On 4 May, the Iraqi task force arrived at Mafraq. It was composed of a regiment of armoured tanks, a regiment of mechanized infantry, and twenty-four artillery weapons, and included 1500 men.[184] The Egyptians formed two brigades, deploying around 700 men into the Sinai.[185] The Syrians could not put together a better force, whereas the Lebanese announced that they could not take part in military operations on 10 May.

It was only two days before, on 8 May, that the British Foreign Office was certain of the Arab invasion. Whereas British analysts considered that all Arab armies, except the Arab Legion, were not prepared for the engagements to come,[186] the Egyptian officers claimed that their advance would be 'a parade with the least risk,' and that their army 'would be in Tel Aviv after just two weeks.'

The state of preparation of the army was such that they did not even have maps of Palestine.[187] At the time, the final plans of invasion had not even been established yet. British leaders tried in vain to make the Arab leaders reconsider their decision,[188] and Ismail Safwat resigned in indifference, but the Arab states seemed resolute. On 15 May 1948, the Arab League announced officially that it would intervene in Palestine to guarantee the security and right to self-determination of the inhabitants of Palestine in an independent state.[189]
Results and aftermath
Zones controlled by Yishuv by 20 May 1948, with comparison to zones held some five months earlier.

According to Benny Morris, the result of these five and a half months of fighting was a "decisive Jewish victory". On one side, the "Palestinian Arab military power was crushed" and most of the population in the combat zones was fleeing or had been driven out. On the other side, the "Haganah transformed from a militia into an army" and succeeded "in consolidating its hold on a continuous strip of territory embracing the Coastal Plain, the Jezreel Valley, and the Jordan Valley". The Yishuv proved it had the capability to defend itself, persuading the United States and the remainder of the world to support it and the "victory over the Palestinian Arabs gave the Haganah the experience and self-confidence [...] to confront [...] the invading armies of the Arab states."[190]

Although the Haganah was a poorly armed ragtag Jewish militia, its offensive of the last weeks went well because Arab villages did not came to the help of their neighboring Arab villages or towns. Moreover, only few young Arab men from untouched areas (e.g. Nablus, Hebron) participated in the fighting in Jerusalem, Haifa etc.[191] Anwar Nusseibeh, a supporter of the Mufti, said the Mufti refused to issue arms to anyone except his loyal supporters and only recruited loyal supporters for the forces of the Holy War Army. This partially accounts for the absence of an organized Arab force and for the insufficient amount of arms, which plagued the Arab defenders of Jerusalem.[192]

On 14 May 1948, David Ben-Gurion, on behalf of the Jewish leadership, declared the establishment of a Jewish state in Eretz Israel, to be known as the State of Israel.[193] The 1948 Palestine war entered its second phase with the intervention of the Arab state armies and the beginning of the 1948 Arab-Israeli War.
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MessageSujet: Re: Moise, Y'becca et le clan des hérisson ou Avant-garde.   Mar 18 Oct à 10:25

Poetry groups and movements or schools may be self-identified by the poets that form them or defined by critics who see unifying characteristics of a body of work by more than one poet. To be a 'school' a group of poets must share a common style or a common ethos. A commonality of form is not in itself sufficient to define a school; for example, Edward Lear, George du Maurier and Ogden Nash do not form a school simply because they all wrote limericks.

There are many different 'schools' of poetry. Some of them are described below in approximate chronological sequence. The subheadings indicate broadly the century in which a style arose.

Contents

1 Prehistoric
2 Sixteenth century
3 Seventeenth century
4 Eighteenth century
5 Nineteenth century
6 Twentieth century
7 Alphabetic list
8 References

Prehistoric

The Oral tradition is too broad to be a strict school but it is a useful grouping of works whose origins either predate writing, or belong to cultures without writing.
Sixteenth century

The Castalian Band.
Seventeenth century

The Metaphysical poets

The Cavalier poets

The Danrin school
Eighteenth century

Classical poetry echoes the forms and values of classical antiquity. Favouring formal, restrained forms, it has recurred in various Neoclassical schools since the eighteenth century Augustan poets such as Alexander Pope.
Nineteenth century

Pastoralism was originally a Hellenistic form, that romanticized rural subjects to the point of unreality. Later pastoral poets like William Wordsworth, were inspired by the classical pastoral poets such as Edmund Spenser, Christopher Marlowe.

The Parnassians were a group of late 19th-century French poets, named after their journal, the Parnasse contemporain. They included Charles Leconte de Lisle, Théodore de Banville, Sully-Prudhomme, Paul Verlaine, François Coppée, and José María de Heredia. In reaction to the looser forms of romantic poetry, they strove for exact and faultless workmanship, selecting exotic and classical subjects, which they treated with rigidity of form and emotional detachment.

Romanticism started in late 18th century Western Europe, but existed largely within the nineteenth. Wordsworth's and Coleridge's 1798 publication of Lyrical Ballads is considered by some as the first important publication in the movement. Romanticism stressed strong emotion, imagination, freedom within or even from classical notions of form in art, and the rejection of established social conventions. It stressed the importance of "nature" in language and celebrated the achievements of those perceived as heroic individuals and artists. Romantic poets include William Blake, William Wordsworth, Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Lord Byron, Percy Bysshe Shelley, and John Keats (those previous six sometimes referred to as the Big Six, or the Big Five without Blake); other Romantic poets include James Macpherson, Robert Southey, and Emily Brontë.

Symbolism started in the late nineteenth century in France and Belgium. It included Paul Verlaine, Tristan Corbière, Arthur Rimbaud, and Stéphane Mallarmé. Symbolists believed that art should aim to capture more absolute truths which could be accessed only by indirect methods. They used extensive metaphor, endowing particular images or objects with symbolic meaning. They were hostile to "plain meanings, declamations, false sentimentality and matter-of-fact description".

Modernist poetry is a broad term for poetry written between 1890 and 1970 in the tradition of Modernism. Schools within it include Imagism and the British Poetry Revival.

The Fireside Poets (also known as the Schoolroom or Household Poets) were a group of 19th-century American poets from New England. The group is usually described as comprising Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, William Cullen Bryant, John Greenleaf Whittier, James Russell Lowell, and Oliver Wendell Holmes, Sr..
Twentieth century

The Imagists were (predominantly young) poets working in England and America in the early 20th century, including F. S. Flint, T. E. Hulme, Richard Aldington and Hilda Doolittle (known primarily by her initials, H.D.). They rejected Romantic and Victorian conventions, favoring precise imagery and clear, non-elevated language. Ezra Pound formulated and promoted many precepts and ideas of Imagism. His "In a Station of the Metro" (Roberts & Jacobs, 717), written in 1916, is often used as an example of Imagist poetry:

The apparition of these faces in the crowd;
Petals on a wet, black bough.

The Objectivists were a loose-knit group of second-generation Modernists from the 1930s. They include Louis Zukofsky, Lorine Niedecker, Charles Reznikoff, George Oppen, Carl Rakosi, and Basil Bunting. Objectivists treated the poem as an object; they emphasised sincerity, intelligence, and the clarity of the poet's vision.

The Harlem Renaissance was a cultural movement in the 1920s involving many African-American writers from the New York Neighbourhood of Harlem.

The Beat generation poets met in New York in the 1940s. The core group were Jack Kerouac, Allen Ginsberg, and William S. Burroughs, who were joined later by Gregory Corso.

The Confessionalists were American poets that emerged in the 1950s. They drew on personal history for their artistic inspiration. Poets in this group include Sylvia Plath, Anne Sexton, John Berryman, and Robert Lowell.

The New York School was an informal group of poets active in 1950s New York City whose work was said to be a reaction to the Confessionalists. Some major figures include John Ashbery, Frank O'Hara, James Schuyler, Kenneth Koch, Barbara Guest, Joe Brainard, Ron Padgett, Ted Berrigan and Bill Berkson.

The Black Mountain poets (also known as the Projectivists) were a group of mid 20th century postmodern poets associated with Black Mountain College in the United States.

The San Francisco Renaissance was initiated by Kenneth Rexroth and Madeline Gleason in Berkeley in the late 1940s. It included Robert Duncan, Jack Spicer, and Robin Blaser. They were consciously experimental and had close links to the Black Mountain and Beat poets.

The Movement was a group of English writers including Kingsley Amis, Philip Larkin, Donald Alfred Davie, D. J. Enright, John Wain, Elizabeth Jennings and Robert Conquest. Their tone is anti-romantic and rational. The connection between the poets was described as "little more than a negative determination to avoid bad principles."

The British Poetry Revival was a loose movement during the 1960s and 1970s. It was a Modernist reaction to the conservative Movement.

The Hungry generation was a group of about 40 poets in West Bengal, India during 1961–1965 who revolted against the colonial canons in Bengali poetry and wanted to go back to their roots. The movement was spearheaded by Shakti Chattopadhyay, Malay Roy Choudhury, Samir Roychoudhury, and Subimal Basak.

The Martian poets were English poets of the 1970s and early 1980s, including Craig Raine and Christopher Reid. Through the heavy use of curious, exotic, and humorous metaphors, Martian poetry aimed to break the grip of "the familiar" in English poetry, by describing ordinary things as if through the eyes of a Martian.

The Language poets were avant garde poets from the last quarter of the 20th century. Their approach started with the modernist emphasis on method. They were reacting to the poetry of the Black Mountain and Beat poets. The poets included: Leslie Scalapino, Bruce Andrews, Charles Bernstein, Ron Silliman, Barrett Watten, Lyn Hejinian, Bob Perelman, Rae Armantrout, Carla Harryman, Clark Coolidge, Hannah Weiner, Susan Howe, and Tina Darragh.

The Misty Poets are a group of Chinese poets whose style is defined by the obscurity of its imagery and metaphors. The movement was born after the Cultural Revolution. Leading members include Bei Dao, Gu Cheng, Duo Duo, and Yang Lian.

The New Formalism is a late-twentieth and early twenty-first century movement in American poetry that promotes a return to metrical and rhymed verse. Rather than looking to the Confessionalists, they look to Robert Frost, Richard Wilbur, James Merrill, Anthony Hecht, and Donald Justice for poetic influence. These poets are associated with the West Chester University Poetry Conference, and with literary journals like The New Criterion and The Hudson Review. Associated poets include Dana Gioia, Timothy Steele, Mark Jarman, Rachel Hadas, R. S. Gwynn, Charles Martin, Phillis Levin, Kay Ryan, Brad Leithauser.
Alphabetic list

This is a list of poetry groups and movements.

Absurdism
Aestheticism
Black Arts Movement
Cairo poets
Chhayavaad
Classical Chinese poetry
Crescent Moon Society
Cyclic Poets
Dadaism
Danrin school
Deep image
Della Cruscans
Dymock poets
Fugitives (poets)
Generation of '27



Georgian poets
Goliard
Graveyard poets
The Group (literature)
Harlem Renaissance
Harvard Aesthetes
Heptanese School (literature)
Lake Poets
La Pléiade
Los Contemporáneos
Misty Poets
Modern Chinese poetry
Négritude
Neotericism
Net-poetry
New Apocalyptics



Nijō poetic school
Others (art group)
Oulipo
Poetic transrealism
Rhymers' Club
Rochester Poets
Scottish Renaissance
Sicilian School
Poetry Slam
Sons of Ben
Southern Agrarians
Spasmodic poets
Spectrism
Surrealist poets
The poets of Elan
Uranian poetry
Vitalist poetry

References
This article does not cite any sources. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (May 2010) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
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v t e

Schools of poetry

Akhmatova's Orphans Angry Penguins Auden Group The Beats Black Arts Movement Black Mountain poets British Poetry Revival Cairo poets Castalian Band Cavalier poets Chhayavaad Churchyard poets Confessionalists Créolité Cyclic Poets Dada Deep image Della Cruscans Dolce Stil Novo Dymock poets Ecopoetry The poets of Elan Flarf Fugitives Garip Gay Saber Generation of '27 Generation of the '30s Generation of '98 Georgian poets Goliard The Group Harlem Renaissance Harvard Aesthetes Hungry generation Imagism Informationist poetry Jindyworobaks Lake Poets Language poets Martian poetry Metaphysical poets Misty Poets Modernist poetry The Movement Négritude Neotericism New American Poetry New Apocalyptics New Formalism New York School Objectivists Others Parnassian poets La Pléiade Quantum Sheep Rhymers' Club San Francisco Renaissance Scottish Renaissance Sicilian School Sons of Ben Southern Agrarians Spasmodic poets Sung poetry Surrealism Symbolism Uranian poetry

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MessageSujet: Re: Moise, Y'becca et le clan des hérisson ou Avant-garde.   Mar 18 Oct à 10:25

T.G Fraser, 'The Arab Israeli Conflict', (Basingstoke, Palgrave Mcmillan, 2004),pp.40,41
Yoav Gelber (2006), p. 85
Benny Morris, The Birth of the Palestinian Refugee Problem Revisited, 2004, p. 35
Resolution 181 (II). Future government of Palestine A/RES/181(II)(A+B) 29 November 1947 Archived 17 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
Benny Morris (2008), p. 180 and further
Morris,2008, pp. 236,237,247,253, 254
Melvin I. Urofsky (January 1982). A voice that spoke for justice: the life and times of Stephen S. Wise. SUNY Press. pp. 282–. ISBN 978-0-87395-538-6. Retrieved 3 May 2011.
Charles Herbert Levermore; Denys Peter Myers (1921). Yearbook of the League of Nations. The Brooklyn Daily Eagle. pp. 63–. Retrieved 3 May 2011.
Henry Laurens, La Question de Palestine, volume 2, Fayard, Paris 2002 pp.571-572.
Walid Khalidi. "Before their Diaspora." IPS 1984. ISBN 0-88728-143-5. p. 253. Benny Morris, The Birth of the Palestinian refugee problem, 1947–1949, 2004 p. 343. Morris gives no precise date or number of casualties but describes the house as "suspected of being an Arab terrorist headquarters." He also states that on 20 May 1947 the Palamach blew up a coffee house in Fajja after the murder of two Jews in Petah Tikva.
Morris 2004 p.343:9 December 1947, the Givati brigade blew up a house in the village of Karatiyya; on 11 December a house was blown up in Haifa's Wadi Rishmiya neighbourhood. On 18 December 1947, two houses were destroyed by the Palmach in a raid on Khisas in the Galilee; On 19 December, the house of the mukhtar of Qazaza was partially demolished to revenge the murder of a Jew; On December 26, several houses were blown up in Silwan; on 27 December 3 houses were blown up in Yalu; On 4 January 1948 Etzioni blew up the Christian-owned Semiramis Hotel in Jerusalem's Katamon quarter.
"A/RES/181(II) of 29 November 1947". domino.un.org. 1947. Retrieved 11 January 2012.
Extracts from Time Magazine of that time Archived 19 December 2010 at WebCite
Yoav Gelber (2006), p. 17
This expression is taken from Ilan Pappé (2000), p. 111
Benny Morris (2003), p. 65
Ilan Pappé (2000), p. 111
Morris 2008, p. 76
Efraïm Karsh (2002), p. 30
Benny Morris (2003), p. 101
B. Morris, 2004, The Birth of the Palestinian refugee problem revisited, p. 66
The Palestine Post of 31 December 1947: Archives of the newspaper Archived 19 December 2010 at WebCite
Benny Morris (2008), p. 101
Yoav Gelber (2006), p. 24
Efraïm Karsh (2002), p. 36
The Times, 1 March 1948
Newspapers of the time: The Palestine Post, 1 April 1948 and The Times, on the same day, attribute the incident to Lehi.
Dominique Lapierre et Larry Collins (1971), chap. 7, pp. 131–153
Benny Morris (2003), p. 163
Khalidi, Walid (1998). "Selected Documents on the 1948 Palestine War" (PDF). p. 70.
Henry Laurens (2005), p. 83
Dominique Lapierre et Larry Collins (1971), p. 163
Benny Morris (2003), p. 67
Yoav Gelber (2006), pp. 51–56
Benny Morris (2008), p. 112
Ilan Pappe (2006), p. 72.
Yoav Gelber (2004), p. 67
Special UN report by the United Nations Special Commission (16 February 1948), § II.5 Archived 19 December 2010 at WebCite
Efraïm Karsh (2002), p. 34
Yoav Gelber (2006), p. 8
Yoav Gelber (2006), p. 28
Dominique Lapierre et Larry Collins (1971), p. 214
Dominique Lapierre et Larry Collins (1971), pp. 122–123
Yoav Gelber (2006), pp. 36–37
Efraïm Karsh (2002), p. 27
Yoav Gelber (2006), p. 37
Yoav Gelber (2006), p. 26
Efraïm Karsh (2002), p. 26
Efraïm Karsh (2002), p. 38
Yoav Gelber (2006), p. 27
Pierre Razoux (2006), p. 66
Efraïm Karsh (2002), p. 40
Benny Morris (2003), p. 254
United Nations Special Commission (16 February 1948), § II.9.c
Dominique Lapierre and Larry Collins (1971), p. 185
This policy would change; at the end of the mandate, the High Commissioner, Alan Cunningham, opposed the deployment of Arab Legion troops into the territory and threatened the Arab states with RAF intervention if they grouped their forces around the border or crossed it. (Yoav Gelber (2006), p. 115)
L. Carl Brown, Diplomacy in the Middle East: The International Relations of Regional and Outside powers, I.B.Tauris, 2004, pp. 26-27.
United Nations Special Commission (16 February 1948), § II.7
Shishakli would seize the power in Syria between 29 October 1951 and 25 February 1954 (Henry Laurens (2005), pp. 115–116)
Yoav Gelber (2006), p. 51
Yoav Gelber (2006), p. 55
Yoav Gelber (2006), p. 56
United Nations Special Commission (16 February 1948), § II.7.3
United Nations Special Commission (16 February 1948), § II.6
Ilan Pappé (2000), p. 113
Ilan Pappé (2000), p. 113, quoting Milstein, Milhemet, vol. 2, p. 47
Ilan Pappé (2000), p. 125
Yoav Gelber (2006), p.77
Henry Laurens (2005), p. 84
Yoav Gelber (2006), p.71
Benny Morris (2003), p. 13
See the entry at 1 April 1948 Archived 19 December 2010 at WebCite
Yoav Gelber (2006), pp. 71–73
See here
Yoav Gelber (1 January 2006). Palestine 1948: War, Escape And The Emergence Of The Palestinian Refugee Problem. Sussex Academic Press. p. 50. ISBN 978-1-84519-075-0. Retrieved 13 July 2013. "The ALA’s diverse supply sources created a bizarre arsenal that caused serious logistic problems and rendered maintenance an impossible task. Munitions were often of low quality, damaging the barrels and failing to function when necessary. In December 1947 Syria bought a quantity of small arms from the Skoda plant in Czechoslovakia for the ALA. Jewish saboteurs blew up the ship that carried the cargo to the Middle East and sank it in the Italian port of Bari. The arms were later salvaged and reshipped in August 1948 to Syria — this time for arming Palestinian combatants — but the Israeli navy intercepted the freight and seized the weapons."
For a discussion of the motivation of Czech aide, check L'aide militaire tchèque à Israël, 1948 Archived 19 December 2010 at WebCite
Yoav Gelber (2006), p. 14
See for example the résumé of an article by Arnold Krammer L'aide militaire tchèque à Israël, 1948. Archived 19 December 2010 at WebCite
Yoav Gelber (2006), p. 13
17 April 1948 resolution Archived 19 December 2010 at WebCite
This term is important. Pappé underlined that they were not ready 'to have their own troops intervene' in the conflict, but that they would rather follow other solutions, such as delegating the task to a voluntary force, like the Arab Liberation Army, that they financed.
Ilan Pappé (2000), p. 146
Ilan Pappé (2000), p. 147
Yoav Gelber (2006), p. 5
UN Security Council 270th meeting report Archived 19 December 2010 at WebCite
Dominique Lapierre et Larry Collins (1971), p. 137
Dominique Lapierre et Larry Collins (1971), p. 305
Yoav Gelber (1 January 2006). Palestine 1948: War, Escape And The Emergence Of The Palestinian Refugee Problem. Sussex Academic Press. p. 52. ISBN 978-1-84519-075-0. Retrieved 13 July 2013. "to avoid dependence on the population for supplies, and preclude possible intimidation of locals to donate provisions, the League’s military committee had arranged to furnish the troops’ rations through special contractors. This semblance of logistics apparently marked significant progress in comparison with the 1936—9 rebellion. Introducing medical services for the combatants and the population made an impression on both the British and the Jews."
Benny Morris (2008), p.90.
Yoav Gelber (1 January 2006). Palestine 1948: War, Escape And The Emergence Of The Palestinian Refugee Problem. Sussex Academic Press. p. 13. ISBN 978-1-84519-075-0. Retrieved 13 July 2013. "The British blockade of the Palestinian coast prevented any substantial increase of these quantities until mid-May. Concurrently, the Arabs succeeded in smuggling into the country small arms that their emissaries had purchased in neighbouring countries. The ALA brought a certain number of support arms and a few artillery pieces and armoured vehicles. Although the gap narrowed, the picture did not materially change, and the Haganah continued to maintain its relative edge."
Yoav Gelber (2006), p. 38
http://www.עמותת-חיל-החימוש.co.il/?section=217#_ftn19 produced sten sub machine guns, 2" and 3" mortars and ammunition
Dov Joseph, The Faithful City – The Siege of Jerusalem 1948. Library of Congress number 60 10976. p. 8: "For example, all the land mines used against Rommel came from Jewish factories in Palestine."
Efraïm Karsh (2002), p. 25
Dominique Lapierre et Larry Collins (1971), Chap. 12
Benny Morris (2003), p. 240
Morris,2008,p.117, "The first shipment—of two hundred rifles, forty MG-34 machine guns, and 160,000 bullets—secretly landed during the night of 31 March–1 April at a makeshift airfield at Beit Daras in a chartered American Skymaster cargo plane.29 A second and far larger shipment, covered with onions and potatoes— of forty-five hundred rifles and two hundred machine guns, along with five million bullets—arrived at Tel Aviv port aboard the Nora on 2 April. (A third shipment—consisting of ten thousand rifles, 1,415 machine guns, and sixteen million rounds— reached the Yishuv by sea on 28 April.) Before this, the Haganah high command had had to “borrow” weapons from local units for a day or two for specific operations, and the units (and settlements) were generally reluctant to part with weapons, quite reasonably arguing that the Arabs might attack while the weapons were on loan. Now, at last, the Haganah command had at hand a stockpile of thousands of weapons that it could freely deploy. The two shipments proved decisive. As Ben-Gurion put it at the time, “After we have received a small amount of the [Czech] equipment . . . the situation is radically different in our favor.” Without doubt, of all the shipments that subsequently reached the Yishuv, none was to have greater immediate impact or historical significance."
Dominique Lapierre et Larry Collins (1971), et pp. 108–109
Walid Khalidi, Before Their Diaspora, Institute for Palestine Studies, Washington DC, 1991, p. 316 rapporté par Issa Fahel by Gary D. Keenan Archived 19 December 2010 at WebCite
Pierre Razoux (2006), p.79 et p. 523
Dominique Lapierre et Larry Collins (1971), pp. 109–113
Dominique Lapierre et Larry Collins (1971), pp. 375–376
Pierre Razoux (2006), pp. 96, 575
Ilan Pappé (2000), p.79
Efraïm Karsh (2002), p. 31
Joseph, pp. 23, 38. Gives the date of the call-up as 5 December.
Ilan Pappé (2000), p. 80
Levin, pp. 32, 117. Pay £P2 per month. c.f. would buy 2 lbs. of meat in Jerusalem, April 1948. p. 91.
Benny Morris (2003), pp. 16–17
Plan D – Master Defense Plan of the Hagana Archived 19 December 2010 at WebCite
Walid Khalidi (5 June 1996). "Islam, the West, and Jerusalem". American Committee on Jerusalem. Archived from the original on 16 July 2006. Retrieved 23 July 2011.
Benny Morris, in the Birth revisited, 2003, p. 34.
Yoav Gelber, Palestine 1948, 2006, p. 51
Ilan Pappe, The ethnic cleansing of Palestine, 2006, p. 44
David Tal, War in Palestine 1948, 2004, p. 362
Benny Morris, in the Birth revisited, 2003, p. 16.
Yoav Gelber, Palestine 1948, 2006, p.73.
Ilan Pappe, The ethnic cleansing of Palestine, 2006, p. 44 gives the number of 50,000 with 30,000 fighting forces.
Dominique Lapierre et Larry Collins (1971), p. 369
Benny Morris (2008). 1948: a history of the first Arab-Israeli war. Yale University Press. p. 116. Retrieved 13 July 2013. "At the time, Ben-Gurion and the HGS believed that they had initiated a one-shot affair, albeit with the implication of a change of tactics and strategy on the Jerusalem front. In fact, they had set in motion a strategic transformation of Haganah policy. Nahshon heralded a shift from the defensive to the offensive and marked the beginning of the implementation of tochnit dalet (Plan D)—without Ben-Gurion or the HGS ever taking an in principle decision to embark on its implementation."
Yoav Gelber 2006, p. 83
Dominique Lapierre et Larry Collins (1971), p. 372
Benny Morris (Benny Morris (2003), p. 236) speaks of 3 resupply convoys but Lapierre and Collins (Dominique Lapierre et Larry Collins (1971), p. 456) speak of a fourth convoy of 300 lorries that left Kfar Biou on the dawn of 20 April.
Dominique Lapierre et Larry Collins (1971), p. 457
Dominique Lapierre et Larry Collins (1971), p. 455
Dominique Lapierre et Larry Collins (1971), p. 456
Yoav Gelber (2006), p. 89
Yoav Gelber (2006), p. 403
Benny Morris (2003), p. 240
Dominique Lapierre et Larry Collins (1971), p. 426
Benny Morris (2003), pp. 242–243
Benny Morris (2003), The destruction of the Arab villages, pp. 342-360.
Benny Morris (2003), p. 242
Dominique Lapierre et Larry Collins (1971), p. 427
Benny Morris (2008). 1948: A History of the First Arab–Israeli War. Yale University Press. p. 136. ISBN 9780300145243. "In reality, according to Ben-Gurion, some 640 Haganah soldiers had faced about twenty-five hundred ALA troops, with superior firepower—and bested them."
Benny Morris (2003), pp. 243–244
Benny Morris (2003), p. 244
Yoav Gelber, Palestine 1948, Appendix II
Yoav Gelber (2006), p. 317
Benny Morris (2003), p. 239
Dominique Lapierre et Larry Collins (1971), p. 528
Dominique Lapierre et Larry Collins (1971), pp. 429–442
Robert Barr Smith, Fighting Jack Churchill Survived: A Wartime Odyssey Beyond Compare World War Two History, Profiles Column, July 2005
This word is from Yoav Gelber (Yoav Gelber (2006), p. 93)
Shafa 'Amr, Khirbet Kasayir et Hawsha
Yoav Gelber (2006), p. 93
Benny Morris (2003), p. 245
Benny Morris (2008). 1948: a history of the first Arab-Israeli war. Yale University Press. p. 137. Retrieved 15 July 2013.
Yoav Gelber (2006), pp. 225–226
Yoav Gelber (2006), pp. 134–135
Benny Morris (2003), p. 248
Benny Morris (2003), pp. 248–250
Benny Morris (2003), pp. 249–252
Ilan Pappé (2000), p. 167
War Diary 1948–1949, ed. Elhanan Orren and Gershon Rivlin, Israël Defence Ministry Press, Tel Aviv, 1982, p. 409
Dominique Lapierre et Larry Collins (1971), pp. 525–530
Benny Morris (1881), p. 221
Both theses are developed in Avi Shlaim, Collusion Across the Jordan: King Abdullah, the Zionist movement and the Partition of Palestine, Columbia University Press, 1988 and in Yoav Gelber, Israeli-Jordanian dialogue, 1948–1953: cooperation, conspiracy or collusion, Sussex Academic Press, 2004.
Pierre Razoux (2006), p. 523
Ilan Pappé (2000), pp. 168–169
Efraïm Karsh (2002), p. 51
Yoav Gelber (2006), p. 95
Yoav Gelber (2006), p. 96
Official site of the kibbutz Archived 19 December 2010 at WebCite
Benny Morris, The road to Jerusalem, p. 139
Moshe Dayan, 'The Story of My Life'. ISBN 0-688-03076-9. Page 130. Out of a total of 670 prisoners released.
Benni Morris (2008), p. 131
Benny Morris (2002), pp. 155–156.
Dominique Lapierre et Larry Collins (1971), p. 576
Dominique Lapierre et Larry Collins (1971), pp. 580–582
Dominique Lapierre et Larry Collins (1971), pp. 575–576
According to this Israeli site with confirmation from this map from the Passia organization Archived 19 December 2010 at WebCite
Yoav Gelber (2006), p. 140
Yoav Gelber (2006), pp. 134–135 Although the last (the Lebanese) ultimately would not engage in combat
Benny Morris (2003), pp. 252–254
See, for example, in The New York Times archives: : Despair is voiced by arab refugees[dead link]
Karsh, Efraim, The Arab-Israeli Conflict: The Palestine War 1948. Osprey Publishing, 2002, pp. 87–92
Ilan Pappe, The Ethnic cleansing of Palestine, pp. xii–xiii.
Benny Morris, The Birth of the Palestinian Refugee Problem Revisited, Oxford University Press, 2004, Conclusions.
Yoav Gelber (2006), p. 120
Yoav Gelber (2006), pp. 122–123
Yoav Gelber (2006), pp. 124–125
Yoav Gelber (2006), p. 127
Yoav Gelber (2006), p. 126
Yoav Gelber (2006), p. 128
Yoav Gelber (2006), pp. 126, 132
Dominique Lapierre et Larry Collins (1971), pp. 453–454
Dominique Lapierre et Larry Collins (1971), p. 133
Arab League Declaration, 15 May 1948 from jewishvirtuallibrary.com. Retrieved 26 September 2007. Archived 19 December 2010 at WebCite
Benny Morris, 1948, p. 179.
Morris 2008 p. 400
Musa Budeiri. "The Battle for Jerusalem in the Memoirs of Anwar Nusseibeh". Jerusalem Quarterly File, 11-12, 2001.

Israel Ministry of Foreign Affirs: Declaration of Establishment of State of Israel: 14 May 1948.

References

Elie Barnavi, Une histoire moderne d'Israël, Champs / Flammarion, 1988, ISBN 978-2-08-081246-9* Elie Barnavi, Une histoire moderne d'Israël, Champs / Flammarion, 1988, ISBN 978-2-08-081246-9
Bickerton, Ian and Hill, Maria (2003). Contested Spaces: The Arab–Israeli Conflict. McGraw-Hill. ISBN 978-0-07-471217-7
Yoav Gelber, Independence Versus Nakba; Kinneret–Zmora-Bitan–Dvir Publishing, 2004, ISBN 965-517-190-6 (Hebrew)
Yoav Gelber, Palestine 1948, Sussex Academic Press, Brighton, 2006, ISBN 978-1-84519-075-0
Alain Gresh and Dominique Vidal, Palestine 47, un partage avorté, Editions Complexe, 1994, ISBN 978-2-87027-521-4.
Dov Joseph, The Faithful City – The Siege of Jerusalem 1948. Library of Congress number 60 10976.
Efraïm Karsh, The Arab–Israeli Conflict – The Palestine War 1948, Osprey Publishing, 2002, ISBN 978-1-84176-372-9
Jon and David Kimche, A clash of destinies, The Arab–Jewish War and the founding of the state of Israel, Praeger, New York, 1960,
Dominique Lapierre and Larry Collins, O Jérusalem, Robert Laffont, 1971, ISBN 978-2-266-10698-6
Henry Laurens, Paix et guerre au Moyen-Orient, Armand Colin, Paris, 2005, ISBN 2-200-26977-3
Harry Levin. Jerusalem Embattled – A Diary of the City under Siege. Cassels, 1997. ISBN 0-304-33765-X.
Benny Morris, The Road to Jerusalem: Glubb Pasha, Palestine and the Jews, I.B.Tauris, 2002, ISBN 978-1-86064-989-9
Benny Morris, Histoire revisitée du conflit arabo-sioniste, Editions complexe, 2003, ISBN 978-2-87027-938-0
Benny Morris, The Birth Of The Palestinian Refugee Problem Revisited, Cambridge University Press, 2004, ISBN 978-0-521-00967-6
Benny Morris, 1948: A History of the First Arab–Israeli War, Yale University Press, 2008.
Ilan Pappé, La guerre de 1948 en Palestine, La fabrique éditions, 2000, ISBN 978-2-264-04036-7* Eugène Rogan, Avi Shlaim et al., La guerre de Palestine 1948: derrière le mythe, Autrement, 2002, ISBN 978-2-7467-0240-0
Yitzhak Rabin, Mémoires, Buchet/Chastel, 1980,* Ilan Pappe, The Ethnic Cleansing of Palestine, 2006. ISBN 978-1-85168-555-4.* Pierre Razoux, Tsahal, nouvelle histoire de l'armée israélienne, Perrin, 2006, ISBN 978-2-262-02328-7

Further reading

Uri Milstein, History of Israel's War of Independence: A Nation Girds for War, vol. 1, University Press of America, 1996, ISBN 978-0-7618-0372-0
Uri Milstein, History of Israel's War of Independence: The First Month, vol. 2, University Press of America, 1997, ISBN 978-0-7618-0721-6
Uri Milstein, History of Israel's War of Independence: The First Invasion, vol. 3, University Press of America, 1999, ISBN 978-0-7618-0769-8
Uri Milstein, History of Israel's War of Independence: Out of Crisis Came Decision, vol. 4, University Press of America, 1999, ISBN 978-0-7618-1489-4
Salim Tamari, Jérusalem 1948: Les faubourgs arabes et leur destin durant la guerre, Institut des études palestiniennes, 2002, ISBN 978-9953-9001-9-3

Online sources

Plan Daleth from mideastweb.org
United Nations Special Commission, First Special Report to the Security Council: The Problem of Security in Palestine, 16 February 1948, from the United Nations website.
Palestine remembered Palestinian view.
Jewish Virtual Library Jewish view.

Film

Elie Chouraqui, Ô Jérusalem, 2006.

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v t e

Israeli–Palestinian conflict
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Arab–Israeli conflict
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v t e

Anti-Jewish attacks in Arab countries during the 1948 Palestine war and its aftermath
Categories:

Battles and operations of the 1948 Arab–Israeli WarConflicts in 1947Conflicts in 1948Civil wars involving the states and peoples of AsiaCivil wars post-1945Ethnicity-based civil warsMiddle East1940s in Mandatory Palestine1947 in Mandatory Palestine1948 in Mandatory Palestine1948 Palestinian exodus
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MessageSujet: Re: Moise, Y'becca et le clan des hérisson ou Avant-garde.   Mar 18 Oct à 10:29

Nightingale by Norah Jones

Sing us a song
Of a love that once belonged
Nightingale
Tell me your tale
Was your journey far too long

Does it seem like I'm looking for an answer


To a question I can't ask
I don't know which way the feather falls
Or if I should blow it to the left

All the voices that are spinnin' around me
Trying to tell me what to say
Can I fly right behind you
And you can take me away

and, Flipside - Norah Jones

I tried to get high, but you wanted me low
Good things are happening, but happening slow
It's some kind of mystery from long ago

I finally know who I'm supposed to be
My mind was locked but I found the key
Hope it don't all slip away from me

Hard times, fun lines
Moments pass by and I cry
Rewind, step behind
It's hard to find the flipside

I can't stand when you tell me to get back
If we're all free, then why does it seem we can't just be?

You saw your reflection all over the news
Your temperature's well past a hundred and two (*)
Put the guns away, or we'll all gonna lose



Stand by, or take flight
Eat or throw your piece pie
Walk on, or be mine
Moments fly by and I cry

I can't stand when you tell me to get back
If we're all free, then why does it seem we can't just be?

I can't stand when you tell me to get back
If we're all free, then why does it seem we can't just be?
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MessageSujet: Re: Moise, Y'becca et le clan des hérisson ou Avant-garde.   Mar 18 Oct à 10:31

Le Suicide was painted by Édouard Manet During his final years (1877-1881).

Despite the curious theme of the painting, it exists as a marginalized work in Manet scholarship. The iconography is puzzling - both the identity of the man and the circumstances surrounding this primal act of self-inflicted torture has eluded scholars. Death is an occasional theme in Manet's oeuvre, but the vivid evocation of madness and desolation is atypical. The graphic brutality pictured in Le Suicide has earned the painting the superlative, 'the grimmest and most realistic death image Manet ever created.'

The 'grim' nature of the work resides in the grisly details - the vast puddle of blood at the foot of the bed and on the victim's white shirt, his dinner jacket strewn upon the floor, and his lifeless hand weighed down by the large revolver. His gaping mouth seems to gasp for air, an alarming detail that suggests that the victim may not have successfully completed the act. He currently lies in an agonizing physical and spiritual state of limbo. Through the haphazard brushwork and the contorted position of the victim, Manet heightens the experiential nature of the masochistic act; the painting appears as a filmic episode unfolding before our eyes, forcing us to ponder, minute by minute, the circumstances that drove this man to attempt self-annihilation.

Despite the macabre iconography, scholars have gravitated toward the formal qualities of Le Suicide. As such, scholars have viewed the work in the context of Manet's impressionist experimentation with light effects and color during the mid to late 1870's. Taking their cue from Manet's early biographer, Adolphe Tabarant, who flippantly characterized Le Suicide, 'merely an incident of the palette,' scholars have dismissed the painting as an emotionally detached study of light and color.
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MessageSujet: Re: Moise, Y'becca et le clan des hérisson ou Avant-garde.   Mar 18 Oct à 10:33

Processus de Paix des secouristes de la république de l'Olivier.

Je crois qu'à l'avenir, plus personne ne pourra recréer des bulles d'exclusions...
Pour cela, je ne peux me permettre de mettre à l'écart tout individu(e) et "État".

Je ne suis qu'une femme ou un homme humble qui en vous adressant ces ces vers,
espère qu'il puisse vous conduire vers l'expérience, le travail et la communauté...
La solitude augmente ou diminue le nervosité... Cela s'appelle le malheur...

Alors par décision, on recherche à se tranquilliser et remettre la balance sur le zéro;
alors par construction, on décèle la notion d'une fragile tolérance:
Celle d'insulter !

Par Yahvé, cela est une horreur et une erreur...

La République de l'Olivier dit :
"Oui à la gréve, Non à l'Esclavage..."
la constitution rajoute :
"Oui à la Bibliothèque et Non à la Faim."
et le peuple doit rajouter :
"Oui à l'écoute et Non aux viols physiques et moraux."

Alors le Novice du Secourisme prends en charge sa nouvelle fonction autre qu'un service
militaire mais basé aussi sur la protection du Bien et du Corps.

"Je suis Y'becca"

Ecrit de
TAY
La chouette effraie.

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Re: Y'becca ou murmure de l'Arbre-Olivier.

Les langues s’écartelèrent,
le Silence s'introduit:
La chair de Poule pénètre...!

L’Égalité affronte le racisme...
Les enfants des justes sont mis
sous tutelle d'un mauvais œil.

De là haut, on ramène vers le bas
afin de renforcer ses stratégies
au détriment de l'uniforme
et de la République.

Ainsi pas besoin d'y introduire
des raisons ou des valeurs,
c'est juste le ventre d'une femelle requin.

Au sein de cette discorde, tu
dois préserver et sa réintroduire
propre pomme: Elle est Pépins.

Ecrit de
TAY
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MessageSujet: Re: Moise, Y'becca et le clan des hérisson ou Avant-garde.   Mar 18 Oct à 10:35

The greatest physics theorem you’ve never heard of

This concept's played a greater part in physics than relativity and quantum theory, so why has the great woman behind it not achieved Einstein's fame?
A mountain reflected in a lake

Stuart Franklin/Magnum Photos

By Dave Goldberg

WE PHYSICISTS have a habit of depicting our discipline as “beautiful” or “elegant”, where an outsider might be forgiven for seeing no more than an endless morass of equations. In an ideal world, those equations would be unnecessary; the ultimate goal of physics – and science generally – is to describe the world as simply as possible.

One hundred years ago, one person brought us a great step closer. In this centenary year of general relativity, Albert Einstein is getting the plaudits, and no one would gainsay him that. But that same year, 1915, the excitement surrounding relativity spawned another seminal piece of work. Even among physicists, though, it is not nearly as famous as it should be. Perhaps that is down to the complexity of its mathematics, but perhaps the author’s sex and sadly short life played their parts too.

Yet there is no doubt that Amalie “Emmy” Noether transformed how we think about the universe. Despite the hairy mathematics, her great first theorem can be described conceptually in just a short sentence: Symmetries give rise to conservation laws.

This simplicity masks a penetrating insight. It provided a unifying perspective on the physics known at the time – and laid the groundwork for nearly every major fundamental discovery since.

Emmy Noether is a story unto herself. Despite wide recognition of her obvious brilliance, she was confounded by the prejudices of German academic tradition at the turn of the 20th century. Born into a prominent mathematical family in 1882 – her father, Max, was a professor at the University of Erlangen in the north of Bavaria – she was ...
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MessageSujet: Re: Moise, Y'becca et le clan des hérisson ou Avant-garde.   Mar 18 Oct à 10:36

Le terme « samouraï », mentionné pour la première fois dans un texte du Xe siècle, vient du verbe saburau qui signifie « servir ». L'appellation est largement utilisée dans son sens actuel depuis le début de la période Edo, vers 1600. Auparavant, on désignait les guerriers plutôt par les termes mono no fu (jusqu'au VIIIe siècle), puis bushi (武士?), qui peuvent l'un ou l'autre se traduire par « homme d'armes ». À partir de la période Edo, les termes bushi et samouraï ne sont pas tout à fait synonymes, il existe une différence subtile (voir l'article Bushi).

On trouve aussi parfois le terme buke : il désigne la noblesse militaire attachée au bakufu (gouvernement militaire), par opposition aux kuge, la noblesse de cour attachée à l'empereur. Les buke sont apparus durant l'ère Kamakura (1185–1333).

La classe de guerriers professionnels du Japon, constituée d'archers montés sur des étalons, trouve son origine dans la volonté impériale de conquérir des terres des Aïnous à la fin de la période Nara.

Jusque-là, le Japon disposait d'une armée fondée sur la conscription, inspirée du modèle chinois. Les hommes âgés de vingt à trente ans étaient conscrits, répartis en autant de gunki (corps de mille soldats et officiers) qu'il y avait de provinces et attachés au service du kokushi (gouverneur de la province).

ORIGINE /

Ce système se révéla totalement inefficace pour lutter contre les « barbares » Aïnous, redoutables cavaliers. L'empereur décida en 792 de le dissoudre pour mettre en place un nouveau système appelé kondeisei. Le kondesei avait l'avantage de réduire le poids du service militaire chez les paysans (sur qui reposait l'économie) puisqu'il était constitué de jeunes cavaliers archers issus de milieux plus aisés. Cette milice, formée de 3 964 hommes, commença à tomber en désuétude au Xe siècle1, mais on ne peut affirmer qu'elle soit à l'origine des premiers samouraïs, apparus à cette époque.

Mitsuo Kure, dans son livre Samouraïs (p. 7), cite plusieurs autres origines possibles pour les samouraïs :

les kugutsu, des nomades qui parcouraient le Japon en vivant de spectacles de marionnettes et d'acrobaties, eux aussi réputés grands cavaliers archers. Il est toutefois impossible de dire s'ils utilisaient des grands arcs ;
les contacts avec les Emishi, durant les combats contre eux, mais aussi au cours d'activités commerciales ou en les employant comme mercenaires pour protéger Kyūshū de tentatives d'invasion coréennes ou chinoises, ont pu inspirer à la cour impériale de Kyōto l'idée de créer une cavalerie, jusqu'ici totalement absente de l'histoire militaire du Japon.

Enfin, Mitsuo Kure énonce une dernière hypothèse selon laquelle les samouraïs seraient à l'origine des gardes du palais impérial au début du Xe siècle, se fondant sur les premiers documents mentionnant le mot samurai (ou plutôt saburai, « en service », qui se déforma plus tard en samurai). S'il rejette rapidement cette hypothèse, arguant que les meilleurs élevages de chevaux se trouvaient dans le Kantō et le Tōhoku et que les armures o-yoroi furent mises au point sur le champ de bataille et non dans la paix de la cour, cette hypothèse est en revanche la seule origine citée par Stephen Turnbull dans son Samurai Sourcebook, (p. Cool.

Turnbull indique à leur sujet qu'ils passèrent rapidement du service impérial à celui des riches propriétaires terriens des provinces, qui devaient lutter contre les Emishi, les bandits et les propriétaires terriens rivaux. Il précise aussi que ces premiers clans de samouraïs étaient d'origine modeste, mais se plaçaient sous l'égide de descendants de lignées impériales mineures, partis chercher fortune dans les contrées sauvages. Les deux plus puissants clans de samouraïs de la fin de l'ère Heian, les clans Taira et Minamoto, découlent de cette tradition, descendant respectivement des empereurs Kammu et Seiwa.

Ère Heian
Samurai à cheval, portant une armure Ō-yoroi (en), tenant un arc (yumi) avec des flèches dans un carquois (yebira (en)).

Si l'ère Heian est pour la cour impériale une période de paix et de prospérité, les provinces, en revanche, étaient secouées de révoltes paysannes dues aux lourds impôts, réprimées par les kokushi (gouverneurs de provinces nommés par le gouvernement impérial). Les petits fermiers se placèrent sous la protection de puissantes familles de propriétaires terriens, qui de ce fait s'enrichirent et furent bientôt en mesure de recruter des armées privées, constituées de guerriers professionnels, mais aussi de simples civils (paysans, artisans, citadins).

Ces armées conféraient une certaine puissance et une indépendance grandissante à ces propriétaires terriens, riches, mais dénigrés par l'aristocratie de Kyōto, et leur permettaient de défendre leurs terres contre les menaces diverses, mais aussi de s'étendre aux dépens de leurs voisins. De plus, certains tentaient de se dégager de la tutelle du gouvernement central, ce qui provoqua des révoltes auxquelles prirent part certains des premiers gouvernements samouraïs.
Premières rébellions

En 935, Taira no Masakado, gouverneur de la province de Shimosa, tua son oncle Kunika et rallia à lui de nombreux guerriers, gagnant ainsi le contrôle de la quasi-totalité du Kantō et s'autoproclama empereur en 939. La même année, sur les côtes de la mer intérieure, Fujiwara no Sumitomo rassembla des wakō (pirates) et se révolta également.

Le gouvernement n'eut pas de mal à réprimer ces premières révoltes samouraïs, se contentant d'engager d'autres clans pour lutter contre les premiers, lors de ce qui fut désigné comme Rébellion de Jōhei Tengyō.

En 1028, Taira no Tadatsune se révolta également et prit le contrôle du Kantō. La cour tarda alors à réagir, selon Louis Frédéric (Le Japon, dictionnaire et civilisation, [p. 1073]), « les forces impériales [étaient] trop faibles pour intervenir efficacement contre lui ». Au bout de quatre mois, cependant, la cour envoya contre lui Taira no Naokata, qui fut vaincu. En 1031, Minamoto no Yorinobu se joignit aux forces de pacification impériale, obligea Tadatsune à se rendre, et prit le contrôle du Kantō.

Par la suite, les familles de samouraïs les plus influentes, notamment les Taira et les Minamoto, furent appelées à la cour pour assurer la sécurité de l'empereur et de l'aristocratie, avec qui ils tissèrent peu à peu des liens, bien que gardant un statut très bas. Les jōkō, notamment, s'entouraient de gardes du corps samouraïs à demeure dans son palais, les hokumen no bushi (ce qu'on peut traduire par « samouraïs du côté nord ».)
Guerres dans le nord de Honshū
Dans les provinces du Tōhoku, la partie nord de l'île de Honshū, plus récemment colonisée et loin de la capitale, des seigneurs tentaient d'échapper à l'influence de la cour. En 1051, Abe no Yoritoki se souleva et la province de Mutsu fut secouée par les affrontements de la guerre de Zenkunen, qui dura en réalité jusqu'en 1062, le général des forces impériales, Minamoto no Yoriyoshi (fils de Yorinobu) ayant fait appel au clan Kiyohara de la province de Dewa. La cour attribua les biens du clan Abe à ces derniers, et, lorsqu'en 1083, Minamoto no Yoshiie, fils de Yoriyoshi, fut nommé juge dans une querelle interne des Kiyohara, il en profita pour les détruire au cours de ce qu'on appelle la guerre de Gosannen. Estimant qu'il avait agi pour des raisons personnelles, la cour refusa de lui attribuer une récompense et il dut prélever des parcelles sur son propre domaine pour payer ses hommes. Selon Mitsuo Kure (Samouraïs, p. 14), cet acte le rendit très populaire et de nombreuses familles de samouraïs se mirent à son service.

Intrigues à la cour

Ces premières rébellions samouraïs, actions isolées et menées loin de la cour eurent finalement peu d'impact dans l'arrivée au pouvoir à la fin du XIIe siècle. En revanche, les clans de samouraïs présents à la cour tirèrent parti de la lutte de pouvoir entre l'empereur Go-Shirakawa et l'empereur retiré Sutoku en 1156. À l'issue de ce qui est connu comme la rébellion de Hōgen, l'influence des régents Fujiwara diminua considérablement et les clans Taira et Minamoto parvinrent à gagner des positions importantes à la cour.

En 1159, lorsque Minamoto no Yoshitomo et Fujiwara no Nobuyori tentèrent un coup d'État connu sous le nom de rébellion de Heiji, Taira no Kiyomori écrasa les Minamoto, massacrant une bonne partie du clan et entama une ascension qui l'amena en 1167 au poste de dajō-daijin, premier ministre.

Cependant, en 1180 éclata la guerre de Gempei, une guerre de succession au trône impérial, les Minamoto reconstitués soutenant un candidat différent de celui des Taira. Au terme de cinq ans de guerre, les Taira furent finalement éliminés et Minamoto no Yoritomo mit en place le premier bakufu, avant d'être nommé shogun en 1192. Pour la première fois, le Japon était dirigé par des samouraïs, et le resta jusqu'en 1868.
Réincarnation en crabes

En 1185, les clans Taira et Minamoto s'affrontent dans la baie de Dan-no-ura. Lors de cette bataille décisive, le jeune empereur Antoku, âgé de six ans, sentant la défaite finale, plonge dans les eaux avec sa grand-mère pour se donner la mort plutôt que de subir le déshonneur d'une capture. Plusieurs samouraïs imitent son geste. La légende prétend que les guerriers Taira se sont réincarnés en crabes, d'où cet ornement qu'on retrouve quelquefois sur des casques de samouraïs. Encore aujourd'hui, les pêcheurs qui attrapent des crabes dont la carapace évoque un visage les rejettent à l'eau2. Il s'agit en fait d'une espèce endémique: le heikegani.
Avènement des Tokugawa
Le Samurai Hasekura Tsunenaga à Rome en 1615.
Collection Borghese, Rome.

Avec la pacification de la période Edo, la fonction combattante des guerriers diminue et ceux-ci deviennent des fonctionnaires. Ils vont laisser le côté guerrier pour les cérémonies, et commencer à s'intéresser aux arts (surtout l'écriture). Néanmoins, probablement pour se redonner de la valeur, des règles très strictes sont codifiées, sous le nom de bushidō (« voie du guerrier »). Le suicide rituel du seppuku — aussi connu sous le nom de « hara-kiri » (littéralement « ouvrir le ventre ») — devra être interdit à certaines périodes par le shogun (seigneur militaire du Japon).

En effet, pour sauvegarder son honneur, un samouraï devait se faire seppuku s'il arrivait malheur à son maître, à sa famille, ou simplement s'il avait fait une faute grave, son seigneur pouvait lui commander à n'importe quel moment le seppuku s'il ne s'estimait pas satisfait. Ce rite provoquait parfois des ravages dans les rangs des samouraïs.
Ère Meiji et fin des samouraïs
Matsudaira Katamori (1836–1893).

La période des Tokugawa amène un certain renfermement du Japon sur lui-même, peu ouvert aux pays étrangers. Cet isolement prend fin avec l'intervention du commodore Matthew Perry qui force le pays à s'ouvrir au commerce extérieur à partir de 1854. Des changements majeurs surviennent alors, avec notamment la reprise en main du pays par l'empereur.

La restauration de Meiji en 1867 entraîne avec elle toute une série de mesures. Les samouraïs sont également frappés par les réformes. Privés de leurs droits, ils se révoltent avant d'être écrasés par l'armée impériale en 1874 et lors de la rébellion de Satsuma en 1877. Le passage à l'ère moderne fit qu'il fut décidé de conserver l'héritage culturel des différents arts utilisés par les samouraïs au sein de la Dai nippon butoku kai créée en 1895.
Religions

Le bouddhisme zen a fortement influencé les samouraïs3. Voir par exemple le samouraï Suzuki Shōsan, devenu moine zen à 42 ans.

Le shintoïsme a eu une certaine influence4, ainsi que le confucianisme5.
Éducation du jeune samouraï
Musashi Miyamoto, un célèbre samouraï.

Dans la tradition samouraï, un fils de samouraï était soumis à une discipline très stricte. Le temps des caresses maternelles était douloureusement court. Avant même d'avoir vêtu son premier pantalon, on l'avait soustrait autant que possible aux tendres contacts et on lui avait appris à réprimer les élans affectueux de l'enfance. Tout plaisir oisif était rigoureusement mesuré et le confort lui-même proscrit, sauf en cas de maladie. Ainsi, dès le moment où il savait parler, on lui enjoignait de considérer le devoir comme le seul guide de son existence, le contrôle de soi comme la première règle de conduite, la souffrance et la mort comme des accidents sans importance du point de vue individuel.

Cette éducation austère n'allait pas sans impératifs beaucoup plus contraignants, destinés à développer une impassibilité totale dont l'enfant ne devait jamais se départir, hormis dans l'intimité de la maison. On accoutumait les garçonnets à la vue du sang en les forçant à assister à des exécutions. Ils ne devaient manifester aucune émotion. De retour chez eux, on les obligeait à manger un grand plat de riz coloré en rouge sang par l'adjonction d'un jus de prunes salées, afin de réprimer tout sentiment d'horreur secret. Des épreuves encore plus pénibles pouvaient être imposées, même aux très jeunes enfants. À titre d'exemple, on les contraignait à se rendre seuls, à minuit, sur les lieux du supplice, et à en rapporter la tête d'un des condamnés pour preuve de leur courage. En effet, la crainte des morts était jugée tout aussi méprisable de la part d'un samouraï que celle des vivants. Le jeune samouraï devait apprendre à se prémunir contre toutes les peurs. Dans toutes ces épreuves, la plus parfaite maîtrise de soi était exigée. Aucune fanfaronnade n'aurait été tolérée avec plus d'indulgence que le moindre signe de lâcheté.

En grandissant, l'enfant devait se satisfaire, en guise de distractions, de ces exercices physiques qui, très vite et pour le restant de ses jours, préparent le samouraï à la guerre : kenjutsu, jujutsu, bajutsu, kyujutsu, respectivement art du sabre, lutte, art équestre, tir à l'arc. On lui choisissait des compagnons parmi les fils des domestiques, plus âgés que lui et sélectionnés pour leur habileté dans l'exercice des arts martiaux. Ses repas, bien qu'abondants, n'étaient pas très raffinés, ses tenues légères et rudimentaires, sauf à l'occasion des grandes cérémonies. Lorsqu'il étudiait, en hiver, s'il arrivait qu'il eût si froid aux mains qu'il ne puisse plus se servir de son pinceau, on lui ordonnait de plonger dans l'eau glacée pour rétablir la circulation. Si le gel engourdissait les pieds, on l'obligeait à courir dans la neige. Plus rigoureux était encore l'entraînement militaire proprement dit : l'enfant apprenait de bonne heure que la petite épée à sa ceinture n'était ni un ornement, ni un jouet.

Pour l'éducation religieuse du jeune samouraï, on lui apprenait à vénérer les dieux anciens et les esprits de ses ancêtres. On l'initiait à la foi et à la philosophie bouddhiques et on lui enseignait l'éthique chinoise. Ceci est à nuancer, du fait que tel clan ou telle famille ou encore telle koryu (école d'arts martiaux) tendaient à une vision shintoïste, bouddhique ou confucianiste. Ainsi la Tenshin shōden katori shintō-ryū incline vers le shintoïsme tandis que la Hyoho niten ichi ryu ouvre son texte majeur sur une invocation à une déité bouddhiste en poursuivant que s'il faut vénérer les dieux, il ne faut pas pour autant attendre d'eux la victoire.

Peu à peu, à mesure qu'il passait de l'enfance à l'adolescence, la surveillance à laquelle il était soumis allait s'amenuisant. On le laissait de plus en plus libre d'agir selon son propre jugement, avec la certitude qu'on ne lui pardonnerait pas la moindre erreur, qu'il se repentirait toute sa vie d'une offense grave et qu'un reproche mérité était plus à redouter que la mort même.

Le samouraï apprenait son métier au sein d'écoles anciennes dispensant une formation aux armes, à la stratégie, au renseignement et aux divers aspects de l'art de la guerre. Ces koryu, écoles anciennes, ont été le cadre qui a façonné l'excellence technique et morale du samouraï.
Différents types de samouraïs

Un samouraï n'ayant pas de rattachement à un clan ou à un daimyō (seigneur féodal) était appelé un rōnin. Un samouraï qui était un vassal direct du shogun était appelé hatamoto.

Cependant, tous les soldats n'étaient pas samouraïs, ceux-ci constituant une élite équivalent en quelque sorte aux chevaliers européens ; l'armée, à partir de la période Kamakura, reposait sur de larges troupes de fantassins de base nommés ashigaru et recrutés principalement parmi les paysans.
Armes
Un samurai en armure avec son sabre, vers 1860.
Guerriers samurai avec différents types d'armures et d'armes, dans les années 1880.

Le samouraï utilisait environ 40 armes avec une mention spéciale pour le katana, grand sabre, qu'il était le seul à pouvoir porter. Il étudiait les kobudo, les arts martiaux japonais d'avant 1868, au sein des koryu. Il attribuait une grande importance au katana, suivant ainsi le bushidō pour lequel le katana est l'âme du samouraï. Quand un enfant avait atteint l'âge de 15 ans, il pouvait obtenir un wakizashi (petit sabre) et un nom d'adulte lors d'une cérémonie appelée genpuku (元服). Lors de cette cérémonie, il devenait samouraï. Il obtenait aussi le droit à porter un katana.

Une cordelette (souvent fabriquée à partir d'une mèche de cheveux) était souvent nouée à travers un trou dans le tsuba (habituellement prévu pour faire passer le kogatana, stylet rangé dans un compartiment du fourreau), une sorte de sécurité pour katana, permettant de manifester des intentions pacifiques, puisqu'il devenait dès lors impossible de le dégainer sans dénouer d'abord cette sécurité.

Un katana et un wakizashi réunis sont appelés un daisho (littéralement : « grand » et « petit »).

Le wakizashi était « la lame d'honneur » d'un samouraï et il ne quittait jamais son côté. Le samouraï dormait avec l'arme sous son oreiller et l'emmenait avec lui quand il entrait dans une maison et devait laisser ses armes principales dehors.

Le tanto était un petit poignard, et il était porté quelquefois à la place du wakizashi dans un daisho. Il était utilisé quand un samouraï devait faire seppuku ou hara-kiri (suicide). Cependant, placé dans le keikogi (« vêtement d'entraînement »), le tanto se révélait être une arme de poing très utilisée pour les assassinats ou les combats rapprochés.

L'arme favorite du samouraï était le yumi (« arc »). Le yumi resta inchangé jusqu'à l'apparition de la poudre à canon et des fusils au XVIe siècle. L'arc composite de style japonais n'était pas une arme très puissante en comparaison avec l'arc classique d'Eurasie. Sa taille permettait de lancer divers projectiles comme des flèches enflammées et des flèches-signaux d'une portée efficace de 50 m, et plus de 100 m quand la précision n'était pas importante. Il était ordinairement utilisé à pied derrière un tedate (手盾), un grand mur de bambou mobile, mais il pouvait même être utilisé à dos de cheval. La coutume de tirer à dos de cheval, yabusame (流鏑馬), est devenue une cérémonie shintoiste.

Le nodachi est un sabre d'aspect similaire au katana, mais qui mesure environ 150 cm ; il était réservé aux samouraïs les plus forts. On peut voir Kikuchiyo, personnage venant du monde paysan, en manipuler un dans le film Les Sept Samouraïs. Ce type d'arme est adapté à la lutte contre les unités de cavalerie, et surtout contre les fantassins en armures légères. Elle ne fut toutefois jamais vraiment populaire en raison de la difficulté de son maniement (requérant davantage de force et de dextérité qu'un katana de taille moyenne), et du fait que le naginata remplissait déjà très bien ce rôle.

Certains samouraïs les utilisaient toutefois, certains pour crâner à l'instar de nombreux kabuki-mono, et moins souvent en raison de compétences réelles dans son maniement. On notera notamment le célèbre Sasaki Kojirô et sa Monohoshizao, ainsi que Makara Jurōzaemon Naotaka, et son fameux nodachi, Tarōtachi, mesurant 220 cm pour 4,5 kg (éléments de poignée et autres accessoires exclus).

Au XVe siècle, le yari (lance) est également devenu une arme populaire. Il a remplacé le naginata sur le champ de bataille lorsque la bravoure personnelle est devenue moins importante, et les batailles, plus organisées. Le yari était plus simple à utiliser et plus mortel qu'un katana. Une charge, à cheval ou à terre, était plus efficace quand une lance était utilisée, et offrait plus de 50 % de chances de vaincre un samouraï armé d'un tachi, forme primitive de katana adaptée au combat monté, parfois appelé par erreur daïkatana dans la culture occidentale.

Dans la bataille de Shizugatake, où Shibata Katsuie fut vaincu par Toyotomi Hideyoshi (ou Hashiba Hideyoshi), les « sept lances » de Shizugatake (賤ヶ岳七本槍) ont joué un rôle crucial dans la victoire.

Jusqu'au XVIIIe siècle, le tranchant des lames de katana était testé sur des condamnés vivants par des bourreaux payés par les samouraïs6.

Les armes blanches utilisées par les samouraïs ont énormément gagné en qualité au fil des siècles, jusqu'à arriver à une qualité inégalée : les lames forgées selon la tradition japonaise sont encore aujourd'hui les meilleures que l'homme ait faites sur le plan des qualités physiques, grâce aux techniques complexes de forge et de trempe développées par les forgerons d'armes japonais, ainsi que le tamahagane, acier spécial obtenu à base de sable ferrugineux7.
Accessoires
Armure
Armure Ō-yoroi (en).
Musée national de Tokyo.
Article détaillé : Armure du samouraï.

Un équipement protecteur couvre le samouraï de la tête au pied. L'armure est constituée de plusieurs parties et est conçue de manière à favoriser le plus possible la mobilité du combattant.
Bâton de commandement

Durant les guerres féodales, plusieurs dizaines de milliers de samouraïs pouvaient être impliqués dans les combats. Il devenait donc important de trouver un moyen de transmettre les ordres de déplacement. À cette fin, on utilisait un bâton de commandement (saihai) qui pouvait être aperçu de loin. Il s'agissait d'un bâton orné à une extrémité d'un faisceau de poils de yak, de lamelles de papier laqué, de lanières de cuir ou de bandelettes de tissu. Le bâton était fixé à l'armure à l'aide d'une corde. Son utilisation remonte aux années 1570.

Bâton sahai de la période Edo avec des poils de yak.

Bâton sahai avec des lanières de cuir.

Cliquez sur une vignette pour l’agrandir
Quelques samouraïs célèbres
Autoportrait de Miyamoto Musashi, Rōnin, écrivain et artiste, vers 1640.
Yamaoka Tesshū était un célèbre samurai lors de la période Bakumatsu.
Nom Fief né en mort en
Minamoto no Yoshitsune Yamashiro (un ancien nom de Kyoto) 1159 1189
Kenshin Uesugi Echigo (un ancien nom de Nigata) 1528 1578
Shingen Takeda Kai (un ancien nom de Yamanashi) 1522 1573
Hideyoshi Toyotomi Owari (un ancien nom de Aichi) 1536 1598
Torii Mototada 1539 1600
Yukimura Sanada Shinano (un ancien nom de Nagano) 1567 1615
Sune'emon Torii Mikawa (près de Nagoya) 1575
Musashi Miyamoto Aucun (ronin) 1584 1645
Shirō Amakusa Shimabara 1621 1638
Shigetsuke Taira 1639 1730
Tsunetomo Yamamoto 1659 1719
Heihachirō Ōshio 1793 1837
Takamori Saigō Satsuma (ancien nom de Kagoshima) 1827 1877
Isami Kondô Musashi 1834 1868
Tomoe Gozen 1161 1184

On peut également noter :

Les 24 généraux de Shingen Takeda et d'autres groupes de samouraïs.
Des étrangers au Japon ayant pu devenir samouraïs :
William Adams
Yasuke

Premier samouraï étranger

Le premier samouraï étranger, choisi par Oda Nobunaga, était un esclave africain.

Yasuke arrive du Mozambique en 1579, au service d'un très renommé jésuite italien du nom de Alessandro Valignano. Il fait aussitôt sensation lorsqu'il arrive à la capitale. De nombreuses personnes qui affirmaient l'avoir vu furent tuées pour ce qui était considéré comme un mensonge dont ils ne voulaient pas démordre. Nobunaga ayant vent de ces rumeurs et imaginant qu'il devait y avoir un subterfuge, suspectant en particulier que l'homme devait être tout simplement peint en noir, décide de le rencontrer et de faire gommer sa peau. À sa grande surprise, la couleur de l'homme était réelle, Nobunaga intéressé lui donne de l'argent en dépit du fait qu'il est toujours esclave de Valignano et le laisse repartir.

Lors des missions du Jésuite au Japon en 1581, Yasuke apprend à parler japonais et rencontre à nouveau Nobunaga qui apprécie beaucoup sa compagnie, jugeant l'homme incroyablement robuste, fort et intelligent. Il demande à Valignano, qui devait quitter le Japon cette même année, de laisser Yasuke vivre au Japon sous sa protection. Nobunaga appréciait tellement Yasuke que les gens pensèrent qu'il serait un jour nommé seigneur. Ce ne fut pas le cas, mais Yasuke devint samouraï.

En 1582, Nobunaga est défait à Kyoto par l'armée de Akechi Mitsuhide. Yasuke part alors à la rencontre de son héritier, Oda Nobutada, au château de Nijo. Nobutada à son tour attaqué, peut compter sur Yasuke qui reste un samouraï fidèle. Lorsque Mitsuhide fait tomber le château de Nijo, Yasuke n'est pas tué mais amené à Akechi Mitsuhide pour qu'il décide de son sort. On déclare qu'il n'est pas un homme, qu'il ne sait rien, n'est pas japonais, qu'il ne doit cependant pas être tué mais porté aux Jésuites indiens dont Valignano, le missionnaire italien, avait été responsable quelques années auparavant. Yasuke doit donc retourner aux jésuites indiens et nul ne sait ce qu'il est advenu de lui par la suite, aucun écrit n'ayant été retrouvé après cet événement.

Description de Yasuke dans les mémoires de Nobunaga Oda (信長公記, Shinchōkōki) :

« Le 23 du second mois, un serviteur noir vint des pays chrétiens. Il semblait avoir 26 ou 27 ans, son corps tout entier était noir comme celui d'un bœuf. Il était solide et avait de la présence. De plus, sa force était supérieure à celle de 10 hommes réunis. »

Yasuke mesurait en effet 1,88 m ce qui à l'époque au Japon devait être extrêmement impressionnant8,9,10,11,12.
Dans la culture populaire
Poésie

Un poème des Trophées de José-Maria de Heredia se nomme « Le Samouraï ».

Romans

Lian Hearn, Le Clan des Otori.
Armand Cabasson, Par l'épée et le sabre.
Eiji Yoshikawa, La Pierre et le Sabre, La Parfaite Lumière.
James Clavell, Shogun.
Thomas Day, La Voie du sabre.
Yukio Mishima, Le Japon moderne et l'éthique samouraï.
Romain d'Huissier, Seppuku, Trash éd., 2015, coll. « Trash », no 14.

Cinéma
Article détaillé : Chanbara.

Les Sept Samouraïs d'Akira Kurosawa (1954).
Samurai d'Hiroshi Inagaki (1954).
Le Garde du corps d'Akira Kurosawa (1961).
Sanjuro d'Akira Kurosawa (1962).
Hara-kiri de Masaki Kobayashi (1962).
La Légende de Zatoïchi. Le masseur aveugle de Kenji Misumi (1962).
Les 13 Tueurs de Eiichi Kudō (1963).
Les Trois Samouraïs hors-la-loi de Hideo Gosha (1964).
Dai-bosatsu tōge de Kihachi Okamoto (1966).
Le Samouraï de Jean-Pierre Melville (1967).
Goyokin, l'or du shogun de Hideo Gosha (1969).
Puni par le ciel de Hideo Gosha (1969).
Kozure Ōkami.
Soleil rouge, de Terence Young (1971).
Im Schatten des Shogun de Kinji Fukasaku (1978).
Shogun (1980).
Kagemusha, l'ombre du guerrier, de Akira Kurosawa (1980).
Ran, de Akira Kurosawa (1985).
Ninja Scroll de Yoshiaki Kawajiri (1993).
Blade, de Stephen Norrington (1998) utilisation d'un katana et des valeurs zen du combattant.
Ghost Dog : La Voie du samouraï de Jim Jarmusch (1999).
Après la pluie, de Takashi Koizumi (1999).
Tabou de Nagisa Ōshima (1999).
Le Dernier Samouraï de Edward Zwick (2003).
Zatoichi, de Takeshi Kitano (2003).
Le Samouraï du crépuscule (The Twilight Samurai), film japonais réalisé par Yoji Yamada (2002).
Sword of the Stranger, de Masahiro Andō (2007).
Hara-Kiri. Mort d'un samouraï de Takashi Miike (2011).

Bande dessinée et manga

Bosse, Michetz, Kogaratsu, Dupuis, 1988-1999.
Stan Sakai, Usagi Yojimbo.
Takehiko Inoue, Vagabond, Tonkam, 1999.
Hiroaki Samura, L'Habitant de l'infini.
Hideki Mori, Tengu.
Nobuhiro Watsuki, Kenshin le vagabond.
Akimine Kamijyō, Samurai Deeper Kyo.
Patrick Cothias, Adamov, Le Vent Des Dieux.
Hub, Okko.
Ron Marz (en), Luke Ross, Jason Keith, L'Âme du samouraï.
Tite Kubo, Bleach.
Takashi Okazaki, Afro Samurai.
Shinichiro Watanabe, Samurai Champloo.
Hideaki Sorachi, Gintama.
Eiichirō Oda, One piece.

Notes et références

↑ Louis Frédéric, Le Japon, dictionnaire et civilisation, français, Éditions Robert Laffont collection « Bouquins », Paris, 1996 (ISBN 978-2-221-06764-2)
↑ Uesugi Kenshin, « Le temps des samouraïs », dans Richard Béliveau, Samouraïs, Les Éditions Libre Expression, 2012, (ISBN 978-2-7648-0783-5), p. 15-16.
↑ Thomas Cleary, La Voie du samouraï, Seuil, 1992
↑ « Le code du Bushido » [archive], sur Gctm.free.fr (consulté le 28 août 2015)
↑ « Le confucianisme » [archive], sur Culturedujapon.e-monsite.com (consulté le 28 août 2015)
↑ « Les Samouraïs [ Samurai Headhunters ] », de John Wate, de Urban Canyons, Smitshonian Channel, Arte, UKTV et ZDF Enterprises, Arte, 25 janvier 2014 [présentation en ligne [archive]], de 0h09m30s à 0h10m30s : présentation en anglais sur les sites du réalisateur [archive] et du producteur [archive]
↑ Documentaire Arte : Katana, le sabre des samouraïs
↑ Histoire ecclésiastique des isles et royaumes du Japon, vol.1, p. 444. Retrieved 2013-06-22.
↑ 1581 letters of the Jesuits Luis Frois and Lorenço Mexia.
↑ International Institute for Children's Literature, Osaka, One Hundred Japanese Books for Children 1946-1979: Kuro-suke, retrieved on: June 30, 2007.
↑ Matsuda, Kiichi, ed., Jūroku-jūnanaseiki Iezusukai Nihon Hōkokushuu, Hōdōsha, 1987-98.
↑ Ōta, Gyūichi, Shinchōkōki, 1622.

Annexes

Sur les autres projets Wikimedia :

Samouraï, sur Wikimedia Commons samouraï, sur le Wiktionnaire

Bibliographie

Hagakure, Le Livre du samouraï.
Yoshikawa Eiji, Musashi.
Inazo Nitobe, Bushido, l'âme du Japon, (ISBN 978-2-84617-011-6).
Shigetsuke Taira, Budō shōshin shū. Le code du jeune samouraï, (ISBN 978-2-84617-102-1).
Dale Furutani, La Promesse du samourai.
Dale Furutani, Vengeance au pays de jade.
Dale Furutani, Menace sur le shogun.
Yoshikawa Eiji, La Pierre et le Sabre.
Pascal Fauliot, Contes des sages samouraïs, Seuil, novembre 2011.
Richard Béliveau, Samouraïs, Les Éditions Libre Expression, 2012, ISBN 978-2-7648-0783-5.
Cyril Flautat, William Adams, le samouraï des mers, Éditions du Jasmin, 2013, ISBN 978-2-35284-115-9.
David Kirk, Le Samouraï, Éditions Albin Michel, 2014.
Julien Peltier, Samouraïs. 10 destins incroyables, Economica, 2016.

Histoire générale

Jean Mabire, Les Samouraï, Balland, Paris, 1971.
Lafcadio Hearn, Kokoro, Minerve, 1989.
Inazo Nitobe, Bushidō, l'âme du Japon, Budo éditions, 1899.
C. Parvulesco, Samouraï et kamikaze, la tradition guerrière au Japon, ETAI, 2009.
Robert Calvet , Une histoire des samouraïs, Larousse, 2009 (ISBN 978-2-03-583984-Cool.
Julien Peltier, Le Crépuscule des samouraïs. L'âge d'or des guerriers japonais au tournant du XVIIe siècle, Economica, 2010.
Pierre-François Souyri, Samouraï : 1 000 ans d'histoire du Japon, Rennes, Presses Universitaires de Rennes, 2014, 263 p.

Articles connexes

Bushido
Katana
Kenjutsu
Koryu
Kyujutsu
Shugyo
Haitorei
Kiri sute gomen

Biographies de samouraïs dans la catégorie Nuvola apps kpager.svg samouraï

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MessageSujet: Re: Moise, Y'becca et le clan des hérisson ou Avant-garde.   Mar 18 Oct à 10:38

DUBLIN (AFP) - Vers l'Ensemble des Républiques autonomes, libres et démocratiques.
Contre l'Esclavage, le Viol, la Torture, le Chantage et la Corruption.

Ireland's opposition on Wednesday lashed out at a cabinet decision to appeal the EU's Apple ruling amid public support for the European Commission order to collect back taxes from the US tech giant.

"We want companies like Apple in Ireland... but this doesn't mean one should turn a blind eye to tax evasion or avoidance," Sinn Fein leader Gerry Adams said in parliament, which was recalled early to debate an issue that has divided the country.

"Tax is not just for the small man, it is for all," he said, Sinn Fein said on its Twitter account.

The European Commission last week ordered Apple to pay a record 13 billion euros ($15 billion) in back taxes in Ireland, a move Washington warned could damage hugely important transatlantic economic ties.

The ruling put Ireland in the strange position of refusing the windfall for fear of scaring away valuable investment and undermining a cornerstone of Ireland's economic policy for decades.

Ireland's two main parties, Prime Minister Enda Kenny's Fine Gael and Fianna Fail, which supports the minority government, are expected to back the appeal.

But Sinn Fein, the main opposition party which gained support in elections earlier this year on an anti-austerity platform, is set to oppose.

Sinn Fein finance spokesman Pearse Doherty said Apple had operated "a sort of untaxed Bermuda Triangle" in Ireland following opinion polls that have shown majorities in favour of Apple paying the back taxes.

In his opening address, Finance Minister Micheal Noonan said the ruling had fed into an "outdated caricature" of Ireland as a tax haven and must be appealed to defend its international reputation and its future ability to attract foreign investment.

"The government?s position throughout this process has been that the full amount of tax was paid in this case and no State aid was provided," he said.

"Ireland did not give favourable tax treatment to Apple: Ireland does not do deals with taxpayers."

Prime Minister Enda Kenny said the ruling had done "great damage" to Ireland's international reputation.

"The picture of Ireland painted by the Commission in this decision as a country prepared to play fast and loose with the law to gain unfair advantage could not be more damaging or further from the truth," he said.

Apple has had a base in the southern city of Cork since 1980 and employs nearly 6,000 people in Ireland, through which it routes its international sales totalling billions.

The European Commission said Apple paid an effective corporate tax rate of just 0.005 per cent on its European profits in 2014 -- equivalent to just 50 euros for every million.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

DUBLIN (AFP)- Vers l'Ensemble des Républiques autonomes, libres et démocratiques.
Contre l'Esclavage, le Viol, la Torture, le Chantage et la Corruption.

Opposition de l’Irlande mercredi fustigé une décision du cabinet d’appel décision d’Apple de l’UE au milieu de soutien public à l’ordre de la Commission européenne de percevoir les arriérés d’impôts du géant américain tech.

« Nous voulons des sociétés comme Apple en Irlande... mais cela ne signifie pas qu’on devrait fermer les yeux à des fraudes ou évasions fiscales, » Sinn Fein leader Gerry Adams a déclaré au Parlement, qui a été rappelé au début de débattre d’une question qui a divisé le pays.

« Taxe n’est pas juste pour le petit homme, c’est pour tous, » dit-il, Sinn Fein a déclaré sur son compte Twitter.

La Commission européenne la semaine dernière a ordonné Apple à payer un record 13 milliards d’euros ($ 15 milliards) dans le dos impôts en Irlande, un geste de Washington a averti pourrait endommager extrêmement importants liens économiques transatlantiques.

La décision mis l’Irlande en position étrange de refuser la manne par crainte de faire fuir les investissements utiles et saper des pierres angulaires de la politique économique de l’Irlande depuis des décennies.

Deux principaux partis de l’Irlande, du premier ministre Enda Kenny Fine Gael et Fianna Fail, qui soutient le gouvernement minoritaire, sont censés soutenir l’appel.

Mais le Sinn Fein, principal parti d’opposition qui a obtenu de soutien lors des élections plus tôt cette année sur une plateforme anti-austéritée, est définie pour s’opposer.

Sinn Fein Finances Pearse Doherty porte-parole Qu'apple avait opéré « une sorte de Triangle des Bermudes non taxé » en Irlande suite à des sondages d’opinion qui ont montré les majorités en faveur de Apple à payer les arriérés d’impôts.

Dans son discours d’ouverture, le ministre des Finances Micheal Noonan a déclaré la décision avait nourri dans une caricature « périmée » de l’Irlande comme un paradis fiscal et doit être portée en appel pour défendre sa réputation internationale et sa capacité future à attirer des investissements étrangers.

« Le gouvernement ? s position tout au long de ce processus a été que le plein montant de la taxe a été payé en l’espèce et a été fourni aucune aide d’État, » dit-il.

« L’Irlande n’a pas donné un traitement fiscal favorable à Apple : l’Irlande ne fait pas affaires avec les contribuables. »

Premier ministre Enda Kenny a déclaré que la dirigeante avait fait « de grands dommages » à la réputation internationale de l’Irlande.

« L’image de l’Irlande peint par la Commission dans la présente décision, comme un pays prêt à jouer vite et perdent le droit d’obtenir un avantage injuste ne pouvait pas être plus dommageable ou plus éloigné de la vérité », dit-il.

Apple a eu une base dans la ville méridionale de Cork depuis 1980 et emploie près de 6.000 personnes en Irlande, à travers laquelle il achemine ses ventes internationales, pour un total de milliards.

La Commission européenne a dit Qu'apple a payé un taux effectif d’imposition corporatif de seulement 0,005 pour cent sur ses bénéfices européens en 2014--équivalent à seulement 50 euros pour chaque million.

_________________
Kounak le chat....


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Re: La Révolte des Républiques d'Irlande et de Gréce. Mer 7 Sep à 14:43 Répondre en citant
l'esprit de liberté est un esprit qui est emprunt à la naïveté de l'émoi. Il est fragile et se console d'un rien sur l'échelle de la vie. Il est naturel et humble... Sa diversité est un affront et pourtant il consiste à dire une réalité fragile et menaçante devant la Tyrannie et ses sbires: La Justice pour Tous pour le Lion tout comme pour le Rat. Pour Georges Orwell et Malabar le cheval et benjamin l'âne. Voilà être au milieu d'un peuple s'est pas la garantie d'une opinion, cela est pour certains un crime, moi je vous avoue que par moment. Mais voilà pour certain(e)s s'est le Roi ou la Reine ou autres, il s'agit de l'opinion. Le parfait est il accessible ? L'imparfait est il lié à la Richesse ? Toujours est il un rempart à l'injustice ? L'amitié ne ruine t'elle pas l'espérance devant la Trahison et la croyance ? Tant de questions qui ont trouvé des réponses... Mais le crime est collectif car le caractère n'est pas l'unisson: Le personnel est trop lié à l'ensemble... Quand on tue une Femme ou un homme; c'est tout un aspect de l'harmonie qui s'évapore de la pensée... L'esprit de liberté est universel dans la foi d'une vision, qu'en est-il du ventre ? Ce n'est pas la liberté qui a détruit les civilisations; ce sont nos ventres affamées devant l'échelle de l'abondance. Et pourtant l'amour est la plus belle des liberté et c'est en cela que certains peuvent se prétendre plus libre et autonomes que certains. Cette liberté de l'amour est certes idiote mais après tout, elle est la plus digne des révolutions.... En Hommage, à l’expression de la vie même si on peut dire que cela est emprunt à la naïveté de l'émoi.
Ecrit de
Monsieur Tignard Yanis CEDH AD/mr PN 3286
ou
TAY
La Chouette effraie.

_________________
Kounak le chat....

Une langue officielle est une langue qui est spécifiquement désignée comme telle, dans la constitution ou les textes de loi d'un pays, d'un État ou d'une organisation quelconque.

Elle s'impose à tous les services officiels de l'État (organes de gouvernement, administrations, tribunaux, registres publics, documents administratifs, etc.), ainsi qu'à tous les établissements privés qui s'adressent au public.

Variation selon les pays du monde

La moitié des pays du monde dispose d'une langue officielle.

Certains d'entre eux ne connaissent qu'une seule langue officielle, tels la France et l'Allemagne.

Certains pays ont plusieurs langues officielles, tels la Finlande, la Suisse, le Canada, le Luxembourg, la Belgique ou l'Afghanistan.

Dans plusieurs pays, comme l'Italie, les Philippines, l'Espagne, les Pays-Bas ou l'Irak, il y a une langue officielle pour le pays, mais d'autres langues sont coofficielles dans certaines régions.

Enfin, certains pays n'ont une (ou plus rarement plusieurs) langue officielle qu'en pratique (de facto), mais qui n'est pas prévue dans leur Constitution : le Mexique, le Belize, la Bolivie, le Chili, l'Éthiopie, l'Érythrée, la Gambie, la Guinée-Bissau, la Tanzanie, l'île Maurice, la Suède, le Royaume-Uni ou le Vatican. L'Union européenne représente un cas particulier fort intéressant puisqu'en théorie elle ne privilégie la langue d'aucun état et reconnaît donc les langues nationales (actuellement 24) de chaque état membre comme langues officielles. Tous les actes législatifs sont traduits en conséquence.

Dans son fonctionnement quotidien, l'Union européenne utilise l'allemand, l'anglais et le français comme langues de travail.

Dans la pratique, l'anglais occupe une place dominante au détriment des autres langues, en particulier dans les offres d'emploi pour les nouveaux fonctionnaires.
Rapport de la langue officielle avec les autres langues intérieures

L'existence d'une seule langue officielle est compatible avec une autre langue parlée dans le pays par davantage de personnes. Ainsi dans certains pays d'Afrique ou d'Asie, les langues officielles et d'enseignement (français, anglais ou portugais, par exemple), héritées du colonialisme, ont surtout un statut de langues véhiculaires permettant aux différents groupes ethniques de communiquer entre eux.

De même, dans les pays arabes, la langue officielle est l'arabe littéral alors que la langue maternelle est un arabe dialectal (langue issue de l'arabe mais différente car ayant évolué localement) ou même une langue totalement différente car ne faisant partie du même groupe linguistique (tamazight, kurde).

Autre exemple, la République d'Irlande considère l'anglais, qui est parlé par une majorité d'irlandais, comme deuxième langue : le pays a adopté le gaélique comme langue nationale officielle alors qu'il n'est parlé que par une faible proportion de la population.

En Chine, le mandarin est la langue officielle du pays bien que la majorité de la population chinoise lui préfère les langues régionales. Seule l'écriture chinoise détient cet avantage d'être intelligible par la grande majorité et permet aux différents groupes du peuple chinois de se comprendre.

En Inde, le pays possède 23 langues officielles dont l'usage et la répartition géographique diffère grandement. Le hindi, parlé par environ 40 % de la population dont les locuteurs sont regroupés dans le nord du sous-continent, n'arrive pas à s'imposer comme la seule langue officielle de la fédération. Les autorités ont alors recours le plus souvent à l'usage de l'anglais, langue du principal ancien colonisateur, pourtant qualifiée de « langue officielle secondaire », pour pouvoir communiquer avec les populations non hindiphones, qui sont majoritaires dans le sud.

Enfin, en Indonésie, où l'indonésien est utilisée par la plupart des habitants comme langue nationale véhiculaire, les langues régionales (qui, comme l'indonésien, sont dérivées du malais) sont également utilisées quotidiennement par la majorité des Indonésiens.

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Re: La Révolte des Républiques d'Irlande et de Gréce. Mer 7 Sep à 14:44
Un terme Laïque, anarchistes et religieux
The Black Stallion
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=M1Vfkz_Dzds

Le meilleur ami
C’est « l’ami ». La relation avec lui a traversé l’épreuve du temps et les épreuves tout court. Elle est fondée sur la croyance profonde (et a été soumise à l’expérience des faits) que l’on est aimé et apprécié pour ce que l’on est. De ce sentiment fort naît l’ingrédient clé de cette relation : l’exclusivité. Avec lui, inutile de présenter son meilleur profil ou de « la lui raconter ». Il est l’équivalent en amitié de l’âme soeur en amour. Les autres ingrédients qui composent la relation sont l’engagement (je suis loyal envers l’autre mais aussi envers la relation d’amitié), la confidence (volonté de s’ouvrir et de partager expériences et sentiments privilégiés), la confiance (certitude profonde qu’aucun ne trahira l’autre), l’honnêteté (franchise dans les échanges concernant la relation) et la communauté (sentiment que l’on partage le même état d’esprit et les mêmes valeurs, mais aussi que l’on est à l’aise avec nos différences).

Les attentes légitimes : la loyauté, une forme d’exclusivité, la franchise, le don et le partage.

Les motifs de rupture ou d’éloignement : la trahison (divulgation d’une confidence ou d’un secret, adultère avec le conjoint) ou une forte déception à propos d’un événement de vie symboliquement fort (mariage, décès, naissance, maladie…) que l’on n’arrive pas à pardonner.

Non aux Esclavages, Tortures, Viols Morales et Physiques.

Ecrit de
TAY
La chouette effraie.

_________________
Kounak le chat....
Revenir en haut Aller en bas
Voir le profil de l'utilisateur http://www.atelier-yannistignard.com
yanis la chouette



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MessageSujet: Re: Moise, Y'becca et le clan des hérisson ou Avant-garde.   Mar 18 Oct à 10:40

Portugais
Portugais
Português
Pays Angola, Brésil, Cap-Vert, Guinée-Bissau,
Inde (Daman et Diu, Goa), Macao, Mozambique, Portugal, Sao Tomé-et-Principe, Timor oriental
Nombre de locuteurs 273 millions1,2
Nom des locuteurs lusophones
Typologie SVO flexionnelle
Classification par famille

- langues indo-européennes
- langues romanes
- langues ibéro-romanes
- portugais

Statut officiel
Langue officielle Drapeau de l'Angola Angola
Drapeau du Brésil Brésil
Drapeau du Cap-Vert Cap-Vert
Drapeau de la Guinée-Bissau Guinée-Bissau
Drapeau de la Guinée équatoriale Guinée équatoriale
Drapeau de Macao Macao
Drapeau du Mozambique Mozambique
Drapeau du Portugal Portugal
Drapeau de Sao Tomé-et-Principe Sao Tomé-et-Principe
Drapeau du Timor oriental Timor oriental
Drapeau de l’Union européenne Union européenne
Régi par Instituto Internacional de Língua Portuguesa, Comunidade dos Países de Língua Portuguesa
Codes de langue
ISO 639-1 pt
ISO 639-2 por
ISO 639-3 por
Étendue Langue individuelle
Type Langue vivante
IETF pt
Linguasphère 51-AAA-a3
Article premier de la Déclaration Universelle des Droits de l'Homme (voir le texte en français)

Artigo 1°

« Todos os seres humanos nascem livres e iguais em dignidade e em direitos. Dotados de razão e de consciência, devem agir uns para com os outros em espírito de fraternidade. »
Carte
Map of the portuguese language in the world.png

langue maternelle
Langue officielle et administrative
Langue culturelle ou additionnelle
Minorités de langue portugaise
Créoles à base portugaise

modifier Consultez la documentation du modèle

Le portugais (en portugais português) est une langue appartenant à la branche romane de la famille des langues indo-européennes. Les locuteurs du portugais s'appellent les « lusophones ».

Le portugais occupe la sixième place des langues les plus parlées dans le monde si l'on tient compte du nombre de personnes dont c'est la langue maternelle. Il est la langue la plus parlée en Amérique du Sud4 et de l'Hémisphère sud, mais seconde en Amérique latine, après l'espagnol (plus du tiers de la population de l'Amérique latine parle le portugais). En Afrique, le portugais se présente comme une importante langue véhiculaire dans les anciennes colonies portugaises. Il représente au total 265 millions de locuteurs dont c'est la langue maternelle dans le monde et est ainsi la troisième langue européenne la plus parlée en tant que langue maternelle après l'espagnol (406 millions) et l'anglais (335 millions), et représente 4 %5 du PIB mondial. C'est aussi la cinquième langue par le nombre de pays ayant le portugais comme langue officielle5, la septième pour le nombre de traductions à destination du portugais5 et la neuvième par le nombre de pages vues sur l'encyclopédie Wikipédia6.

La « langue de Camões » est parlée au Portugal, y compris l'archipel de Madère et celui des Açores, au Brésil, en Angola, au Mozambique, au Cap-Vert, en Guinée-Bissau, à Sao Tomé-et-Principe, au Timor oriental, à Goa (Inde), à Daman et Diu (Inde), Malacca en Malaisie et à Macao (Chine). Il appartient à la famille des langues ibéro-romanes et présente de nombreuses similitudes avec le castillan. Au-delà de ses origines fortement latines, 20 % du lexique portugais tire ses racines ailleurs, en particulier de la langue arabe mais aussi notamment de l'occitan. En Galice (Espagne) est parlé le galicien, avec qui il est très étroitement apparenté. Au Brésil, le tupi-guarani en a influencé le vocabulaire.

Les normes de la langue portugaise sont régies par l’Instituto Internacional da Língua Portuguesa et la Comunidade dos Países de Língua Portuguesa.

Des créoles à base portugaise sont parlés au Cap-Vert, en Guinée-Bissau et à Sao Tomé-et-Principe.

Sommaire

1 Histoire
2 Classification
3 Caractéristiques
4 Répartition géographique
4.1 Statut officiel
4.2 Deuxième langue
4.3 Perspectives d'évolution
4.4 Dialectes
4.4.1 Angola
4.4.2 Brésil
4.4.3 Portugal
4.5 Langues dérivées
5 Écriture
5.1 Réforme du portugais
6 Lexique
6.1 Mots d'origine arabe
6.2 Autres mots
7 Phonologie
7.1 Voyelles
7.2 Consonnes
7.3 Prononciation
8 Grammaire
9 Exemples
10 Notes et références
11 Voir aussi
11.1 Bibliographie
11.2 Articles connexes
11.3 Liens externes

Histoire
Article détaillé : Histoire de la langue portugaise.
Articles connexes : Latin vulgaire et Galaïco-portugais.

Arrivant dans la péninsule Ibérique en 218 av. J.-C.7, les Romains apportent le latin vulgaire d'où descendent toutes les langues romanes. La langue est répandue par les soldats, les colons et les commerçants qui construisent des villes romaines principalement près des colonies des civilisations antérieures des Lusitaniens.

Entre 4098 et 7119 apr. J.-C., l'Empire romain s'effondre et la péninsule Ibérique est conquise par les peuples germaniques (ce sont les Invasions barbares). Les occupants, essentiellement Suèves et Wisigoths, adoptent la culture romaine et les dialectes en latin vulgaire de la péninsule[réf. nécessaire].

Après l'invasion mauresque de 711, l'arabe devient la langue administrative des régions conquises, mais la population continue à parler essentiellement une forme de roman communément appelé « mozarabe ». L'influence de l'arabe sur les dialectes romans parlés dans les royaumes chrétiens européens a été faible, affectant principalement leur lexique[réf. nécessaire].

Poésie Médiévale

Das que vejo
nom desejo
outra senhor se vós nom,
e desejo
tam sobejo,
mataria um leon
senhor do meu coraçom:
fim roseta,
bela sobre toda fror,
fim roseta,
nom me meta
em tal coita voss'amor!

João de Lobeira
(1270–1330)

Les documents les plus anciens en langue portugaise, entrecoupés de nombreuses phrases latines, sont des documents notariaux du IXe siècle. Cette phase est connue sous le nom de « proto-portugais » (entre le IXe et le XIIe siècle). Le Portugal devient un royaume indépendant avec le Royaume de León en 1139, sous le roi Alphonse Ier de Portugal. Dans la première période du vieux-portugais — période galaïco-portugaise (du XIIe au XIVe siècle) — la langue devient progressivement d'usage général. Pendant quelque temps, le galaïco-portugais est la langue de prédilection pour la poésie lyrique en Hispania chrétienne[Quoi ?]10, comme l'occitan est la langue de la littérature occitane pour les troubadours. En 1290, le roi Denis Ier de Portugal crée la première université portugaise à Lisbonne (Estudos Gerais, déplacée plus tard à Coimbra), et décrète que le portugais, jusque là simplement appelé « langage commun » devient la langue officielle[réf. nécessaire].
Carte chronologique montrant le développement et l'évolution des langues parlées dans la péninsule ibérique de l'an 1000 à nos jours.

Dans la seconde période du vieux-portugais, du XIVe au XVIe siècle, avec les explorations portugaises, la langue se répand dans de nombreuses régions d'Asie, d'Afrique et d'Amérique. Au XVIe siècle, il devient une langue véhiculaire en Asie et en Afrique, utilisée pour l'administration coloniale et le commerce mais aussi pour les communications entre les responsables locaux et les Européens de toutes nationalités. Sa diffusion est facilitée par les mariages mixtes entre Portugais et les populations autochtones, et son association avec les efforts des missionnaires catholiques conduit à l'appellation « kristang » (du mot cristão : chrétien) de certains créoles et pidgins portugais dans de nombreuses régions d'Asie. La langue continue à être populaire dans certaines parties d'Asie jusqu'au XIXe siècle, dans les communautés chrétiennes lusophones d'Inde, de Ceylan, de Malaisie et d'Indonésie11.

La fin de la période du vieux-portugais est marquée par la publication du Cancioneiro Geral de Garcia de Resende en 1516. Le début du portugais moderne au XVIe siècle est caractérisé par une augmentation du nombre de mots empruntés au latin et au grec classique, enrichissant le lexique.[réf. nécessaire]
Classification

Le portugais appartient au groupe ibéro-roman des langues romanes. Son ancêtre est le galaïco-portugais d'où sont issus également le galicien et le fala12.
Caractéristiques

Principales caractéristiques évolutives du portugais moderne dans l'ensemble roman, et en particulier par rapport aux langues voisines (seules les divergences sont indiquées pour le galicien) :

Chute de -l- et -n- intervocaliques13 : GENERALIS > geral ; SALIRE > sair.
Présence de voyelles nasales14 (avec caractère phonologique, trait absent du reste de la péninsule Ibérique, y compris du galicien).
Comme globalement dans les autres langues romanes occidentales, vocalisation des consonnes occlusives sourdes intervocaliques.
Simplification des consonnes géminées latines, sans palatalisation des groupes latins -LL- et -NN- (contrairement au reste de l'ibéro-roman et au catalan)14 : GALLAECUS > galego, ANNUS > ano.
Absence de diphtongaison de Ĕ et Ŏ toniques latins (comme en catalan, et contrairement au castillan et à une partie de l'astur-léonais) : METUS > medo.
Maintien des diphtongues archaïques ei et au (> ou/oi), monophtonguées en castillan et catalan13 : FERRARIUS > ferreiro ; CAUSA > cousa.
Palatalisation des groupes initiaux PL-, KL-, FL- > ch14. À rapprocher d'un phénomène parallèle en castillan (qui donne [ʎ]).
Système vocalique tonique à 7 éléments, avec maintien de l'opposition entre e et o ouverts ou fermés, comme dans la plupart des langues romanes et contrairement au castillan (qui a un système simplifié de 5 voyelles, aussi bien toniques qu'atones). Ce système interfère avec des phénomènes d'harmonisations vocaliques (l'aperture des o et, dans une moindre mesure, e toniques peut être conditionnée par le timbre de la syllabe finale)15.
De façon schématique, réduction à trois éléments du système vocalique atone13, avec simplification de oppositions a/e et o/u (phénomène parallèle au catalan oriental) : [ɐ] (< a, e), [u] (< o, u) et [i] (< i). Ce phénomène n'est néanmoins pas parfaitement régulier et connaît des variations dialectales. o se maintient par exemple généralement en position initiale absolue (ou produit par endroit une diphtongue)13. Il est ainsi bien moins marqué en portugais du Brésil16.
Comme en catalan, conservation de [ʎ] roman, issu de LI/LY latin (> [x] en castillan)17.
Maintien de [v] roman (absence de bêtacisme), contrairement au galicien, au castillan et à la plus grande partie du catalan14,18.
Palatalisation de -s implosif14 : fazimos > [fɐˈzimuʃ].
Maintien du groupe roman -it issu de -CT latin14 (palatalisé en castillan et simplifié en catalan) : FACTUM > feito, contre hecho (esp.) et fet (cat.).
Conservation du f- initial, comme en catalan, et contrairement au castillan (qui supprime la plupart du temps) et à l'astur-léonais (qui présente un état intermédiaire).

Répartition géographique

Le portugais est la langue maternelle de la majorité de la population du Portugal (95 %, soit 10 millions de locuteurs19,20 auxquels s'ajoutent 4,9 millions d'expatriés21), du Brésil (95 %, soit 205 millions22), de Sao Tomé-et-Principe (95 %23 à 99,8 %24) et de l'Angola (60 %25) et est la langue la plus parlée au Mozambique (50,4 % selon le recensement de 2007 mais seulement 10,7 % dont c'est la langue maternelle (soit 2 millions de locuteurs), en forte progression (1,2 % en 1980 et 6,5 % en 1997) 26). En 1983 il est parlé par 11,5 % de la population de la Guinée-Bissau27.

Aucune donnée n'est disponible pour les îles du Cap-Vert dont presque toute la population est bilingue, la population monolingue parlant le créole du Cap-Vert.[réf. nécessaire]

De petites communautés lusophones subsistent dans d'anciennes colonies portugaises telles que Malacca en Malaisie et à Macao, où il est parlé par 2,4 % de la population28, au Timor oriental (35 %29) et dans certaines parties de l'Inde, telles que Goa30 et Daman et Diu31, ou il est parlé en seconde langue par 20 000 personnes, et 5 000 personnes en langue maternelle (soit 25 000 personnes) .

Il est également parlé par des communautés immigrées en Afrique du Sud (entre 300 000 et 600 000 personnes32), en Andorre (15,4 %33), en Australie (0,13 % soit 25 779 personnes le parlent chez eux d'après le recensement de 200634), aux Bermudes (3,6 %35), au Canada (0,72 % soit 219 275 personnes d'après le recensement de 200636,37 mais entre 400 000 et 500 000 d'après Nancy Gomes38), en France39, au Japon40, à Jersey (4,6 %41), au Luxembourg (9 %42), en Namibie43, au Paraguay (10,7 % soit 636 000 personnes44), en Suisse (196 000 nationaux en 200845), au Venezuela (1 à 2 %, soit 254 000 à 480 000 personnes46,38) et aux États-Unis (0,24 % soit 1 687 126 personnes selon l'American Community Survey de 200747) principalement en Floride48, au Massachusetts49, au Californie, au New Jersey50, dans l'État de New York50,51 et à Rhode Island52.
Statut officiel
Articles détaillés : Liste des pays où le portugais est langue officielle et Lusophonie.
Statut officiel du portugais dans le monde

Actuellement, le portugais est la langue officielle de l'Angola, du Brésil, du Cap-Vert, de la Guinée-Bissau, du Portugal, de Sao Tomé-et-Principe et du Mozambique53. Il est également l'une des langues officielles de la région administrative spéciale de Macao (avec le chinois) et du Timor oriental, (avec le tétoum).

Le portugais est la langue officielle de plusieurs organisations internationales. La Communauté des pays de langue portugaise53 se compose de huit pays indépendants dont la langue officielle est le portugais. C'est également une langue officielle de l'Union européenne, représentant 3 % de sa population54, et majoritaire dans le Mercosur, de l'Organisation des États américains, de l'Organisation des États ibéro-américains, de l'Union des Nations sud-américaines, et de l'Union africaine (une des langues de travail) et l'une des langues officielles d'autres organisations[réf. nécessaire].
Deuxième langue

L'Uruguay a conféré au portugais un statut égal à l'espagnol dans son système éducatif le long de la frontière nord avec le Brésil. Dans le reste du pays, il est enseigné comme matière obligatoire à partir de la 6e depuis 200855.

Il est aussi offert obligatoirement par les écoles secondaires en Argentine56 et comme option au Venezuela57, en Zambie58, au Congo59, au Sénégal59, en Namibie59, au Swaziland59, en Côte d'Ivoire59 et en Afrique du Sud59.

Le portugais est aussi très important, et souvent parlé en seconde langue au Guyana, au Suriname, en Guyane Française et dans le sud du Venezuela, autant de territoires frontaliers avec le Brésil.
Perspectives d'évolution

Selon les estimations de l'UNESCO, la langue portugaise a le plus fort potentiel de croissance en tant que langue internationale en Afrique du Sud et en Amérique du Sud60. Les pays lusophones d'Afrique devraient compter une population s'élevant à 83 millions de locuteurs d'ici 2050. Au total, les pays de langue portugaise devraient compter 335 millions61 de locuteurs cette même année60.

Depuis que le Brésil a signé, en 1991, le traité du marché économique de l'Amérique du Sud (Mercosur) avec d'autres nations, comme l'Argentine, l'Uruguay et le Paraguay, et que le portugais en est la langue de travail, il y a un regain d'intérêt pour l'étude du portugais dans les pays d'Amérique du Sud. Le poids démographique du Brésil dans le continent (51 %) continuera de renforcer la présence de la langue dans la région.[réf. nécessaire]

Même si, après la cession de Macao à la Chine en 1999, l'utilisation du portugais était en baisse en Asie, il redevient une langue d'avenir, principalement parce que le Timor oriental a augmenté le nombre de ses locuteurs au cours des cinq dernières années, mais aussi en raison de l'augmentation des liens financiers et diplomatiques chinois avec les pays lusophones62.
Estação da Luz, musée de la langue portugaise, à São Paulo, Brésil

En juillet 2007, le président Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo a annoncé la décision du gouvernement de faire du portugais la troisième langue officielle de la Guinée équatoriale, afin de respecter les exigences pour devenir membre à part entière de la Communauté des pays de langue portugaise (CPLP). Le portugais est donc devenu la troisième langue officielle du pays avec le français et l'espagnol, en 201163.

En mars 1994, le Bosque de Portugal est créé dans la ville brésilienne de Curitiba. Le parc abrite le mémorial de langue portugaise, qui honore les immigrants portugais et les pays qui ont adopté la langue portugaise. À l'origine, il y avait sept nations représentées par des piliers, mais avec l'indépendance du Timor oriental, un autre pilier est ajouté pour ce pays en 200764. En mars 2006, le Musée de la langue portugaise, musée interactif sur la langue portugaise, est fondé à São Paulo, au Brésil, la ville comptant le plus grand nombre de lusophones dans le monde65.
Dialectes

Les dialectes portugais sont des variantes n'ayant pas suffisamment d'écarts par rapport à la norme officielle pour être considérés comme des langues distinctes. Les différences entre les dialectes portugais sont, pour la plupart, la phonologie, la fréquence d'utilisation de certaines formes grammaticales et la distance entre les niveaux formels et informels.

Ces dialectes se répartissent en deux groupes, ceux apparentés au portugais du Brésil et ceux apparentés au portugais du Portugal. Pour des raisons historiques, les dialectes d'Afrique et d'Asie font partie du deuxième groupe, même si certains aspects phonétiques, en particulier la prononciation des voyelles atones, ressemblent plus au portugais du Brésil qu'au portugais du Portugal. Les différences ne nuisent cependant pas trop à la compréhension entre locuteurs de différents dialectes.[réf. nécessaire]
Angola
Dialectes portugais en Angola

Benguelense : Province de Benguela.
Luandense exemples audios66 : Province de Luanda.
Sulista : sud de l'Angola.
Huambese : Province de Huambo et centre de l'Angola (non indiqué sur la carte).

Brésil
Article détaillé : Portugais brésilien.
Dialectes portugais au Brésil

Les tentatives de classification des dialectes du Brésil sont peu nombreuses et la plus importante a été faite en 1922 (et revue en 1953) par le philologue Antenor Nascentes67 :

Falares do Norte (dialectes septentrionaux) :
Nordestino :
2. Cearense : Ceará.
7.Nordestino exemples audios68 : Nordeste (Alagoas, Sergipe, Ceará, Pernambuco, Paraíba et Rio Grande do Norte ont une façon particulière de parler)69.
Amazônico :
8. Nortista : Bassin amazonien.
Baiano :
3. Baiano : Bahia.
Falares do Sul (dialectes méridionaux) :
Fluminense :
4. Fluminense exemples audios70 : État de Rio de Janeiro et sud de Espírito Santo.
Carioca : ville de Rio de Janeiro.
Mineiro :
6. Mineiro : centre de Minas Gerais (la ville de Belo Horizonte possède son propre accent).
Sulista :
1. Caipira : intérieur de l'État de São Paulo, sud de Minas Gerais et de Goiás, nord du Paraná et est de Mato Grosso do Sul.
5. Gaúcho : Rio Grande do Sul (nombreux accents distincts en raison de l'afflux d'immigrants européens d'origines diverses).
9. Paulistano : ville de São Paulo et zones orientales de l'État de São Paulo.
10. Sertanejo : Goiás et Mato Grosso.
11. Sulista : Paraná et Santa Catarina (les villes de Curitiba, Florianópolis et Itapetininga ont des accents distincts).

Portugal
Dialectes du portugais au Portugal

La classification généralement acceptée suit celle de Luís Filipe Lindley Cintra de 197171,72 :

Dialectes transmontano et alto-minhoto :
4. exemples audios Alto-Minhoto — District de Viana do Castelo.
10. exemples audios Transmontano — Trás-os-Montes et Haut Douro.
Dialectes baixo-minhotos-durienses-beirões :
5. exemples audios Baixo-Beirão; Alto-Alentejano — Districts de Castelo Branco et de Portalegre.
6. exemples audios Beirão — Districts de Viseu et de Guarda.
9. exemples audios Nortenho — Districts de Braga et de Porto.
Dialectes du centre litoral :
7. exemples audios Estremenho — Régions de Coimbra et de Lisbonne (le dialecte de Lisbonne a des caractéristiques particulières non partagées avec celui de Coimbra).
Dialectes du centre interieur et du sud :
2. exemples audios Alentejano — Alentejo.
3. exemples audios Algarvio — Algarve (il y a un dialecte particulier dans une petite partie de l'ouest de l'Algarve).
Dialectes insulaires :
1. exemples audios Micaelense (Açoriano) — Açores.
8. exemples audios Madeirense — Madère.

Langues dérivées
Article détaillé : liste des langues créoles dont la base lexicale est principalement la langue portugaise.

exemples audios Crioulo cabo-verdiano — Créole du Cap-Vert.
Damaense — Daman et Diu, Inde.
exemples audios Timorense — Portugais du Timor oriental.
Goês — Goa, Inde.
exemples audios Guineense — Créole de Guinée-Bissau.
exemples audios Macaísta ou patuá — Patois macanais (Macao, Chine).
exemples audios Moçambicano — Portugais du Mozambique.
exemples audios Santomense — Sao Tomé-et-Principe.
Dialectes portugais de l'Uruguay.
Le papiamento, est une langue créole des Antilles néerlandaises. Il est parlé à Aruba, Bonaire et Curaçao avec des variantes locales.

Pour le cas particulier du galicien, il forme avec le portugais le diasystème galaïco-portugais car il partage la même base structurelle et est mutuellement compréhensible. Il y a cependant deux courants idéologiques qui s'opposent pour dire que le galicien est un dialecte du portugais ou une langue différente.

Le courant officiel et majoritaire prône la différenciation, le galicien écrit suivant des normes proches de l'espagnol, rompant ainsi avec l'orthographe traditionnelle du galaïco-portugais médiéval.

Le courant minoritaire appelé « réintégrationniste » défend en raison de l'origine commune et de la grande similitude des deux langues, un rapprochement grammatical et orthographique avec le reste du monde lusophone afin d'éviter que le galicien ne finisse par être absorbé par le castillan, langue dominante dans l'espace espagnol. Le galicien est ainsi parfois appelé : galego-português, português da Galiza ou encore portugalego.
Écriture
Article détaillé : Orthographe portugaise.

Le portugais s'écrit au moyen de l'alphabet latin complété par des diacritiques (le tilde sur les voyelles a et o, qui est l'ancien signe médiéval marquant l'abrègement du "n", par exemple pan (pain) est devenu pão; cédille; accent circonflexe; accent aigu; accent grave) et des digrammes ; nh (équivalent au ñ espagnol ou au gn français), lh (équivalent au ll espagnol ou au gl(i) italien), ch — dont les deux premiers, nh et lh, sont des conventions graphiques empruntées à l'ancien occitan73. Il existe quelques différences entre l'orthographe du Brésil et celle d'autres pays lusophones. Le portugais du Portugal n'utilisait pas, jusqu'à la réforme de 1990 les lettres k, w et y.
Réforme du portugais

Un projet d'uniformisation de la langue portugaise, visant à modifier l'orthographe de plusieurs centaines de mots, a vu le jour en 1990 sous le nom officiel de « accord orthographique de la langue portugaise ». Ce traité international a été ratifié par le Portugal (1991), le Brésil (1995), Cap-Vert (1998), Sao Tomé-et-Principe (2006), le Timor oriental (2009)74 et la Guinée-Bissau (2009)75. Un « second protocole modificatif » permettant son utilisation dès la ratification par trois pays a été ratifié par le Brésil (2004), Cap-Vert (2005), Sao Tomé-et-Principe (2006) et le Portugal (2008). Il est donc techniquement en vigueur suivant le droit international depuis le 1er janvier 200776. Le parlement portugais a voté en 2008 pour un délai de 6 ans pour son implémentation tandis que le Brésil a légiféré en 2008, maintenant les deux orthographes valides jusqu'en 2012.

Les partisans de la réforme soulignent ses multiples avantages, parmi lesquels la simplification des recherches sur Internet et un jargon juridique uniformisé pour les contrats internationaux. Cette réforme ne concerne que 2 000 des quelque 110 000 mots que comprend le vocabulaire portugais77 ; cependant, 75 % des changements doivent être effectués par le Portugal affectant 1,6 % du vocabulaire utilisé contre 0,5 % du vocabulaire du Brésil78. Les autorités portugaises y voient un argument supplémentaire en faveur de leur vieille ambition de faire adopter le portugais comme langue officielle aux Nations unies, qui en comptent actuellement six (anglais, espagnol, français, chinois, arabe, russe).

Les changements au Portugal visent à rendre l'orthographe plus proche de la façon dont les mots sont prononcés en supprimant les consonnes silencieuses, comme le faisaient déjà les Brésiliens. Ainsi óptimo (très bon ou génial) devient ótimo et acção (action) devient ação. Le nouvel alphabet comporte 26 lettres grâce à l'ajout du k, du w et du y, pour accueillir des mots comme hacker et kwanza, la monnaie angolaise. Au Brésil, le tréma disparaît sauf pour les adjectifs dérivés de noms propres d'origine étrangère (mülleriano pour « de Müller »).
Lexique

La plus grande partie du lexique portugais vient du latin. Il y a cependant des mots empruntés d'origine arabe, à la suite de l'occupation maure durant cinq siècles, et d'origine africaine et asiatique, adoptés durant les découvertes portugaises.
Mots d'origine arabe

Plusieurs centaines de mots d'origine arabe entrent dans le lexique portugais entre le IXe et XIIIe siècles. Ceux-ci sont souvent reconnaissables à l'utilisation de l'article arabe a(l)- en début de mot, et incluent beaucoup de mots communs. Voici une liste non exhaustive de quelques mots à usage courant :
Mot portugais Traduction Mot arabe d'origine
azeite huile d'olive az-zeit (أَلْزيت) (l'huile)
azeitona olive az-zeitwn (الزيتون) (l'olive)
alcachofra artichaut al-ḫaršwf (الخرشوف) (l’épine de la terre)
açúcar sucre as-sukkar (السكّر) (le sucre)
aldeia village ad-ḍay’ah (الضيعة) (le village)
alface laitue al-khass (الخس) (la laitue)
almofada coussin al-muḫada (المخدة) (le coussin)
armazém entrepôt al-maḫzan (المخزن) (l'entrepôt)
alfazema lavande al-ḫazāmi (الخزامي) (la lavande)
alguacil huissier al-ḡazil (الغزل) (l'archer)
arroz riz al-aruz (الأرز) (le riz)
até jusque hatta (حتى) (idem)
cenoura carotte safunnāryah (سفنارية) (idem)
garrafa bouteille ǧarāfa (غرافة) (idem)
há voici, il y a hā (ها) (idem)
marfim ivoire ‘aẓam al-fyl (عظم الفيل) (os d’éléphant)
oxalá pourvu que (littéralement Dieu veuille que) inch’Allah (ان شاء الله) (Si Dieu le veut)
refém otage rahan (رهن) (idem)
xarope sirop šrāb (شراب) (idem)
Article détaillé : wikt:Catégorie:Mots en portugais issus d’un mot en arabe.
Autres mots

Les peuples préromains (Celtibères, Lusitaniens et Gallaeci) ont légué un nombre très limité de mots, souvent communs avec le castillan. Quelques exemples sont : abóbora (citrouille) et bezerro (veau de moins de un an), du celtibère et cerveja (bière), du celte.

Quelques mots proviennent des peuples germaniques ayant occupé la péninsule Ibérique à partir du Ve siècle. La plupart de ces mots sont liés à la guerre : espora (éperon), estaca (pieu) et guerra (guerre), du gotique spaúra, stakka et wirro, respectivement. Des traces sont aussi trouvées dans des toponymes tels que Ermesinde, Esposende et Resende où « sinde » et « sende » viennent du germanique sinths (expédition militaire) et dans le cas de Resende, le préfixe re vient du germanique reths (assemblée).

À partir du XVe siècle et de l'expansion maritime du Portugal, des mots japonais, tel katana qui donna catana (machette), et cantonais, tel chá qui donna chá (thé) furent adoptés. Ce fut aussi le cas de certains mots des langues amérindiennes comme le taino (batata pour pomme de terre), les langues tupi-guarani (naná et le tupi ibá cati, respectivement deux espèces d'ananas, donnent ananás et abacaxi) et le guarani (tucan qui donne tucano « toucan »). Plus tard, d'autres mots d'origine africaine intègrent le lexique portugais comme cafuné (caresse de la tête), caçula (benjamin) et bungular (danser comme un serpent), qui viennent du kimbundu, respectivement kifumate, kusula et kubungula.

Finalement, un flux constant de mots d'autres langues européennes vient compléter le vocabulaire. Par exemple, melena (boucle de cheveu) et fiambre (jambon) viennent de l'espagnol ; crochê, paletó, batom (rouge à lèvres) et filete du français crochet, paletot, bâton et filet ; macarrão (macaroni), piloto (pilote), carroça (charrette) et barraca (baraque) de l'italien maccherone, pilota, carrozza, baracca ; et bife (steak), futebol, revólver, estoque, folclore, de l'anglais beef, football, revolver, stock, folklore.
Phonologie
Article principal : alphabet portugais.

Il y a un maximum de neuf voyelles orales et dix-neuf consonnes, bien que certaines variétés de la langue aient moins de phonèmes (le portugais brésilien comporte huit voyelles orales). Il y a également cinq voyelles nasales, que certains linguistes regardent comme allophones des voyelles orales, dix diphtongues orales et cinq diphtongues nasales. En tout, le portugais brésilien a treize voyelles79,80.
Voyelles
Le tableau de monophtongues du portugais de Lisbonne.

Aux sept voyelles du latin vulgaire, le portugais européen a ajouté deux voyelles moyennes centrales, dont l'une tend à être élidée quand on parle rapidement, ainsi que l'e caduc du français (représenté sous la forme /ɯ̽/ ou /ɨ/ ou /ə/). Les voyelles mi-fermées /e o/ et les voyelles mi-ouvertes /ɛ ɔ/ sont quatre phonèmes distincts, qui se déclinent en diverses formes d'alternance vocalique. Comme le catalan, le portugais utilise l'articulation des voyelles pour faire un contraste entre les syllabes toniques et les syllabes atones : les voyelles isolées tendent à être fermées et parfois centralisées quand elles sont atones. Les diphtongues nasales se trouvent surtout à la fin des mots.
Consonnes
Consonnes du portugais81,82 Bilabiale Labio-
dentale Dentale Alvéolaire Post-
alvéolaire Palatale Vélaire Uvulaire
Nasale m n ɲ
Occlusive p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ
Fricative f v s z ʃ ʒ ʁ
Spirante83 j w
Latérale l ʎ
Battue ɾ

L'ensemble des consonnes du portugais est assez conservatif. Les affriquées médiévales /ts/, /dz/, /tʃ/, /dʒ/ sont fondues avec les fricatives /s/, /z/, /ʃ/, /ʒ/, respectivement, mais pas les unes avec les autres, et il n'y a pas d'autres modifications significatives de cet ensemble depuis lors. Cependant, certaines variétés dialectales et allophones notables ont surgi, parmi lesquelles :

Dans plusieurs régions du Brésil, /t/ et /d/ ont les allophones affriqués [tʃ] et [dʒ], respectivement, devant /i/ et /ĩ/. (Le français québécois connaît un phénomène similaire, avec des affriquées alvéolaires au lieu de post-alvéolaires. Le japonais est un autre exemple).
À la fin d'une syllabe, le phonème /l/ a l'allophone [u̯] en portugais brésilien (vocalisation du L).
Dans plusieurs régions du Brésil et de l'Angola, l'intervocalique /ɲ/ est prononcé comme une spirante palatale nasalisé [ȷ̃] qui nasalise la voyelle précédente, de sorte que, par exemple, /ˈniɲu/ est prononcé comme [ˈnĩȷ̃u].
Dans presque tout le Brésil, les alvéolaires sifflantes /s/ et /z/ se produisent en distribution complémentaire à la fin des syllabes, et changent selon que la consonne qui suit est sourde ou voisée, comme en anglais. Mais dans presque tout le Portugal et dans certaines régions du Brésil (en particulier Rio de Janeiro), ces consonnes sibilantes sont postalvéolaire à la fin des syllabes : /ʃ/ devant des consonnes sourdes, et /ʒ/ devant des consonnes voisées (en judéo-espagnol, /s/ est également souvent remplacé par /ʃ/ à la fin des syllabes).
Il y a un nombre considérable de variations dialectales de la réalisation du phonème rhotique /ʁ/, tels que /r/, [ʀ], [x], [χ], [h] et [ɹ].

Prononciation
graphème prononciation note
a /a/ a français quand il s'accentue
á /a/ a français, voyelle accentuée du mot
à /a/ a français, indique la contraction de deux a (exemple : a + aquela = àquela)
â /ɐ/ entre le a et le e muet français, voyelle accentuée du mot
a /ɐ/ entre le a et le e muet français, voyelle inaccentuée du mot
e /e, ɨ/ e fermé français et i à la fin du mot (au Brésil). En Afrique et au Portugal c'est le e fermé français, lorsqu'il n'est pas accentué il se prononce comme un i "fermé" et par fois il ne se prononce pas (exemple: felicidade /flɨsidad/)
é /ɛ/ e ouvert français, voyelle accentuée du mot
ê /e/ e fermé français, voyelle accentuée du mot
i /i, ɨ/ i, voyelle accentuée du mot. En Afrique et au Portugal lorsqu'il n'est pas accentué il se prononce comme un i "fermé" et par fois il ne se prononce pas
í /i/ i français, voyelle accentuée du mot
o /o/, /u/ ou français quand il n'est pas accentué
ó /ɔ/ o ouvert français, voyelle accentuée du mot
ô /o/ o fermé français, voyelle accentuée du mot
u /u/ ou français
ú /u/ ou français, voyelle accentuée du mot
ei /ei̯/ ey, e fermé français ou même /ɐi̯/ (à Lisbonne)
ou /ou̯/ o+ou (rapide) (exemple: estou (ésto+ou) = je suis), mais le o fermé français est plus courant
ã, an, am /ɐ̃/ proche du in/ain/ein français (exemple: irmã (irmain) = sœur)
en, em /ẽ/ in en français québécois
in, im /ĩ/ i nasal
õ, on, om /õ/ proche du on français (entre le an/en et le on)
un, um /ũ/ ou nasal, juste comme oun en créole haïtien
ão, -am /ɐ̃u̯/ in+ou (rapide) (exemple: pão (pain+ou) = pain). Ce son est aussi présent à la syllabe -am à la fin du mot (comme avec le mot falam = ils/elles parlent)
ãe, ãi /ɐ̃i̯/ in+i (rapide) (exemple: mãe (main+i) = mère)
-em /ẽi̯/ in québécois + i (rapide) (exemple: bem (bin+i) = bien) à la fin du mot (le in se prononce comme en français québécois) ; ou même il peut être comme le diphthongue portugais ãe (à Lisbonne)
õe /õi̯/ on+i (rapide) (exemple: lições (liçon+ije) = leçons)
-om /õu̯/ on+ou (rapide) (exemple: bom (bon+ou) = bon) à la fin du mot
-ui /ũi̯/ ou nasal et i semi-consonne. Il existe seulement au mot muito = beaucoup, et ses dérivés
d /d/ d. Au Brésil devant /i/ il se prononce comme le "dj" français (exemple: boa tarde (boa tardji) = bonjour l'après-midi)
ch /ʃ/ ch français
j /ʒ/ j français
lh /ʎ/ ll espagnol standard (sans yeísmo) et proche du li français (comme dans « lion »)
nh /ɲ/ gn français et italien, ñ espagnol. Au Brésil et en Angola c'est la nasalisation de la voyelle antérieure et un i semi-consonne (example: vergonha /vergõjɐ/)
r, -rr- /r, x, ɣ, ʀ, ʁ, χ, ħ, h, ɦ/, En portugais il y a un vaste spectre de sons pour le r fort. Au Portugal et en Afrique il peut être le uvulaire /χ, ʁ/, grasseyé /ʀ/ ou roulé /r/. Au Brésil le spectre est encore plus vaste; velar /x, ɣ/ uvulaire /χ, ʁ/ (spécialement à Rio de Janeiro), pharyngal /ħ/, mais le plus courant c'est le glottal /h, ɦ/.
-r- /ɾ/, /ɾ, r, ɹ, ʁ, χ, ħ, ʕ, h, ɦ/ Le r doux est toujours /ɾ/ au moyen des voyelles, (comme cara = face). Aux syllabes fermées (comme carta = lettre, ou falar = parler) cela dépend de la région. Au Portugal et en Afrique c'est /ɾ/; mais au Brésil cela c'est plus divers; alvéolaire /ɾ, r/, rétroflexe /ɹ/ (spécialement à São Paulo), uvulaire /ʁ, χ/ (spécialement à Rio de Janeiro), pharyngal /ħ, ʕ/, glottal /h, ɦ/, et même c'est courent ne prononcer aucune consonne.
s /s/, /z/, /ʒ/, /ʃ/ s dur en début de mot ou après consonne z entre deux voyelles. Avec l'accent du Portugal, d'Afrique et de Rio de Janeiro ch du je français en fin de mot, ou ch français devant c, f, p, t, q, exemple casca (cachca) = coquille, ou costa (cochta) = côte (mer)
t /t/ t. Au Brésil devant /i/ il se prononce comme le "tch" français et "ch" espagnol (exemple: boa noite (boa noïtchi) = bonne nuit)
x /ʃ/, /ks/, /s/, /z/ le plus souvent comme ch français (exemple: puxar (pouchar) = tirer) et en début de mot (exemple: xadrez (chadrej) = jeu d’échecs). Aussi ks (exemple: tóxico (toksicou) = toxique), s (exemple: máximo (massimou) = maximum) ou z (exemple: exame (ézame) = examen)
z /z/, /ʒ/ z français. Avec l'accent du Portugal et de Rio de Janeiro ch français en fin de mot, exemple paz (pache) = paix, ou raiz (rahiche) = racine

84,85
Grammaire

Grammaticalement, le portugais se distingue de la plupart des autres langues romanes par l'existence d'un subjonctif futur servant à exprimer l'éventuel du futur (Se tiveres dúvidas, liga-me. : « Au cas où tu aurais une question, appelle-moi. ») et par la conjugaison de l'infinitif avec son sujet dans les propositions infinitives. À noter que l'espagnol ancien possédait également un subjonctif futur. Consulter l'article détaillé sur la conjugaison portugaise pour plus de détails.
Exemples
Mot Traduction Prononciation
terre terra [ˈtɛ.rɐ]
ciel céu [ˈsɛw]
eau água [ˈag.wɐ]
feu fogo [ˈfo.gu]
homme homem [ˈɔ.mẽj]
femme mulher [mu.ˈʎɛɾ]
manger comer [ku.ˈmeɾ]
boire beber [bɨ.ˈbeɾ]
grand grande [ˈgɾɐ̃.dɨ]
petit pequeno [pɨ.ˈke.nu]
nuit noite [ˈnoj.tɨ]
jour dia [ˈdi.ɐ]
maison casa [ˈka.zɐ]

Je suis perdu(e). Je cherche la gare. : (Eu)86 estou perdido(a). (Eu)86 estou à procura da estação ferroviária.
Je suis de France. : (Eu)86 sou da França.
Cent un : Cento e um
Mon cousin vient d'arriver. : O meu primo acabou de chegar./O meu primo acaba de chegar.
J'aime les pâtes. : Gosto de massa.
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MessageSujet: Re: Moise, Y'becca et le clan des hérisson ou Avant-garde.   Mar 18 Oct à 10:43

Spanish
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
(Redirected from Espagnol)
Look up Spanish in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Spanish (Spanish: Español) may refer to:

anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Spain
Spanish people (or Spaniards), an ethnic group
Spanish language, a Romance language
Spanish dialects, variants of the Spanish language
Spanish cuisine, traditional foods
Spanish mythology, traditional religion
The Spanish Empire, the empire administered by Spain from the 15th century

Other uses

Spanish, Ontario, a town in the Canadian province of Ontario
Spanish River (Ontario), a major river in Northern Ontario
"Spanish" (song), R&B song by Craig David
Spanish Town, Jamaica, the former Spanish and English capital of Jamaica
Liquorice, known as Spanish in Yorkshire and Lancashire
Spain (disambiguation)
All pages beginning with "Spanish"
All pages with titles containing Spanish

Soledades (1898-1907)
de Antonio Machado

He andado muchos caminos
he abierto muchas veredas;
he navegado en cien mares
y atracado en cien riberas.

En todas partes he visto
caravanas de tristeza,
soberbios y melancólicos
borrachos de sombra negra.

Y pedantones al paño
que miran, callan y piensan
que saben, porque no beben
el vino de las tabernas.

Mala gente que camina
y va apestando la tierra...

..............

Juan Gelman (1930) vient de gagner le prestigieux Cervantes pour la richesse de sa langue.

Ce poète argentin manipule le langage comme un corps et fait de la langue un mysticisme. Exilé à cause de la dictature argentine, il a transcendé sa souffrance par la poésie.

Quand il retrouva sa petite-fille dont il ignora longtemps l'identité et dont il mit plus de vingt ans à retrouver la trace car les gens à qui elle avait été confiée l'avaient déclarée comme étant leur fille naturelle, ce fut un moment d'une rare intensité, comme en témoigne cet extrait :



Esa felicidad extraña, lánguida, su modo de ser feliz, fue el instante más precioso de la historia inacabable que le había herido, y que él esculpió en los versos que había leído en el Ateneo de Madrid, ante una multitud que no vio cómo le temblaban las manos mientras sostenía el papel brevísimo en el que había versos como estos que ahora parecen el autorretrato de lo que él mismo llamó padre de entonces: 'Así que has vuelto / como si hubiera pasado nada / como si el campo de concentración no / como si hace 23 años / que no escucho tu voz ni te veo / han vuelto el oso verde tú / sobre todo larguísimo y yo / padre de entonces / hemos vuelto a tu hijar incesante / en estos hierros que nunca terminan / ¿Ya nunca cesarán? / ya nunca cesarás de cesar / vuelves y vuelves / y te tengo que explicar que estás muerto'.

El peso de la historia rota cayó sobre él y le quitó el juan y el gelman de su nombre; la derrota le hizo una voz total de la tristeza. Un día le pregunté: ¿quién eres? Y dijo: 'Quién sabe. Yo, no'.



La petite- fille du poète avait même décidé de ne pas parler à la presse pour protéger son anonymat.



Après la découverte du corps de son fils 15 ans après sa mort, l'identification de sa petite-fille est la deuxième amère victoire du poète.
Il mène maintenant un troisième et ultime combat pour retrouver le corps de sa belle-fille car, comme il l'écrit lui-même,' tout être humain a droit à une tombe ... pour être réinscrit dans sa propre histoire'.
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MessageSujet: Re: Moise, Y'becca et le clan des hérisson ou Avant-garde.   Mar 18 Oct à 10:47

Un cri s'échappe de Nagaliew qui porte en l'espérance d'une liberté d'être dans les éléments que donne l'aspect des cieux et des éléments. L'égalité des chances devant le chaos qu'engendre une guerre et le passage d'un tourbillon Tsunami. On parle d'une peur que pourrai engendrer le passage d'une force et qui finalement provoque tourmente et trouble au cœur de ceux que l'on souhaite libérer ou de ceux que l'on veut secourir après le passage de la secousse et le rire du Tourment.

On parle d'espérance mais nous devons nous inclure dans une feuille de route et ne pas imposer des impératifs selon le gouvernant et le statut du Personnage; L'égalité des soins devra être Nomades et Établis, être trouvable et être à l'encontre pour éviter les troubles que peut provoquer la Guerre et les Belliqueux. La Sagesse sera l'ombre de la Prudence et la Prudence sera le pilier de la Raison où certains se déguiseront en civils pour provoquer le trouble et la discorde dans nos rangs militaires et diplomates. Ils joueront sur notre aspect de l'Âme et de la Conscience; Et jetterons leurs avocats à nos pieds en exprimant leurs points de vues sur le Jugement et en nous crachant à notre face que nous sommes l'aspect de Satan et du Corrompu. Mossoul.

Y'becca devra être mathématique et prévoyante: Anticiper les mouvements de foules et éviter les piétinements de la crainte et du désordre. Cela n'est plus l'exercice d'un pèlerinage et il s'agit de secourir un navire en détresse sous l'emprise de maitres chanteurs; nous sommes dans un champs de guerre où la réalité des balles perdues existent. Y'becca entre dans son champs action militaires et secouristes; cela n'est plus un pèlerinage.
Et Tel Seth le Chacal; je lève la tête vers le ciel et pointe mes yeux vers le sol.

Cet appel doit être perçu à travers tous les désert de Terre et des cieux, cela n'est plus un pèlerinage et nous entrons dans une action de Guerre; Et la Mouette Nagaliew ne rie plus et pointe ses larmes vers le temps, La Laïcité et l’Éternel. Et c'est une Mauvaise Légende de croire que les Corbeaux se préparent au festin de la guerre car il figure au cœur des libérateurs et pressentent à célébrer leurs martyrs devant le terrorisme. Sous le soleil de la soif, il s’apprêtent tel des fremens à se ruer sur le mauvais empereur ou Calife qui rejoindra la mort ou l'aspect de la frayeur. Pourtant dans cette soif de sang, les rangs de Y'becca devra faire en sorte que les habitants ne sois pas achever sous les mines enfouie s et Laches. La Sagesse sera l'ombre de la Prudence et la Prudence sera le pilier de la Raison dans notre espérance et notre liberté de rendre le gout de l'eau et du partage dans les villes martyrs des Guerres d'Irak, de Syrie, De Indonésie, Du Yémen, De Libye, De France et de tous endroits où résident les Sbires de L'Esclavage, du Viol, de la Torture et de la Censure de l'Esprit. Ceux qui préfèrent le fouet et la mutilation répondront de leurs actes devant l'Honneur, La Mort et Y'becca. Nous verrons leurs réelles visions de la Justices quand ils se retrouveront au banc des accusé"e"s de La Justice des Hommes et de leurs Visions sur le Souverain Divin. La République de L'Olivier est prête à témoigner sur les actes et les siens pour définir une réelle vision sur la Barbarie et l'Existence. Allah, Dieu et Yahvé... Elohim et la Laïque....
Nuremberg et Khartoum... Y'becca devra être mathématique et prévoyante: L'égalité des soins devra être Nomades et Établis, être trouvable et être à l'encontre pour éviter les troubles que peut provoquer la Guerre et les Belliqueux. La Sagesse sera l'ombre de la Prudence et la Prudence sera le pilier de la Raison où certains se déguiseront en civils pour provoquer le trouble et la discorde dans nos rangs militaires et diplomates. Nous, Y'becca, gagnerons la guerre des Armes et des Écritures... Force, Réalité et Honneur sont les piliers de Gordon Pacha... Appliquer la Loi du Désert, de la Glace et des Forets devant l'irréparable et le respect des victimes face aux lois des coutumes et des viols: Les Victimes, Les adoptés et les Orphelins. Nous, Y'becca, gagnerons la guerre des Armes et des Écritures... Non Aux Viols Moraux et Physiques, Non aux Tortures Physiques et Morales et Non aux Esclaves Morales et physiques. Oui à la Gréve, Oui aux Manifestations et Oui à la Lecture Laïque, Athée et Religieuse

Ecrit de
TAY
La chouette effraie

Le Hérisson et la Mouette ou Ebru Firat et Y'becca



Le Hérisson et la Mouette ou Ebru Firat et Y'becca
Le Hérisson et la Mouette. Je revenais d'un marché au jouet et la journée était plutôt exaltante. Le soleil ...



Le Hérisson et la Mouette.
Je revenais d'un marché au jouet et la journée était plutôt exaltante.
Le soleil n'était pas couché et je rentrai plutôt car il y avait eu une coupure d'électricité dans la salle où les exposants avaient réuni leurs différents articles pour cette journée spéciale. je prenais ma voiture et je redevenais la chouette effraie... je trouvai emplacement auprès du théâtre de la Digue... Lorsque j’entendis Nagaliew la mouette aux yeux verts me prévenir : " Nous avons un nouveau compagnon dans notre arche, va rejoindre ta mère, TAY La chouette effraie."
Sur mon chemin je vis des anciennes affiches sur la Guerre d'Espagne de 1936 et surtout celle d'une réunion pour la Liberté de Ebru Firat. J'appelai donc ma mère par Téléphone portable et je me retrouvé allées Charles de Fitte prés d'un jardin... Elle m'attendais et dit :
"Tu es en avance; ta mouette est encore venu frapper à ma fenêtre comme chez Nadiége et Sylvaine. On va avoir des rats si ça continue..." Puis elle se mit à rire et surtout ne jamais comprendre une mère qui de plus sait lire dans les nuages...Ebru Firat... Lorsque nous voyions un jeune homme parlait avec une femme et son enfant dans le berceau... Il montre une sorte de furet caché dans son manteau... Je dis à ma mère qu'il faudrait aller voir le petit animal et là un corbeau se mit à croasser dans le jardin public à côté du musée des Abattoirs. Marathon Toulouse, approchons du jeune homme et que voyions nous : Un bébé hérisson dans ses bras.
Il nous explique qu'il vient juste de le trouver et qu'il colle des affiches pour Ebru Firat pour une réunion le 19 Octobre 2016, Salle San Subra... Il s'est « échapper » du jardin dit-il et je lui réponds comment se fait-il au milieu d'un jardin au cœur de Toulouse. On pose des questions au jeune homme et nous réponds qu'il est un australien de Melbourne vivant en France depuis six ans... Je lui dis attendez ; on ne peut pas laissez cet hérisson tout jeune et qui vient de finir son sevrage au cœur d'une ville hostile. Je vais donc chercher une cage dans un lieudit et le recueillons dans notre humble demeure. L'Australien nous dit quel nom allons lui donner et ma mère de lui répondre :
"MOISE. Trouvait au cœur du béton de la ville Rose."
"Amusant, Madame... Moise. ça sonne bien mais qui va le soigner !"
"Nous connaissons des habitués et puis ce n'est pas la première fois que je recueille ce genre d'animal."
"Un hérisson par Zarathoustra, voilà, un bien aimable compagnon dans cette aventure..." me dis-je et je vois là
Le corbeau qui guettait sa victime ou qui suivait son bienfaiteur de friandise. Et la Mouette qui chantait une nouvelle fable dans ma tête, Petite Nagaliew...
Je regardais l'Australien de Melbourne avec ma mère et lui dit:
"Que La Force t'accompagne à toi et pour Ebru Firat."
"Et nous répondit qu'il pensait qu'elle parviendrai tout comme Moise à retrouver la liberté Sauvage de Zarathoustra et
la chaleur de son foyer Naturel: La Liberté."

J'ignore le lien que cela peut procurer en vos cœurs mais je vous fais part de cette rencontre entre Le Hérisson et La Mouette sous le Regard du Corbeau et des prières de Ebru Firat.

Ecrit de
TAY
La chouette effraie


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MessageSujet: Re: Moise, Y'becca et le clan des hérisson ou Avant-garde.   Mar 18 Oct à 10:50

Theodor W. Adorno (/əˈdɔːrnoʊ/;[7] German: [aˈdɔʀno]; born Theodor Ludwig Wiesengrund; September 11, 1903 – August 6, 1969) was a German philosopher, sociologist, and composer known for his critical theory of society.

He was a leading member of the Frankfurt School of critical theory, whose work has come to be associated with thinkers such as Ernst Bloch, Walter Benjamin, Max Horkheimer and Herbert Marcuse, for whom the work of Freud, Marx, and Hegel were essential to a critique of modern society. He is widely regarded as one of the 20th century's foremost thinkers on aesthetics and philosophy, as well as one of its preeminent essayists. As a critic of both fascism and what he called the culture industry, his writings—such as Dialectic of Enlightenment (1947), Minima Moralia (1951) and Negative Dialectics (1966)—strongly influenced the European New Left.

Amidst the vogue enjoyed by existentialism and positivism in early 20th-century Europe, Adorno advanced a dialectical conception of natural history that critiqued the twin temptations of ontology and empiricism through studies of Kierkegaard and Husserl. As a classically trained pianist whose sympathies with the twelve-tone technique of Arnold Schoenberg resulted in his studying composition with Alban Berg of the Second Viennese School, Adorno's commitment to avant-garde music formed the backdrop of his subsequent writings and led to his collaboration with Thomas Mann on the latter's novel Doctor Faustus, while the two men lived in California as exiles during the Second World War. Working for the newly relocated Institute for Social Research, Adorno collaborated on influential studies of authoritarianism, antisemitism and propaganda that would later serve as models for sociological studies the Institute carried out in post-war Germany.

Upon his return to Frankfurt, Adorno was involved with the reconstitution of German intellectual life through debates with Karl Popper on the limitations of positivist science, critiques of Heidegger's language of authenticity, writings on German responsibility for the Holocaust, and continued interventions into matters of public policy. As a writer of polemics in the tradition of Nietzsche and Karl Kraus, Adorno delivered scathing critiques of contemporary Western culture. Adorno's posthumously published Aesthetic Theory, which he planned to dedicate to Samuel Beckett, is the culmination of a lifelong commitment to modern art which attempts to revoke the "fatal separation" of feeling and understanding long demanded by the history of philosophy and explode the privilege aesthetics accords to content over form and contemplation over immersion.
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MessageSujet: Re: Moise, Y'becca et le clan des hérisson ou Avant-garde.   Jeu 20 Oct à 9:22

Au lieu d'obtenir la sédation par des méthodes agressives ou susceptibles de réaliser des déficits dans le système nerveux, un nouveau courant s'est développé en psychiatrie visant à obtenir l'effet non seulement sédatif mais régulateur par des substances chimiques appropriées.

Ce courant pharmacologique a présenté de nombreux précurseurs. C'est surtout Moreau de Tours qui au milieu du Dix neuvième siècle, après ses études sur le HASCHICH, et ensuite sur une série de substances, notamment le protoxyde d'Azote, les sédatifs divers, l'opium, l'Alcool, ect..., a développé l'idée de modifications psychologiques déterminées par les substances chimiques. Moreau de la Tours a été ainsi après la conception chimiques des PSYCHOSES et ainsi a mentionné en premier avec Mlle Pascal, les dissociations psychiques sur le soi et le paraitre. Mais il a encore utilisé diverses substances chimiques non seulement pour déterminer des "troubles psychologiques expérimentaux" mais pour encore plus pour explorer la psychologie profonde. Ainsi Moreau de Tours a été le précurseur de la narcoanalyse et le promoteur des thérapeutiques chimiques. Ainsi et mais, cette conception chimique pharmacologique a été longue à ce développer. Dans la Ligne de Moreau, Les beaux travaux de Mlle Pascal et de ses élèves sur les substances psychotropes et l'exploration pharmacologique de la psychologie des éléments précoces puis de Claude, Borel et Robin avec l'éthérisation prolongé par Claude et Baruk sur le somnifères...

Et puis dans cette clarté une part d'ombre sur le soi, la conscience de souffrance, la naissance et le développement de la catatonie expérimentale et de la psychiatrie expérimentale chez les animaux par De Jong et H.Baruk, devait apporter dés 1930 une démonstration objectives des causes toxiques des maladies mentales, et des "applications thérapeutiques" antitoxiques (psychoses colibacillaires de H.Baruk, psychoses hyper-folliculiniques, ect,) et a donc ouvert dans ses travaux du 19iéme siècle qui ressemble sur bien des aspects sur des études antiques Égyptiennes et Romaines élaborés sur l'analyse mortuaire et Momification donc moins soumise à la torture de patients vivants tels que des animaux et être humains, élaborés sur l'hygiène de vie du Vivant et qui par la suite d'une mort à définir aurait pu éviter la souffrance engendrer par ce docteur H.Baruk, Ces études primaires permettent l'entrer dans le champs de la Psychopharmacologie.

Comme en tout temps et malgré le fait que nous soyons aux vingt et unième siècles, la découvertes de nouvelles substances "psychotropes" a renouvelé la thérapeutique psychiatrique en particulier dans le domaine des substances dites "neuroleptiques"; sans une réelle surveillance accru de la part de secouristes devant l'investissement des grands laboratoires voir de personnes physiques de l'aspect morale de l’État et de la société.

Se rappeler des sujets comme la découverte de l'évidence des troubles sympathiques en pathologie, rôle souligné par Laignel-Lavastine, par Tinel et Santenoise... Le phénomène de Reilly et les antihistaminiques des synthèses.... Les travaux de Bovet dans les laboratoires de Fourneau à Paris et poursuivi en Italie à l'institut supérieur de la santé à Rome.

Ecrit de
TAY
La chouette effraie sur les études de
Henry Baruk publié par Presses Universitaires de France

----------------------------------------------

Romain Gary nous a particulièrement émus dans une lettre où il suppliait Christel de l'aimer, même un peu... Au contraire, Musset a prouvé qu'il était possible de rester fier et élégant malgré la douleur en faisant ses adieux à la célèbre George Sand. Apollinaire nous a émoustillé les sens dans une lettre à Lou alliant douleur et jouissance ; tandis que la domination exercée par Wanda sur Leopold von Sacher-Masoch nous captivait. Enfin, les mots de Jean Cocteau pour son amant Jean Marais nous ont apaisé l'âme et l'esprit...

Lettre de Romain Gary à Christel
“ Aime-moi, veux-tu ? Un tout petit peu.

Romain Gary (21 mai 1914 – 2 décembre 1980), aussi connu sous son nom de naissance Roman Kacew ou sous son nom d’emprunt Émile Ajar avec lequel il signe un grand nombre de ses oeuvres, est un auteur et diplomate français très influent du XXe siècle. En juillet 1937, il rencontre Christel Söderlund, journaliste suédoise avec qui il entretient un passion dévorante mais de courte durée. En effet, épouse et mère de famille, elle le quitte et retourne en Suède. Voici ses mots.

6 septembre 1937

Nice 6. IX. 37

Christel, ma lointaine, ton petit cheval est ravissant et il restera toujours sur mon bureau, à côté de ta photo.

Et « Gösta Berling » sera toujours mon livre de chevet. Et tes yeux sont ce qu’il y a de plus bleu sur terre et tes cheveux sont plus blonds que ceux de Gösta.

Je ne peux pas les oublier, petite Christel. Je ne peux rien oublier. Aime-moi, veux-tu ? Un tout petit peu. En tout cas, mens-moi. Dis-moi que tu m’aimes. Même si ce n’est pas vrai.

Il est une heure du matin. Je viens de me baigner. Je suis rentré dans l’eau là où… tu sais où. J’ai nagé loin, très loin. J’ai eu peur. Et je pensais à toi, tout le temps. Puis je suis allé boire une fine dans ce petit bistro… tu sais, là où tu as dit « oui ».

Maintenant je suis fatigué. J’ai le cafard. Ich will so, aber so in deinen Armen jetzt sein, weisst du ! Aber nein, du weisst nicht. Du kannst nicht wissen. Dieser Brief wird ein Liebebrief sein. Du willst das nicht, ich weiss… Du liebst mich nicht, ich weiss. Wie kannst du mich lieben ? Drei Tage… Du kennst doch mich überhaupt nicht !

En ce moment, tiens, j’ai envie de me saouler la gueule ! J’écrirai, cette nuit. Je vais continuer un roman policier que je dois livrer en décembre. J’ai déjà tué trois personnes. Avec l’argent – deux mille francs – j’irai à Stockholm. Si tu permets… Ou plutôt non, je n’irai pas à Stockholm, j’irai à Christel. Si Christel permet… J’habiterai 14 Blasieholmsborg.

Es-tu libre à Noël ? Est-ce que je peux venir le 23 décembre ? Ou plus tôt ? Ou plus tard ? Ou pas du tout ? Écris-moi. Je t’aime, petite-fille, tu sais ?

Romain Kacew

Il fait trop chaud. Je ne peux pas dormir. Je vais prendre un canot à la Grande Bleue et je vais passer la nuit en mer.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

Le Rosaire récité en commun est bien plus terrible au démon

Le Rosaire récité en commun est bien plus terrible au démon, puisqu'on fait, par ce moyen, un corps d'armée pour l'attaquer. Il triomphe quelquefois fort facilement de la prière d'un particulier, mais, si elle est unie à celle des autres, il n'en peut venir à bout que difficilement.

Il est aisé de rompre une houssine toute seule ; mais si vous l'unissez à plusieurs autres et en faites un faisceau, on ne peut plus la rompre. Vis unita fit fortior. Les soldats s'assemblent en corps d'armée pour battre leurs ennemis ; les méchants s'assemblent souvent pour faire leurs débauches et leurs danses ; les démons même s'assemblent pour nous perdre.

Pourquoi donc les chrétiens ne s'assembleraient-ils pas pour avoir la compagnie de Jésus-Christ, pour apaiser la colère de Dieu, pour attirer sa grâce et sa miséricorde, et pour vaincre et terrasser plus puissamment les démons ?
Saint Louis Marie Grignion de Montfort
Dans Le secret admirable du T. S. Rosaire, 46e Rose
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MessageSujet: Re: Moise, Y'becca et le clan des hérisson ou Avant-garde.   Lun 24 Oct à 9:01

Ce graphique montre l'emplacement de la nébuleuse de la Mouette (cercle rouge) dans la constellation du Grand Chien et pas très loin l'étoile la plus lumineuse dans le ciel, Sirius. Cette région de formation d'étoiles, également appelée IC 2177 s'étend le long de la frontière de la constellation voisine, la Licorne.

Par coïncidence cet objet se trouve vraiment très proche dans le ciel de l'emplacement de la nébuleuse du Casque de Thor. Cet objet peu ordinaire a été le vainqueur du concours « Choisissez ce que le VLT Observe (ann 12060) ».

Crédit:
ESO, IAU and Sky & Telescope

Les nébuleuses sont parmi les objets les plus impressionnants visuellement dans le ciel nocturne. Ce sont des nuages interstellaires de poussière, de molécules, d'hydrogène, d'hélium et d'autres gaz ionisés dans lesquels naissent les nouvelles étoiles. Bien qu'elles soient de différentes formes et de différentes couleurs, nombreuses sont celles qui ont une caractéristique commune : quand on les observe pour la première fois, leurs formes bizarres et évocatrices déclenchent l'imagination des astronomes et conduisent à des noms curieux. Cette spectaculaire région de formation d'étoiles, qui s'est vu attribuer le surnom de nébuleuse de la Mouette, n'est pas une exception.
Cette nouvelle image réalisée avec la camera WFI (Wide Field Imager) sur le télescope de 2,2 m MPG/ESO à l'Observatoire de La Silla de l'ESO au Chili, montre la tête de la nébuleuse de la Mouette. Il ne s'agit que d'une partie de la nébuleuse connue plus officiellement en tant qu'IC 2177. Elle déploie ses ailes sur une envergure de plus de 100 années-lumière et ressemble à une mouette en plein vol. Ce nuage de gaz et de poussière se trouve à environ 3.700 années-lumière de la Terre. L'oiseau tout entier ressort mieux sur les images à grand champ.

Cette nouvelle image de l’ESO montre une partie d’un nuage de poussière et de gaz brillant appelé la nébuleuse de la Mouette. Ces fins nuages rouges constituent une partie des « ailes » de cet oiseau céleste et cette image révèle un étrange mélange de nuages sombres et de nuages lumineux rouges, se faufilant entre des étoiles brillantes. Cette nouvelle image a été réalisée avec la caméra WFI du télescope MPG/ESO de 2,2 mètres à l’Observatoire de La Silla de l’ESO au Chili.

S'étendant le long de la frontière entre les constellations du Grand Chien et de la Licorne dans le ciel austral, la nébuleuse de la Mouette est un énorme nuage composé principalement d'hydrogène. C'est un bon exemple de ce que les astronomes appellent une région HII. De jeunes étoiles chaudes se forment dans ce nuage et leur intense rayonnement ultraviolet provoque le rougeoiement brillant du gaz environnant.

La teinte rougeâtre sur cette image est un signe révélateur de la présence d'hydrogène ionisé [1]. La nébuleuse de la Mouette, plus formellement appelée IC 2177, est un objet complexe dont la forme composée de trois grands nuages de gaz rappelle celle d'un oiseau. Le nuage Sharpless 2-292 (eso1237) constitue la « tête ». Cette nouvelle image montre une partie de Sharpless 2-296, qui contient les grandes « ailes » et Sharpless 2-297 est un petit ajout compact à l'extrémité de « l'aile » droite de la mouette [2].

Ces objets sont tous répertoriés dans le catalogue de nébuleuses Sharpless, une liste de plus de 300 nuages de gaz lumineux constituée par l'astronome Américain Stewart Sharpless dans les années 1950. Avant de publier ce catalogue, Sharpless était un étudiant diplômé de l'Observatoire Yerkes à proximité de Chicago aux USA, où, avec ses collègues, il publiait des travaux d'observation qui ont permis de montrer que la Voie Lactée est une galaxie spirale dotée de très grands bras courbes.

Les galaxies spirales peuvent contenir des milliers de régions HII, pratiquement toutes concentrées le long de leurs bras spiraux. La nébuleuse de la Mouette se trouve dans l'un des bras spiraux de la Voie Lactée. Mais ce n'est pas le cas pour toutes les galaxies ; alors que les galaxies irrégulières doivent contenir des régions HII, celles-ci sont réparties au travers de la galaxie, et le cas des galaxies elliptiques est encore différent - semblant ne pas avoir du tout de régions de ce type. La présence de régions HII indique qu'une formation stellaire active est toujours en cours dans une galaxie.

Cette image de Sharpless 2-296 a été réalisée avec la camera WFI (Wide Field Imager), une grande caméra installée sur le télescope MPG/ESO de 2,2 mètres à l'observatoire de La Silla de l'ESO, au Chili. Elle montre seulement une petite partie de la nébuleuse, un grand nuage formant de manière très active des étoiles chaudes en son sein. Le cliché montre Sharpless 2-296 illuminé par plusieurs jeunes étoiles particulièrement brillantes. Il y a beaucoup d'autres étoiles éparpillées au travers de cette région, dont une si brillante qu'elle semble être de manière flagrante « l'œil » de la mouette sur les images du complexe tout entier.

Les images à grand champ de cette région du ciel montrent une multitude d'objets astronomiques intéressants. Les jeunes étoiles brillantes de la nébuleuse font partie de la région voisine de formation d'étoiles CMa R1, dans la constellation du Grand Chien, remplie de jeunes étoiles et d'amas brillants. Egalement proche de la nébuleuse de la Mouette, se trouve la nébuleuse du casque de Thor, un objet photographié avec le VLT de l'ESO à l'occasion du 50e anniversaire de l'ESO, le 5 octobre 2012 avec l'aide de Brigitte Bailleul – gagnante du concours Tweeter « Votre Chemin vers le VLT ! » (eso1238a).

Notes
[1] Les astronomes utilisent le terme HII pour parler de l’hydrogène ionisé et HI pour l’hydrogène atomique. Un atome d’hydrogène est composé d’un électron lié à un proton, mais dans le gaz ionisé les atomes sont décomposés entre des électrons libres et des ions positifs, qui dans ce cas sont seulement de simples protons.

[2] Ces objets sont officiellement désignés par Sh 2-292, Sh 2-296, et Sh 2-297 dans la base de données astronomique SIMBAD.

Plus d'informations
L'ESO est la première organisation intergouvernementale pour l'astronomie en Europe et l'observatoire astronomique le plus productif au monde. L'ESO est soutenu par 15 pays : l'Allemagne, l'Autriche, la Belgique, le Brésil, le Danemark, l'Espagne, la Finlande, la France, l'Italie, les Pays-Bas, le Portugal, la République Tchèque, le Royaume-Uni, la Suède et la Suisse. L'ESO conduit d'ambitieux programmes pour la conception, la construction et la gestion de puissants équipements pour l'astronomie au sol qui permettent aux astronomes de faire d'importantes découvertes scientifiques. L'ESO joue également un rôle de leader dans la promotion et l'organisation de la coopération dans le domaine de la recherche en astronomie. L'ESO gère trois sites d'observation uniques, de classe internationale, au Chili : La Silla, Paranal et Chajnantor. À Paranal, l'ESO exploite le VLT « Very Large Telescope », l'observatoire astronomique observant dans le visible le plus avancé au monde et deux télescopes dédiés aux grands sondages. VISTA fonctionne dans l'infrarouge. C'est le plus grand télescope pour les grands sondages. Et, le VLT Survey Telescope (VST) est le plus grand télescope conçu exclusivement pour sonder le ciel dans la lumière visible. L'ESO est le partenaire européen d'ALMA, un télescope astronomique révolutionnaire. ALMA est le plus grand projet astronomique en cours de réalisation. L'ESO est actuellement en train de programmer la réalisation d'un télescope européen géant (E-ELT pour European Extremely Large Telescope) de la classe des 39 mètres qui observera dans le visible et le proche infrarouge. L'E-ELT sera « l'œil le plus grand au monde tourné vers le ciel ».


La Mouette
de Anton Tchekhov

Liens
Photos du télescope MPG/ESO de 2,2 mètres
Autres photos prises avec le télescope MPG/ESO de 2,2 mètres
Photos de La Silla
Contacts
Thierry Botti
Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille / Institut Pythéas
Marseille, France
Tel: +33 4 95 04 41 06
Email: thierry.botti@oamp.fr

Richard Hook
ESO, La Silla, Paranal, E-ELT & Survey Telescopes Press Officer
Garching bei München, Germany
Tel: +49 89 3200 6655
Mobile: +49 151 1537 3591
Email: rhook@eso.org

Connect with ESO on social media

Ce texte est une traduction du communiqué de presse de l'ESO eso1306.

La nébuleuse de la Mouette, IC 2177, se situe dans la constellation de la Licorne, non loin de l'étoile la plus brillante, Sirius. Cette proximité n'est qu'apparente : IC 2177 se trouve à 3700 années-lumière de la Terre, soit 400 fois plus loin que Sirius !

Cette image montre les détails de la « tête » de la mouette, quelque peu difforme, appelée Sh 2-292. L'image a été prise par la caméra Wide Field Image (WFI) du télescope MPG/ESO de l'observatoire de La Silla (Chili).

L'appellation de la nébuleuse est plus compréhensible lorsque que l'on plonge à travers la Voie lactée pour rejoindre Sh 2-292 comme dans cette vidéo. L'envergure de la « mouette » atteint les 100 années-lumière.

La jeune étoile au centre de l'image s'appelle HD 53367. Ses violentes radiations dans l'ultraviolet arrachent des électrons à l'hydrogène environnant, qui brille alors en rouge. Le même phénomène se produit partout au sein de la nébuleuse, véritable crèche stellaire. Des étoiles très chaudes se chargent d'émettre une lumière bleutée qui se réfléchit sur les poussières parsemant les nuages de gaz.

Matthieu Le Chanjour, le 28 septembre 2012.
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Minouska.KounakDenat



Nombre de messages : 175
Date d'inscription : 06/10/2016

MessageSujet: Re: Moise, Y'becca et le clan des hérisson ou Avant-garde.   Lun 24 Oct à 9:04

Véritis Ciconia, la Cigogne verte ou la Lune
Constitution sur Le Secourisme et les Séismes.
Le juge Suprême de la République de l'Olivier.
http://leclandesmouettes.bbflash.net/f1-le-clans-des-mouettes
Ecoutez et faire signe aux scribes de Justice d'écrire : Les Hommes et les prophètes ont toujours condamné les peuples qui n'écoutent que les plus brave d'entre-eux.

Ces Hommes condamnent l'ingratitude, insouciance et le mépris... Ils rappellent les choses... Pour un enfant, Dieu est incarné dans le vent. Alors le prophète condamne les profiteurs et les ignorants.

Celui qui peut prétendre être la République, c'est celui qui veut rassembler autour d'un peuple et d'un enseignement... Ouvrir les Portes aux Laïques...

Pour cela, il faut réellement avoir une vision et une anticipation : Voir la Pauvreté et entendre l'embouteillage. Croire en Yahvé, celui qui n'a pas d'image, L’Éternel ! Celui qui a entendu sa naissance...


Non à l'Esclavage, Non à la Pauvreté, Non à la Torture , Non aux viols physiques et moraux, Non à la Séquestration...
http://la-5ieme-republique.actifforum.com/t75-la-chouette-et-le-sacrifice

Se préparer à notre vérité, la connaissance est un outil. Le feu de l’Éternel est un phare où les marins ont un repaire. Ses étoiles, sa matière permettent aux sextants de trouver sens dans l’intrigante tempête... Sans roses des sables, la boussole n'indique rien ! Entendre sa plainte et sa soif de République... L'Egalité et ses Enfants ou le Peuple

TAY
La Chouette Effraie
http://leclandesmouettes.bbflash.net/f1-le-clans-des-mouettes
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
La naissance de Marseille par cette danseuse qui choisi son marié autour d'un feu
m'inspire de la force de la Nature sur le pouvoir... Ainsi Naquit le cercle de feu...
Par cette reconnaissance de de la citoyenneté féminine, elle acquiert de pouvoir choisir des mariés ou mariées en dehors de la cité... Ainsi Naquit le cercle de Feu et la restitution du vote des femmes dans les démocraties dite antiques. Le Contrat de Personne en Danger et les Ouvertures de la Justice et de l'Hygiène.

http://la-5ieme-republique.actifforum.com/t75-la-chouette-et-le-sacrifice


TAY
La chouette effraie
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

6 Μαΐου 2016

Στις 20-21 Μαΐου το α2-innohub στην Αθήνα και το π1-innohub στην Πάτρα ανοίγουν ταυτόχρονα τις πόρτες τους για να υποδεχτούν σε ένα δημιουργικό μαραθώνιο φοιτητές, νέους επιστήμονες, μηχανικούς, προγραμματιστές, νέους επαγγελματίες, δημιουργικούς ανθρώπους, οι οποίοι θα συναγωνιστούν σε ομάδες για την επίλυση των 54 προκλήσεων του παγκόσμιου διαγωνισμού ActInSpace με τη χρήση διαστημικών δεδομένων, δημιουργώντας σε 24 ώρες ένα καινοτόμο σχέδιο με ρεαλιστική λύση για την βέλτιστη αντιμετώπιση αυτών των προκλήσεων.
http://leclandesmouettes.bbflash.net/t19-gaia-ou-l-australie-et-le-mexique
Ο διαγωνισμός είναι ανοιχτός στο κοινό και δεν υπάρχει κόστος συμμετοχής, ωστόσο απαιτείται προεγγραφή.

Σκοπός του είναι η δημιουργία νέων καινοτόμων ιδεών και επιχειρηματικών πρωτοβουλιών με την αξιοποίηση διαστημικών τεχνολογιών και η καλλιέργεια του επιχειρηματικού πνεύματος.

Οι διαγωνιζόμενοι καλούνται να επιλέξουν μεταξύ των προκλήσεων, αυτή που τους ταιριάζει, και με την καθοδήγηση εμπειρογνωμόνων και διακεκριμένων μεντόρων να δημιουργήσουν το δικό τους project, το οποίο θα παρουσιάσουν σε επιτροπή στο τέλος της ημέρας.

Ο νικητής που θα αναδειχτεί από τον εθνικό διαγωνισμό στην Αθήνα και Πάτρα θα εκπροσωπήσει την Ελλάδα στον Ευρωπαϊκό τελικό στην Τουλούζη στις 29 Ιουνίου 2016.

Τελικό έπαθλο

Η νικήτρια ομάδα του παγκόσμιου τελικού του ActInSpace θα κερδίσει μια πτήση σε συνθήκες μηδενικής βαρύτητας με το αεροσκάφος όπου εκπαιδεύονται οι αστροναύτες της Novespace. Ακόμα μεταξύ των βραβείων περιλαμβάνονται ένα Voucher αξίας 100.000€ για δορυφορικά δεδομένα από την Airbus Defence and Space, ενώ ένας μεγάλος αριθμός ομάδων θα λάβει υποστήριξη για την περαιτέρω ανάπτυξη της ιδέας του και τη δημιουργία της δικής του start-up.

Εγγραφή

Οι ενδιαφερόμενοι σε Αθήνα και Πάτρα μπορούν να δηλώσουν συμμετοχή έως την Κυριακή 15 Μαΐου 2016: http://www.actinspace.org/en/inscription

To ΑctInSpace, που φέτος πραγματοποιείται ταυτόχρονα σε 27 πόλεις παγκοσμίως, διοργανώνεται από την Ευρωπαϊκή Υπηρεσία Διαστήματος (ESA), τη Γαλλική Υπηρεσία Διαστήματος (CNES), και το ESA BIC Sud France και υποστηρίζεται από την Airbus Defence and Space, την Airfrance/KLM και τη Novespace.

O εθνικός διαγωνισμός του ActInSpace υλοποιείται υπό το συντονισμό του Corallia, φορέα συντονιστή του si-Cluster, με την ευγενική χορηγία των μελών του si-Cluster: Alma Technologies, ESS, Planetek Hellas και GET, την υποστήριξη της ΕΒΙΔΙΤΕ, του IEEE SB NTUA και του IEEE SB University of Patras, την τεχνική υποστήριξη της Lancom και χορηγό επικοινωνίας το The TOC.

Διαβάστε ολόκληρο το Δελτίο Τύπου του si-Cluster εδώ.





Nombre de messages : 3327
Localisation : http://yanis.tignard.free.fr/
Date d'inscription : 09/11/2005


Véritis Ciconia, la Cigogne verte ou la Lune Mar 29 Mar à 15:59


Ouvre le conflit sur une réalité de notre absurde : Notre Sectarisme d'optique au sujet de la volonté individuelle.
TAY
La chouette effraie...

Dans le fonds de la savane, les Hommes de l'Afrique font résonner les tams-tams dans tous le continent... la musique expose ses tendances sans aucune frontière...

Les phares voient leurs messages et la prévention doit être soutenu afin d'éviter toute disparition ou naufrages de Navires...

C'est pour cela que les peuples doivent s'activer car toutes les bonnes volontés peuvent être intégrer...
Cela n'est pas de l'intégration mais la vrai signification d'un secourisme juste généreux et valeureux...

La Femme et l'Homme a plus de valeur qu'une raison d’État... Ce principe n'est pas un don de Générosité mais un Civisme, un sincérité de l’Éducation Laïque: Les Femmes, les Hommes et les Enfants face à la Réalité et au Présent.

TAY
La chouette Effraie....
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yanis la chouette



Nombre de messages : 7168
Localisation : http://yanis.tignard.free.fr/
Date d'inscription : 09/11/2005

MessageSujet: Re: Moise, Y'becca et le clan des hérisson ou Avant-garde.   Mer 2 Nov à 10:24

Le vol du corbeau ou Nicosie.


Charme d’une marocaine ou révolte venu du ciel




Je connais le secret et pourtant, j’ai refusé d’adhérer dans ce système de dégradation de la femme. Les femmes aiment allumer et pas l’inverse : Un proverbe valable pour les lesbiennes que pour les hommes. Ainsi, une hiérarchie s’est créer dans le système féminin tout comme celui de la drogue dur : La mafia des sens.

Mon père l’a été et je sais me taire : Ne parles pas ainsi de mon homme. Ainsi, elle veut moi, aussi m’intimider et m’humilier, Monsieur Chirac Jacques et vous le savez. Je vis à ces cotés et elle se croit intouchable car elle est la source de plantation des sources pharmaceutiques.
Malgré votre volonté, je suis au regret de vous dire que vous avez eu raison d’essayer de sortir
Mme Ingrid bétancourt de cet enfer. Je pense malgré tout qu’ils ne veulent pas la libérer ; la mafia subventionne cette incarcération.

Elle était dans la plaque et elle fut dangereuse pour ses crimes qu’il livre au Libéria et ailleurs. Dans cette Colombie, j’y vois bien plus qu’un cartel des localités. Ils ont les armes et ils possèdent les hommes.

La lune lancent une bataille dans cette lutte à mort contre la drogue, l’esclavage et le terrorisme ; Je compte sur la coopération des services Hollandais et européens pour mener à bien cette lute contre le mal et ramener l’humanité vers la feuille de route. La république, les cités de la lune propose l’envoie de troupe organisée de goélands et d’albatros au coté des troupes africaine et américaine dans cette lutte au Libéria, en Colombie et ailleurs.

Non à l’esclavage, Oui à la grève.


Juge suprême de la république de l’olivier.
Ami des peuples de la Hollande et du commonwealth.
Président de la lune et des cités de la culture.
Chef de service dans les renseignements français et européens.





La jeune fille et la mort.


Un homme torture sur la jeune fille et la mort et elle connaît Schubert. Sur cette opéra toujours le même, elle va subir l’horreur de la torture. Le réalisateur parle de la république et l’horreur des genres qu’elle engendra au sein de nôtre peuple. Elle résiste à la jouissance mais qui est la jeune fille et la mort ?

Alors, elle reconnaît cette voix et je vais aller à l’association. Et, je vais danser et trouvait l’équilibre de la force. Je crois en Simon Bolivar, et je vous dit Yougoslavie. Ils se regardent à l’opéra et se disent sans eux mais quelles horreurs de vies. Services rendus deviennent ulcères
car c’est la réelle vérité dans des guerres civiles.

Sur la falaise, elle parle avec les albatros : « Pensez aux mouettes. O mon Romain. Moi prête ce langage. J’ai ri mes filles. Vous vivez devant le rien. Nos meilleurs avocats, vous étés. Je vais lui parler de la marée noire à cette voix. Elle lui demande de chanter au médecin.
« Tu crois être un corbeau mais lui-même sait choisir : tu le vulgarise car lui sait enterrer pour mieux donner »

Et il craque.

Vive la république des Polonais.
Vive la république du Vatican.

Non à la torture et oui à l’écoute. On a torturé une réalité : La vôtre.
Pourtant, je crois en l’homme et en nôtre monde mais je reste un citoyen : Je peux me battre et
reconnaître la peur et l’homme. Mais, dans l’espace, il y a le phénomène du virus et cela est une fonction liée à la faim : La peur peut être contrôlé mais pas la faim. Je pense comme un bouddhiste ou comme un hindouiste : j’ai un idéal commun dans l’art, la biologie et la géographie ne sont de tout repos. L’idéal est un art et il se libère de l’ombre de la prosternation. Mais là, il y a un soulèvement. Celui qu’elle se terre dans le silence de son homme : Bolivarien.


TAY


Dans la volonté, on y retrouve la notion de combativité. Ce phénomène peut être démultiplié dans le sens du matériel et d’un autre phénomène que l’on surnomme la construction du sens.
En effet, il y a cinq sens pour l’un ; pour d’autres il n’y en a pas : D’où l’intérêt d’y inclure l’aspect de recherche pour donner sous forme de Définition à un problème de rationalité. La combativité est un sens ou une recherche ?


Pour la culture japonaise, les deux sont étroitement liés dû au fait que le seuil n’est pas encore résolu dans le sens théorique du scientifique. Ainsi est né l’embryon : L’amour ne peut être une épreuve. L’amour, donc, est une conséquence ou une sorte de soumission. Alors, pourquoi tant de mathématicien et philosophe, interprète-il l’amour comme réel dans l’irréel.


L’amour n’est pas un sens : Il aurait pu être une passion si l’amour se complétait. Or là, l’amour de passion n’a qu’une part douce d’irréalité ; il y a aucune volupté. Il est charnel. Donc, le sens de l’amour est inclus dans la chair et l’information. Ainsi, l’amour est le plus grand préliminaire du sexe… La combativité s’inclus plus dans un terme d’amitié ou dans l’attribution d’un pouvoir.


Le combatif ne s’oppose pas au sexe, ni d’ailleurs à l’amour : Mais le combatif sépare l’âme du corps. Il y a le bestial ! Chacun a son sens de l’interprétation pour le prénommer. Ainsi, le platonique n’est ni vérité, ni certitude. Il y a un cheminement. On parle des filtres d’amours en magie ; un scientifique dans sa juste raison, dénoncera l’humide de la femme et l’impuissance métaphysique de l’homme. La femme n’a pas besoin d’une lueur pour se donner à un mâle ; l’homme lui a besoin d’une lueur, de cours et d’un amour. La femme est une symboliste, l’homme n’a pas cet attrait de découvrir…


Tous les hommes ne sont pas des mâles et c’est ainsi que la femme créa la réunion de groupe : Si la pomme est liés à la discorde, cette différence s’appelle le lien du poète. L’érection n’est pas taboue, et c’est ainsi qu’est né cet art de la pomme face à la discorde : La Psychologie est incapable de donner un profil de la fille facile et du mâle.




Alors, ce débat pourrait être éternel si il n’y avait pas les choses courantes : Les êtres semblent donner la volonté de rassembler leurs idées autour d’une volupté… aucunes ne semblent être commune malgré leur nombre limité. Ainsi le corps n’est pas un outil pour le crime ; dans le mille, cette prostitution est sujette à la torture, à la vente et au marketing. Nous le savons, vous le savez ! Le média est bien plus qu’un outil de télécommunication ! C’est le monde secret des réponses autour de cette illusion qu’être devenu bien plus qu’une ombre à la solde de « pions ignorants » ignorant les parfums secrets des reines et de leurs agents… Dans la volonté, il y a deux forces : L’électrique et le cerveau.



Ainsi, bien plus qu’une apparence ! j’ai aperçut l’intérêt de cette certitude : Politiquement, il n’y a pas de taupes ! Des mouchards, hum… Bien plus, c’est l’espionnage ! Un monde où la mort est un camouflet au même titre que la personnalité : Des traînées de pétrole s’échappant du « prestige ». Ainsi, la nature de l’Homme n’est pas de prévenir sur les coups que peuvent recevoir ses femmes devenues des filles de joie. Il y a-t-il un intérêt à les fréquenter ou alors, juste pour leur donner des cours de tuyauterie. Les mouchards sont plus efficace de l’espace, chaque puissance possédant son propre satellite d’observation ; Le scientifique est le fou et le géographe devint le cavalier d’un vaste échiquier : La géopolitique en est toujours à ce coût que procure un tournoi de joueurs. On peut parler des gènes mais il y a le goût du physique. Bien que les problèmes ne soient plus ; car en amour comme en sciences, on fait à cet appel de données. Etre devenu au cœur de l’information. Pourtant, l’éprouvette a enrayé la peste ou d’autres maladies : C’est logique, l’éprouvette a donné l’existence à l’embryon auprès de l’ovaire. Le mythe d’un homme et d’une servante qui donne à une femme d’être une mère. La science a écartelé la jalousie des hommes et des femmes pour laisser place à ce fait : Guérir. C’est noble mais tel est le terrible. Une petite mouette volant sur l’onde criant et jouant à travers l’espace. Découvrir notre chaînon s’est ici ; le danger s’est là-bas. Cette information n’est pas liés à l’érection ; ainsi il existe le secret médicale pour le bien de l’individu : L’amour et le travail sont deux horloges. J’ai eu peur de ne pas y parvenir ; peur d’être timide. Mais, j’ai eu la violence sur moi-même, et comme beaucoup, je l’ai attribué à la claustrophobie. Mais, j’avais conscience du mal. Pour ne pas craquer être simple, et là de vieilles légendes, me sont revenu : J’ai hait l’homme mais pas ces livres. Je n’étais pas sociable car j’avais honte. Ainsi si, la philosophie s’est greffée à l’amour, au désir et au sexe ; Les mathématiques et la biologie ont conçu ce fait sur les résultats de la molécule physique, les atomes et de l’observation de l’astronomie : Les géopolitiques, l’espace et l’histoire. La vie est au sein d’un infiniment grand et d’une minuscule électrique : Le ciel et l’espace. L’histoire du petit s’implose au sein d’une ligne dans le fait que la gravité est le déclencheur de l’arc électrique. La hauteur donne des indications sur le volume et la masse.


La tempête n’a rien laissé que son propre spectre : Mais quelle soit électrique ou matière ; elle est avec la gravité, la formation du ciel céleste. La ligne du néant donne un parallèle avec le temps pour le vide. Les scientifiques confondent la cellule et le centres d’où ces interminables réunions sur la créativité de l’univers. Ainsi ce parallèle est donné par l’étendu et les différentes sources de luminosité sont définies sur le fait de l’étendue.

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MessageSujet: Re: Moise, Y'becca et le clan des hérisson ou Avant-garde.   

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