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 Mairie de Paris, Y'becca, 8 Novembre 2016 et Hildalgo.

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Nombre de messages : 6446
Localisation : http://yanis.tignard.free.fr/
Date d'inscription : 09/11/2005

MessageSujet: Mairie de Paris, Y'becca, 8 Novembre 2016 et Hildalgo.   Sam 8 Oct à 8:58



Le harcèlement homosexuel, un double tabou

« J’avais 22 ans quand j’ai fait mon premier stage en réanimation. À cette époque, j’étais en plein questionnement sur ma sexualité et je n’avais aucune vie amoureuse. Dès mon arrivée en stage, mon chef de clinique qui était homosexuel m’a fait des avances. Il me disait : tu préfères les garçons c’est sûr, mais tu as peur d’être vu avec un homme, tu as peur que ça puisse nuire à ta carrière...

J’ai vécu très violemment ces remarques car je n’avais absolument pas fait le cheminement vers ce type de sexualité. J’ai eu très honte, l’homosexualité était taboue pour moi à l’époque. Mon chef de clinique me prenait toujours à part, seul à seul sans témoins, et j’étais tétanisé à la fois par l’attitude de mon aîné et par ce qu’il sous-entendait de ma sexualité, chose que je n’étais pas prêt à entendre.

Un jour il a tenté de m’embrasser. J’ai fui et j’ai prétendu une maladie pour ne plus revenir en stage pendant quelques jours. À la fin du semestre, il m’a invité à boire un café et m’a dit qu’il pensait que j’avais refusé ses avances pour ne pas être stigmatisé dans le service. Il m’a proposé de se revoir en dehors de l’hôpital et de devenir, en quelque sorte, mon initiateur...

Ce harcèlement a eu un impact sur ma vie personnelle et il a contribué à différer mon questionnement sur la sexualité. J’ai pendant les deux années qui ont suivi fermé mon esprit à cette question et suis devenu un « no-sex ». J’ai rencontré l’homme de ma vie un peu plus tard, pendant mes années d’internat : un garçon qui ne travaillait pas dans le même milieu que moi et à qui j’ai mis longtemps à raconter mon histoire hospitalière. »

Le harcèlement sexuel est-il un sujet tabou dans le milieu médical ? Sollicités à l’occasion d’un sondage en ligne, quelques médecins ont accepté de se confier anonymement au « Quotidien ». Ils nous ont raconté leurs expériences au cours de leurs études et pendant leurs premières années de carrière hospitalière.

Ces témoins nous parlent de drague, de séduction fondée sur des rapports de pouvoirs, d’un métier qui se féminise de plus en plus (sauf aux postes les plus haut placés). Une majorité d’entre eux considèrent que les rapports hommes femmes à l’hôpital sont similaires à ceux qui existent dans tous les métiers.

Les « traditionalistes » minimisent cependant les comportements déviants préférant invoquer l’esprit carabin. Comme le résume une répondante « généralement, il n’y a rien de bien méchant, mais c'est symptomatique de l'ambiance en médecine et au final de notre société au global ».

Pour les autres, certains agissements ne relèvent pas de cette tradition et vont bien au-delà du jeu de séduction. Ils ne sont pas si rares à le penser : près de 30 % des personnes ayant répondu à notre sondage estiment avoir été victimes de rapports qui allaient au-delà de la bienséance.

Les remarques sexistes et paternalistes

Les traditionalistes :

« Avec les horaires à rallonge des internes et des chefs de cliniques, où draguer à part à l’hôpital ? »

« Y en a toujours une qui peut dire oui, alors ça vaut le coup d’essayer »

« C’est toujours flatteur de montrer des gestes techniques à une jeune consœur, et ça fait partie du charme de l’interne »

« Regardez Grey’s Anatomy, si cette série a autant de succès c’est parce qu’elle parle des histoires de « cul » de l’hôpital »

« Il a toujours des filles qui confondent compagnonnage et drague, ce sont elles qui ne comprennent pas ».


Les harcelés

« L'intention était de flatter, de me draguer, très clairement, mais c'était très pesant »

« Dès les premiers jours de stage, il y avait toujours quelqu’un de bien intentionné pour dire : ne crois pas ce mec, il fait le coup à toutes les externes, et dès qu’il aura “couché“ , il ne te regardera plus »

« J’ai entendu d’un médecin ami de mon père : petite, suis-moi, je vais t’apprendre la médecine et peut-être la vie aussi »

« Et depuis quand il y a des femmes MCU-PH en chirurgie, et pourquoi pas de PU-PH aussi ? »

« Une femme c’est anesthésiste ou pédiatre. Ou alors médecin du travail »

« Et bien sûr, elle est enceinte, on va devoir se taper ses gardes, la pauvre chochotte... »


L’internat et les tonus ou soirées médecine

Les traditionalistes

« Il y aura toujours des jeunes filles prudes qui s’offusqueront à voir les fesses de l’économe, mais c’est ça de faire médecine »

« Comme si montrer ses fesses ou ses seins pouvait être un problème... Si ça ne plaît pas de voir ça à l’internat, on peut toujours manger un sandwich à la cafèt »

« Il y a bien des économinettes, et elles, elles n’hésitent pas à parler de sexe, parfois encore plus crûment que les hommes »

« Les fresques d’internat, ça a toujours existé et ça n’a jamais choqué personne. Certaines représentent des viols, oui, mais toujours avec le visage de “piliers“ d’internat »

« Les tonus, c’est fait pour décompresser »

« Il y a plein de filles qui viennent aux soirées médecine dans l’unique but de rencontrer un médecin »

Les harcelés

« En sortie de bloc, la cafèt de l’hôpital est fermée, alors la seule solution c’est de manger à l’internat, mais franchement, tous ces dessins pornos, ça coupe l’appétit »

« Pour moi, faire médecine était une ascension sociale incroyable par rapport à mes parents qui vivaient en quartier sensible. Se retrouver face à une telle débauche était quelque chose d’inattendu et de choquant. Je ne voyais pas les médecins comme ça »

« J’ai toujours entendu dire qu’on pouvait ne pas venir aux soirées d’internat, que l’on avait le choix. Mais ne pas y participer c’est être exclu de fait du réseau professionnel qui s’y tisse »

Les gardes

Les traditionalistes

« Ce qui se passe en garde reste en garde »

« La promiscuité, la nuit... tout ça favorise un rapprochement bien normal des soignants »

« C’est drôle d’utiliser le “bip“ comme moyen de drague, je me souviens d’avoir bipé ma co-interne juste pour qu’elle vienne me retrouver »

« Ben, on ne passe quand même pas la nuit à regarder la télé »

« Dès les premières gardes, on en entend des vertes et des pas mûres sur ce qu’il se passe dans les chambres la nuit. Parfois c’est vrai, parfois c’est inventé. Mais les histoires sont tenaces »

« Faut bien se défouler, c’est stressant d’être de garde »

Les harcelés

« Une externe a littéralement été violée en garde par un collègue, elle ne savait pas comment dire non. Quand le chef de service en a entendu parler, il l’a convoquée pour lui demander de se taire. Il a ajouté que si elle ne se taisait pas, elle ne terminerait pas son cursus dans son université »

« Déjà qu’il faut gérer le stress de la garde quand on y rajoute le stress du harcèlement, ce n’est plus tenable »

« Il n’y avait pas de verrou à la chambre de garde juste un code visible de tous car il était écrit au-dessus de la porte. Je coinçais la poignée avec une chaise pour arriver à me reposer tranquille »

L’impact sur la carrière

Les traditionalistes

« Les grossesses et les enfants impactent plus sur l’avancée de carrière que le sexisme carabin »

« Par choix, je préfère travailler avec des collègues masculins, ils ne me plantent pas pour aller chercher un enfant malade à l’école »

« Gérer les grossesses dans une équipe, c’est un vrai casse-tête, on ne trouve pas de remplaçant de PH pour 6 mois, alors les autres doivent faire le boulot »

« Être PU-PH c’est publier, travailler sans relâche, se battre pour des budgets, gérer des équipes. Les hommes ont une autorité naturelle dans ce domaine »

« De tout temps et dans tous les métiers, il y a des femmes qui ont usé de leur charme pour avancer dans leur carrière »

« C’est quand même plus agréable d’aller visiter une ville en congrès avec une jeune interne qu’avec un vieux PH »

« Un urologue femme, c’est quand même un peu déplacé, sauf pour les fuites urinaires post-grossesse... »

Les harcelés

« On dit des femmes cheffes de service qu’elles ont couché pour y arriver »

« Certaines filles ont été découragées de choisir certaines spécialités (chirurgicales en particulier) en raison de l’ambiance macho misogyne qui y régnait »

« Être choisie pour présenter une communication en congrès semble parfois relever plus d’un marché sexuel que d’une reconnaissance des capacités médicales »

« On nous renvoie toujours les grossesses, les enfants... Comme si les hommes n’avaient pas d’enfants »

« Il faut dire que certaines de nos consœurs abusent vraiment et se mettent en arrêt dès les premiers mois de grossesse »



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MessageSujet: Re: Mairie de Paris, Y'becca, 8 Novembre 2016 et Hildalgo.   Sam 8 Oct à 8:58

Remarks at the Syrian Justice and Accountability Centre & Syria Survivors of Torture Initiative Donor Conference

Remarks
Sarah Sewall
Under Secretary for Civilian Security, Democracy, and Human Rights
Dutch Embassy
Washington, DC
October 6, 2016

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Thanks Ambassador Schuwer; it’s great to be with you again. This is my second event at the Dutch Embassy in less than a month, and it’s testament to your leadership in focusing the diplomatic community on some of the most pressing issues concerning civilian security.

Over five years of brutal conflict in Syria, the last two weeks have been especially bleak. In Aleppo, thousands trapped in a maelstrom of death. Hospital and schools targeted. White helmets turned red with blood. At some point, words utterly fail to capture this depravity.

But the Asad regime’s recent atrocities in Aleppo, while among the most heinous, trace a much longer pattern of violence and injustice against the Syrian people – one that fueled this horrific conflict in the first place.

It was five years ago in Daraa when a group of young boys – one just ten years old – were rounded up for criticizing the regime, stripped naked, and hung by the wrist as they were beaten with metal rods over weeks of detention. That abuse – not only its young targets but its abject cruelty – came to symbolize the regime’s broader violence and sense of impunity. It helped stoke the conflict, as did the thousands more arrests and abuses by the regime in the following years.

Since 2011, more than 215,000 people have been detained in Syrian prisons because of the conflict. Seventeen thousand have died in those prisons from torture. And the men and women still behind bars are held in appalling conditions enduring all manner of abuse, including sexual violence.

For the men and women who do make it out, many now struggle to escape its lingering trauma. Most former detainees now live in Lebanon, Jordan, Turkey, and Syria, and each day, they try to rebuild what the Asad regime tried to break. They seek to reconnect with their families and communities and move forward with their lives.

These are brave individuals with trauma that is both unique and collective. They are the surgeon who cannot operate because her hands tremble with trauma; the father who withdraws from his kids hoping to protect them from his pain; the activist whose friends shun him because he was assaulted behind bars. They share the reality of wounded families, communities, and societies. We must stand with them in their moment of need, to provide aid, but also to advance the cause of justice for which they sacrificed.

Today, the United States makes two new moral and financial commitments.

First, we announce 1.4 million dollars for the Syria Survivors of Torture Initiative. This effort will pilot a more comprehensive model of assistance to former detainees – by helping close the gaps in medical, psychosocial, and legal services, by reconnecting former detainees with their communities and loved ones, and by supporting advocacy to sustain attention on their particular needs – because we cannot move on from this issue until they are able to move on with their lives.

And finally, the funds we announce will foster ties between those providing services to former detainees, like medical and legal aid, with those individuals documenting human rights abuses – because the nurse who examines the survivor, the paralegal who transcribes their account, and the advocate who presses for justice, are stronger when they work together.

And on this last piece in particular – ensuring justice for atrocities in Syria – we have much work ahead. Helping Syrians negotiate a peaceful political transition and defeat terrorist groups like Daesh must go hand in hand with the pursuit of justice for the many crimes they have suffered. For as we have seen time and again, peace without justice rarely lasts.

So today, the United States makes a second commitment of an additional 1.45 million dollars to support the Syrian Justice and Accountability Center’s (SJAC) tireless work documenting the human rights abuses in Syria committed by all sides.

The SJAC recognizes that, while many Syrians cannot defend themselves from atrocities, they can deploy their phones, their video cameras, and their cassette recorders to document those atrocities. Over the last four years, the SJAC has collected terabytes of documentation in this way. Each piece that comes in receives multiple tags for analysis and undergoes a thorough assessment to ensure it can be used in future processes for transitional justice, whatever forms they may take.

Too often in this horrific conflict, the Asad regime, Daesh, and other warring parties have committed atrocities to silence those with a different vision for Syria – the activist defending human rights, the women demanding equality, or the young person calling for accountable governance. We cannot let them succeed. So even as we seek to end the violence through a negotiated political transition, the international community must also help Syrian survivors of atrocities to recover their voices, regain their lives, and ensure that their stories survive for all time.

The two groups we support today do that work, often at great peril. They deserve not only our encouragement but our resources and our assistance. So I hope that each government here makes a specific commitment to support these efforts. If people like Mr. Al-Abdullah can endure Syrian prison – twice – for justice and human rights, we can certainly do this much.

Thank you.


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MessageSujet: Re: Mairie de Paris, Y'becca, 8 Novembre 2016 et Hildalgo.   Sam 8 Oct à 8:59

MFA of Armenia Compte certifié
‏@MFAofArmenia

Մամուլի հաղորդագրություններ
Հայաստանի արտգործնախարարն ընդունեց Փարիզի քաղաքապետին

08.10.2016

Հոկտեմբերի 8-ին Հայաստանի արտգործնախարար Էդվարդ Նալբանդյանն ընդունեց Երևան ժամանած Փարիզի քաղաքապետ Անն Իդալգոյի գլխավորած ներկայացուցչական պատվիրակությունը:

Ողջունելով հյուրերին՝ նախարար Նալբանդյանը նշեց, որ ուրախ է Երևանում հյուրընկալել Հայաստանի վաղեմի բարեկամ Անն Իդալգոյին և նրան ուղեկցող պատվիրակության անդամներին։ «Մեծ հաճույք է ողջունել Երևանում Ձեր գլխավորած ներկայացուցչական պատվիրակությունը, որի կազմը խորհրդանշում է այն համերաշխությունը, որն առկա է ֆրասիական քաղաքական ուժերի միջև հայ-ֆրանսիական բարեկամության հանդեպ», - ասաց Հայաստանի արտաքին քաղաքական գերատեսչության ղեկավարը։

Շնորհակալություն հայտնելով ջերմ ընդունելության համար՝ Փարիզի քաղաքապետն ընդգծեց, որ հաճելի է գտնվել Հայաստանում՝ Երևանի օրվան նվիրված տոնակատարությունների առիթով և այդ առիթն օգտագործել նաև երկու քույր քաղաքների միջև կապերի ու համագործակցության առավել զարգացմանն ուղղված հետագա քայլերը քննարկելու նպատակով։

Զրույցի ընթացքում անդրադարձ արվեց հայ-ֆրանսիական առանձնաշնորհյալ հարաբերությունների ընդլայնմանը, երկու երկրների միջև ապակենտրոնացված համագործակցությանը։

«Ձեր անկեղծ նվիրվածությունը հայ-ֆրանսիական բարեկամությանը դրսևորվել է մշտապես ձեր գործունեության ողջ ճանապարհին, և հաճելի է, որ այդ ճանապարհի մի մասը մենք անցել ենք միասին։ Առանձնահատուկ երախտագիտությամբ ենք հիշում, որ անցյալ տարի ապրիլի 24-ի երեկոյան Դուք անձամբ մարեցիք Էյֆելյան աշտարակի լուսավորությունը՝ ի հիշատակ Հայոց ցեղասպանության 100-րդ տարելիցի», - շեշտեց Էդվարդ Նալբանդյանը։

Ի նշանավորումն հայ-ֆրանսիական հարաբերությունների, Երևանի և Փարիզի միջև համագործակցության ամրապնդման գործում նրա ունեցած կարևոր ավանդի՝ Էդվարդ Նալբանդյանը Անն Իդալգոյին հանձնեց ԱԳՆ պատվո մեդալը:
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Date d'inscription : 09/11/2005

MessageSujet: Re: Mairie de Paris, Y'becca, 8 Novembre 2016 et Hildalgo.   Sam 8 Oct à 9:07

ΗΠΑ: Η τροπική καταιγίδα ''Νικόλ'' μετακινείται νότια του Πουέρτο Ρίκο
Πρώτη καταχώρηση: Σάββατο, 8 Οκτωβρίου 2016, 07:17
Η ένταση της τροπικής καταιγίδας Νικόλ εξασθένησε ελαφρώς καθώς μετακινείται στα νότια, ανακοίνωσε χθες βράδυ το Αμερικανικό Εθνικό Κέντρο Τυφώνων.

Η καταιγίδα, που είχε υποβαθμισθεί και νωρίτερα από την κατηγορία του τυφώνα, βρίσκεται πλέον σ’ απόσταση 880 χλμ από το Σαν Χουάν, στο Πουέρτο Ρίκο, συνοδευόμενη από ανέμους έντασης 95 χλμ/ώρα, τονίζει στην ανακοίνωσή του το Κέντρο.

Τελευταία ενημέρωση: Σάββατο, 8 Οκτωβρίου 2016, 07:17

--------------------------------------------------

Αλβανία: Οι αλβανικές και οι ιταλικές αρχές δήλωσαν ότι κατέστρεψαν το 99.8% των φυτειών κάνναβης
Πρώτη καταχώρηση: Σάββατο, 8 Οκτωβρίου 2016, 06:19
Την κοινή τους έκθεση για τις επιχειρήσεις κατά των ναρκωτικών στην Αλβανία έδωσαν στη δημοσιότητα η Αλβανική Αστυνομία και η Ιταλική Οικονομική Αστυνομία που συνεργάζονται στον τομέα αυτό.

Σε συνέντευξη τύπου, ο γενικός διευθυντής της Αλβανικής Αστυνομίας, Χακί Τσάκο ανέφερε ότι «με την υποστήριξη των Ιταλών εταίρων, από την αρχή του έτους, έχουμε καταστρέψει το 99,8% των καλλιεργειών».

Η ανακοίνωση έγινε μετά την ολοκλήρωση των επιχειρήσεων των ιταλικών αεροσκαφών στο εναέριο χώρο της Αλβανίας για τον εντοπισμό των φυτειών κάνναβης.

Πηγή: ΑΠΕ-ΜΠΕ
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MessageSujet: Re: Mairie de Paris, Y'becca, 8 Novembre 2016 et Hildalgo.   Sam 8 Oct à 9:08

Au moment de la bataille, la Confrérie du Très Saint Rosaire offrait une prière publique

Il serait impossible d'effacer le souvenir de tant de victoires célèbres qui doivent être attribuées à la puissante intercession de la Bienheureuse Vierge Marie. En Hongrie, le 5 Août 1716, Charles VI, empereur du Saint Empire romain, fut confronté à une fois de plus à une force d'invasion des islamistes Turcs, de taille énorme. Au même moment de la bataille, la Confrérie du Très Saint Rosaire offrait une prière publique et solennelle dans la Ville éternelle à Rome. Un très grand nombre de personnes prirent part à cette manifestation en implorant la puissante intercession de la Vierge Mère de Dieu pour la délivrance du peuple chrétien.

Presque immédiatement, la ville antique catholique de Belgrade, le joyau du Danube inférieur, qui était comme un bastion important dans la défense de l'Europe chrétienne, fut reprise par les forces catholiques.

En signe de gratitude pour ces glorieuses victoires, et pour la protection singulière de Notre Dame lors de l'assaut des infidèles, le Pape Clément XI a étendu la fête du Très Saint Rosaire à toute l'Église universelle. Le Pape Benoît XIII décréta que tous ces événements devaient être inscrits dans les leçons d'histoire du bréviaire romain.
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Je vous salue, Marie pleine de grâces ; le Seigneur est avec vous. Vous êtes bénie entre toutes les femmes et Jésus, le fruit de vos entrailles, est béni. Sainte Marie, Mère de Dieu, priez pour nous pauvres pécheurs, maintenant et à l'heure de notre mort. Amen.
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MessageSujet: Re: Mairie de Paris, Y'becca, 8 Novembre 2016 et Hildalgo.   Sam 8 Oct à 9:11

Cancer is a disease in which cells in the body grow out of control. When cancer starts in the breast, it is called breast cancer. As it grows, breast cancer can cause changes in how the breast looks or feels. Different women have different warning signs for breast cancer. Some women do not have any signs or symptoms at all. A woman may find out she has breast cancer after a routine mammogram.

https://www.cdc.gov/dotw/breastcancer/index.html

Key Facts

Mammograms are the best way to find breast cancer early, when it's easier to treat.
Most breast lumps are not caused by cancer; many conditions can cause them.
Breast cancer symptoms vary, and some women don't have symptoms.
Men can get breast cancer, but it is not very common. For every 100 cases of breast cancer, less than 1 is in men.

Breast cancer claims the lives of thousands of women in the United States each year. Learn basic information about breast cancer and how to prevent and recognize it.
Three sisters

If you have a close relative with breast cancer, ask your doctor how you can lower your risk.
Bring Your Brave

Bring your brave. Breast cancer in young women.
Woman getting a mammogram

The best way to find breast cancer early is with a mammogram. If you are a woman aged 50 years or older, be sure to have a screening mammogram every two years.

Breast Cancer Awareness
Three sisters

Know Your Family History
Bring Your Brave

Facts for Young Women
Woman getting a mammogram

Mammograms Save Lives

Prevention Tips

Keep a healthy weight and exercise regularly.

Limit the amount of alcohol you drink.

If you are taking hormone replacement therapy or birth control pills, ask your doctor about the risks and find out if it is right for you.

Know your family history of breast cancer. If you have a close relative with breast cancer, ask your doctor how you can manage your risk.

A mammogram can't prevent breast cancer, but it can help find it early. Get screened regularly.

More at CDC.gov


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MessageSujet: Re: Mairie de Paris, Y'becca, 8 Novembre 2016 et Hildalgo.   Sam 8 Oct à 9:12


Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS)
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Baby blocks spelling out SIDSOctober is SIDS Awareness Month. Learn about infant deaths from SIDS and other causes, and take action to reduce the risk. Start by always placing babies on their backs when putting them to sleep.
Understanding the Problem

About 3,500 infants died suddenly and unexpectedly in 2014 in the United States. These deaths are called sudden unexpected infant deaths (SUID). The most common types of SUID include:

Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS)
The sudden death of an infant less than 1 year old that cannot be explained after a thorough investigation that includes a complete autopsy, examination of the death scene, and a review of the medical history. About 1,500 infants died of SIDS in 2014. SIDS is the leading cause of death for infants aged 1 to 12 months.
Unknown Cause
The sudden death of an infant less than 1 year old that remains undetermined because one or more parts of the investigation was not completed.
Safe to Sleep

CDC is working with the National Institutes of Health in its Safe to Sleep campaign, formerly known as the Back to Sleep campaign. The Safe to Sleep campaign has outreach and education activities aimed at reducing infant death from SIDS and other sleep-related causes.
Accidental Suffocation and Strangulation in Bed (ASSB)
The sudden death of an infant less than 1 year of age that can happen because of:
Suffocation by soft bedding—for example, when a pillow or waterbed covers an infant's nose and mouth.
Overlay—when another person rolls on top of or against the infant.
Wedging or entrapment—when an infant is wedged between two objects such as a mattress and wall, bed frame, or furniture.
Strangulation—for example, when an infant's head and neck get caught between crib railings.

Mother putting infant to rest in crib

Always place babies on their backs every time you put them to sleep.
Karin and Jonathan’s older sister

Karin and Jonathan’s older sister
Reducing the Risk

Doctors and researchers don't know the exact causes of SIDS. However, research shows that parents and caregivers can take the following actions to help reduce the risk of SIDS and other sleep-related causes of infant death:

Always place babies on their backs when putting them to sleep for naps and at night.
Use a firm sleep surface, such as a mattress in a safety-approved crib, covered by a fitted sheet.
Share your room with your baby, not your bed. Your baby should not sleep in an adult bed, on a couch, or on a chair alone, with you, or with anyone else.
Keep soft objects, such as pillows and loose bedding, out of your baby's sleep area.
Do not smoke during pregnancy or around the baby because these are strong risk factors for SIDS. The risk of SIDS is even greater when a baby shares a bed with a smoker. To reduce risk, do not smoke during pregnancy, and do not smoke or allow smoking around your baby. For help in quitting, call the quitline at 1-800-QUIT-NOW (1-800-784-8669) or visit smokefreewomen.

See Ways to Reduce the Risk of SIDS and Other Sleep-Related Causes of Infant Death to learn more about these and other actions.

Learn about safe sleep environments and reducing the risk of SIDS and other sleep-related infant deaths by reading What Does a Safe Sleep Environment Look Like? [PDF - 336KB].

In addition, CDC supports the recommendations issued by the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) to reduce the risk of sleep-related infant deaths, including SIDS. Learn more at the Healthy Children website, sponsored by AAP.
Improving Our Understanding of SIDS and SUID

Sudden Unexpected Infant Death and Sudden Death in the Young Case Registries

CDC's Division of Reproductive Health has SUID monitoring programs in 16 states and 2 jurisdictions, covering 30% of all SUID cases in the United States. Participating states and jurisdictions use data about SUID trends and circumstances to inform strategies to reduce future deaths. The SUID Case Registry builds on the National Center for Fatality Review and Prevention System and brings together information about the circumstances associated with SUID cases, as well as information about investigations into these deaths. CDC and the National Institutes of Health collaborate on the Sudden Death in the Young (SDY) Case Registry, which expands the population of the SUID Case Registry from infancy through adolescence.
SUID Prevention in Action: A Story from New Jersey

Karin's baby Jonathan was 2 months old when she arrived at Neptune, New Jersey's Child Care Resources Center. With the support from New Jersey's SUID prevention activities, Karin received safe sleep education and a portable crib for Jonathan. "My baby now has a place of his own to sleep tonight."
More Information

The following organizations offer support for people who have lost a baby:

CJ Foundation for SIDS
First Candle
Sudden Unexplained Death In Childhood (SUDC) Foundation
The Compassionate Friends
Share Pregnancy and Infant Loss Support
Centering Corporation

Learn more about SUID and SIDS from CDC's Division of Reproductive Health .
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MessageSujet: Re: Mairie de Paris, Y'becca, 8 Novembre 2016 et Hildalgo.   Sam 8 Oct à 9:18

Un cinquième des Japonais qui travaillent risquent de mourir de surmenage, selon un rapport gouvernemental sur ce phénomène caractéristique de la société nippone.

Des centaines de décès liés au surmenage, par crise cardiaque, accident vasculaire cérébral ou suicide, sont enregistrés chaque année au Japon, ainsi que de nombreux problèmes de santé graves, ce qui entraîne des poursuites judiciaires et des appels à s'attaquer au problème.

Le rapport fait partie du premier livre blanc sur le +karoshi+, la mort par épuisement au travail, un document approuvé vendredi par le cabinet du Premier ministre, Shinzo Abe.

Même si l'image populaire du salarié japonais trimant de très longues heures pour son employeur avant de prendre le dernier train pour rentrer chez lui est en train de changer, beaucoup de Japonais continuent à passer au bureau beaucoup plus d'heures que leurs homologues dans les autres économies modernes.

Selon le rapport, 22,7% des firmes japonaises interrogées entre décembre 2015 et janvier 2016 ont déclaré que certains de leurs employés faisaient plus de 80 heures supplémentaires chaque mois - 80 étant officiellement le seuil à partir duquel le risque de mourir de surmenage est considéré comme sérieux.

L'étude indique aussi que 21,3% des employés japonais travaillent 49 heures ou plus par semaine en moyenne, contre 16,4% des employés aux Etats-Unis, 12,5% en Grande-Bretagne et 10,4% en France.

Le rapport rapporte aussi que les employés japonais ont fait état de niveaux élevés de stress liés à leur travail.
Des responsables ont appelé les sociétés japonaises à améliorer les conditions de travail.
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MessageSujet: Re: Mairie de Paris, Y'becca, 8 Novembre 2016 et Hildalgo.   Sam 8 Oct à 9:20

http://www.marinefuels.total.com/

TOTAL
EXCELLIUM DIESEL Excellium Diesel


Your Best Shot is the Flu Shot
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Family catching falling leavesGetting vaccinated is the best way to reduce the chances that you will get seasonal flu and spread it to others. Everyone 6 months and older should get a flu vaccine each year. It takes about two weeks after vaccination for your body to develop protection against the flu. So, go ahead and take your best shot in the fight against flu! Protect yourself and your loved ones by getting your flu shots!

Shorter days and cooler evenings are here, a sign that influenza (flu) season will be upon us soon. Flu is a contagious respiratory disease that infects the nose, throat, and lungs. People often confuse the common cold for flu because the symptoms are similar. But, colds are usually milder than flu. Flu can lead to serious complications, hospitalization, or even death. Pneumonia and bronchitis are examples of serious flu-related complications. Flu also can cause certain health conditions, like diabetes, asthma, and heart and lung disease, to become worse. Healthy people also can become sick with the flu and experience serious complications. Even if you are one of the lucky ones who bounces back quickly from a flu illness, people around you might not be so lucky. You may be able to spread the flu to someone else before you know you are sick or while you are sick with the flu.

Millions of people make a point of getting a flu vaccine in the fall. Many are following the advice of their doctor or other trusted health professional by getting vaccinated. Along with CDC, the American Academy of Pediatrics, the American Medical Association, the National Foundation of Infectious Diseases and many other professional medical groups recommend an annual influenza vaccine. But there are many people who skip getting a flu vaccine, thinking that they don't work, or aren't worth the trouble. But it turns out that a lot of research has been done that shows how important getting a flu vaccine can be.
Mother and daughter

Some children 6 months through 8 years of age will require two doses of flu vaccine for adequate protection from flu.
Reasons for Getting a Flu Vaccine

While how well the flu vaccine works can vary, there are clearly a lot of reasons to get a flu vaccine every year.

Flu vaccination can keep you from getting sick from flu.
Flu vaccination can help protect people who are at greater risk of getting seriously ill from flu, like pregnant women, older adults, people with chronic health conditions and young children (especially infants younger than 6 months old who are too young to get vaccinated).
Flu vaccination also may make your illness milder if you do get sick.
Flu vaccination can reduce the risk of more serious flu outcomes, like hospitalizations.
One study* showed that flu vaccine reduced children's risk of flu-related pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) admission by 74% during flu seasons from 2010-2012.
In another study, flu vaccination was associated with a 71% reduction in flu-related hospitalizations among adults of all ages and a 77% reduction among adults 50 years of age and older during the 2011-2012 flu season.
Flu vaccination is an important preventive tool for people with chronic health conditions. Vaccination has been associated with lower rates of some cardiac events among people with heart disease, especially among those who have had a cardiac event in the past year. Flu vaccination also has been shown to be associated with reduced hospitalizations among people with diabetes (79%) and chronic lung disease (52%).
Vaccination helps protect women during pregnancy and their babies for several months after they are born. One study showed that giving flu vaccine to pregnant women was 92% effective in preventing flu-related hospitalizations among infants.
Other studies have shown that vaccination can reduce the risk of flu-related hospitalizations among older adults. One study that looked at flu vaccine effectiveness over the course of three flu seasons estimated that flu vaccination lowered the risk of hospitalization by 61% among people 50 years of age and older.

*References for the studies listed above can be found at Publications on Influenza Vaccine Benefits. Also see What are the Benefits of Flu Vaccination?[276 KB]

Watch this fun video [0:30 seconds] to learn why everyone needs a flu vaccine!
A Few New Things This Season

While flu comes and goes each year, flu viruses are constantly changing, and different flu viruses can circulate and cause illness each season. Flu vaccines are made each year to protect against the flu viruses that research indicates will be most common. The 2016-2017 flu vaccines have been updated from last season's vaccines to better match circulating viruses.

Something else that's new for 2016-2017 is that CDC only recommends people get injectable flu vaccines (flu shots) this season. Live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) – or the nasal spray vaccine – is not recommended for use during the 2016-2017 season because of concerns about its effectiveness. There are still many different vaccine options this season. Some flu shots protect against three flu viruses and some protect against four flu viruses.

CDC recommends use of injectable influenza vaccines (including inactivated influenza vaccines and recombinant influenza vaccines) during 2016-2017. The nasal spray flu vaccine (live attenuated influenza vaccine or LAIV) should not be used during 2016-2017.
Both trivalent (three-component) and quadrivalent (four-component) flu vaccines will be available. Trivalent flu vaccines include:

Standard-dose trivalent shots (IIV3) that are manufactured using virus grown in eggs. Different flu shots are approved for different age groups. Most flu shots are given in the arm (muscle) with a needle. One trivalent vaccine formulation can be given with a jet injector, for persons aged 18 through 64 years.
A high-dose trivalent shot, approved for people 65 and older.
A recombinant trivalent shot that is egg-free, approved for people 18 years and older.
A trivalent flu shot made with adjuvant (an ingredient of a vaccine that helps create a stronger immune response in the patient's body), approved for people 65 years of age and older (new this season).

Quadrivalent flu vaccines include:

Quadrivalent flu shots approved for use in different age groups.
An intradermal quadrivalent flu shot, which is injected into the skin instead of the muscle and uses a much smaller needle than the regular flu shot. It is approved for people 18 through 64 years of age.
A quadrivalent flu shot containing virus grown in cell culture, which is approved for people 4 years of age and older (new this season).

The flu vaccine with adjuvant listed above is available for the first time in the United States this season. Adjuvant is a vaccine ingredient that helps create a stronger immune response in the patient's body. This new vaccine is approved for use in people 65 years and older. People in this age group are at high risk of getting very sick from flu, but some may respond less well to vaccination. Also approved specifically for people 65 and older is the high-dose vaccine, which contains 4 times the amount of antigen as the regular-dose vaccine. In addition, there are regular-dose flu shots approved for people 65 and older, including a recombinant vaccine that is made without using flu virus. CDC doesn't have a preferential recommendation for any of the licensed and recommended vaccines this season. The most important thing is that people get vaccinated, especially those people who are at high risk of flu complications, including:

Children younger than 5, but especially younger than 2 years old;
People 65 and older;
People with asthma, heart disease, chronic lung disease, and neurological and neurodevelopmental conditions;
People with blood, kidney, liver, endocrine and metabolic disorders (including diabetes mellitus);
People who have a weakened immune system due to disease or medication;
Pregnant women (and women up to two weeks postpartum);
People younger than 19 years old who are receiving long-term aspirin therapy;
Residents of nursing homes and other long-term care facilities;
American Indians and Alaska Natives[729 KB];
People who have extreme obesity (body mass index (BMI) of 40 or greater);

For the full list of high-risk conditions, visit People at High Risk of Developing Flu–Related Complications.;

Everyone 6 months and older should get a flu vaccine every year by the end of October, if possible. However, getting vaccinated later can still be protective since flu viruses can circulate into May during some seasons. For this reason, vaccination should continue throughout the flu season, even in January or later. Some young children might need two doses of vaccine. A health care provider can advise on how many doses a child should get.

There are some people who should not get a flu vaccine. A person who has previously experienced a severe allergic reaction to flu vaccine, regardless of the component suspected of being responsible for the reaction, should not get a flu vaccine again.

Some people may think that if they have an egg allergy, they should not get a flu vaccine. However, a history of egg allergy should not stop you from getting vaccinated. In fact, CDC and its Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices have updated their guidelines on egg allergy and receipt of influenza (flu) vaccines.
Vaccine Safety

A common misconception is that flu vaccines can give you the flu. They cannot. The most common side effects from a flu shot are soreness, redness and/or swelling where the shot was given, fever, and/or muscle aches. These side effects are NOT the flu. If you do experience any side effects, they are usually mild and short-lived, especially when compared to symptoms of a bad case of flu. In fact, flu vaccines are among the safest medical products in use. Hundreds of millions of Americans have safely received flu vaccines over the past 50 years, and there has been extensive research supporting the safety of flu vaccines. CDC and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) closely monitor the safety of vaccines approved for use in the United States.

The bottom line is that flu vaccines can reduce flu illnesses, doctors' visits, and missed work and school due to flu, as well as prevent flu-related hospitalizations. Isn't it worth a shot?

For more information on flu vaccine side effects, visit Key Facts About Seasonal Flu Vaccine.
Where to Get Vaccinated

Flu vaccine should be available widely, and in many convenient locations. See your doctor or other health care professional to get the flu vaccine, or seek out other locations where vaccine is being offered, such as pharmacies, health departments, and grocery stores. Use the HealthMap Vaccine Finder to find flu vaccine in your area.
More Information

What You Should Know for the 2016-2017 Flu Season
Children, the Flu, and the Flu Vaccine
Preventing Seasonal Flu with Vaccination
Key Facts About Seasonal Flu Vaccine (Key Facts in Spanish)
Vaccine Information Statements: Inactivated Influenza (Flu Shot)


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Nettoie votre moteur dès le premier plein

TOTAL EXCELLIUM, une nouvelle génération de carburants:
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* Par rapport à un carburant non spécifiquement additivé.

Consultez la fiche de caractéristiques TOTAL EXCELLIUM DIESEL
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MessageSujet: Re: Mairie de Paris, Y'becca, 8 Novembre 2016 et Hildalgo.   Sam 8 Oct à 9:24

Seasonal Influenza (Flu)2016-2017 Current Flu Season
Frequently Asked Flu Questions 2016-2017 Influenza Season
Language:
English

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New Flu Information for 2016-2017
Flu Activity
Protective Actions
Vaccine and Vaccination
If You Get Sick
Surveillance

Note: For the 2016-2017 season, CDC recommends use of the flu shot (inactivated influenza vaccine or IIV) and the recombinant influenza vaccine (RIV). The nasal spray flu vaccine (live attenuated influenza vaccine or LAIV) should not be used during 2016-2017. The 2016-2017 influenza vaccination recommendations are now available.
New Flu Information for 2016-2017

Getting an annual flu vaccine is the first and best way to protect yourself and your family from the flu. Flu vaccination can reduce flu illnesses, doctors’ visits, and missed work and school due to flu, as well as prevent flu-related hospitalizations. The more people who get vaccinated, the more people will be protected from flu, including older people, very young children, pregnant women and people with certain health conditions who are more vulnerable to serious flu complications. This page summarizes information for the 2016-2017 flu season.
What’s new this flu season?

A few things are new this season:

Only injectable flu shots are recommended for use this season.
Flu vaccines have been updated to better match circulating viruses.
There will be some new vaccines on the market this season.
The recommendations for vaccination of people with egg allergies have changed.

What flu vaccines are recommended this season?

This season, only injectable flu vaccines (flu shots) should be used. Some flu shots protect against three flu viruses and some protect against four flu viruses.

Options this season include:

Standard dose flu shots. Most are given into the muscle (usually with a needle, but one can be given to some people with a jet injector). One is given into the skin.
A high-dose shot for older people.
A shot made with adjuvant for older people.
A shot made with virus grown in cell culture.
A shot made using a vaccine production technology (recombinant vaccine) that does not require the use of flu virus.

Live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) – or the nasal spray vaccine – is not recommended for use during the 2016-2017 season because of concerns about its effectiveness.

There is a table showing all the influenza vaccines that are FDA-approved for use in the United States during the 2016-2017 season.
What viruses do 2016-2017 flu vaccines protect against?

There are many flu viruses and they are constantly changing. The composition of U.S. flu vaccines is reviewed annually and updated to match circulating flu viruses. Flu vaccines protect against the three or four viruses that research suggests will be most common. For 2016-2017, three-component vaccines are recommended to contain:

A/California/7/2009 (H1N1)pdm09-like virus,
A/Hong Kong/4801/2014 (H3N2)-like virus and a
B/Brisbane/60/2008-like virus (B/Victoria lineage).

Four component vaccines are recommended to include the same three viruses above, plus an additional B virus called B/Phuket/3073/2013-like virus (B/Yamagata lineage).
When and how often should I get vaccinated?

Everyone 6 months and older should get a flu vaccine every year by the end of October, if possible. However, getting vaccinated later is OK. Vaccination should continue throughout the flu season, even in January or later. Some children who have received flu vaccine previously and children who have only received one dose in their lifetime, may need two doses of flu vaccine. A health care provider can advise on how many doses a child should get.
Can I get a flu vaccine if I am allergic to eggs?

The recommendations for people with egg allergies have been updated for this season.

People who have experienced only hives after exposure to egg can get any licensed flu vaccine that is otherwise appropriate for their age and health.
People who have symptoms other than hives after exposure to eggs, such as angioedema, respiratory distress, lightheadedness, or recurrent emesis; or who have needed epinephrine or another emergency medical intervention, also can get any licensed flu vaccine that is otherwise appropriate for their age and health, but the vaccine should be given in a medical setting and be supervised by a health care provider who is able to recognize and manage severe allergic conditions. (Settings include hospitals, clinics, health departments, and physician offices). People with egg allergies no longer have to wait 30 minutes after receiving their vaccine.

Flu Activity
What sort of flu season is expected this year?

It’s not possible to predict what this flu season will be like. While flu spreads every year, the timing, severity, and length of the season varies from one year to another.
Will new flu viruses circulate this season?

Flu viruses are constantly changing so it's not unusual for new flu viruses to appear each year. For more information about how flu viruses change, visit How the Flu Virus Can Change.
Will the United States have a flu epidemic?

The United States experiences epidemics of seasonal flu each year. This time of year is called "flu season." In the United States, flu viruses are most common during the fall and winter months. Influenza activity often begins to increase in October and November. Most of the time flu activity peaks between December and March and can last as late as May. CDC monitors certain key flu indicators (for example, outpatient visits of influenza-like illness (ILI), the results of laboratory testing and flu hospitalization and deaths). When these indicators rise and remain elevated for a number of consecutive weeks, flu season is said to have begun. Usually ILI increases first, followed by an increase in flu-associated hospitalizations, which is then followed by increases in flu-associated deaths.

For the most current influenza surveillance information, please see FluView at Weekly U.S. Influenza Surveillance Report.
When will flu activity begin and when will it peak?

The timing of flu is very unpredictable and can vary in different parts of the country and from season to season. Seasonal flu viruses can be detected year-round, however, seasonal flu activity can begin as early as October and continue to occur as late as May. Flu activity most commonly peaks in the United States between December and March.
How many people die from flu each year?

CDC does not count how many people die from flu each year. Unlike flu deaths in children, flu deaths in adults are not nationally reportable. However, CDC uses mortality data collected by the National Center for Health Statistics to monitor relative levels of flu-associated deaths. This system tracks the proportion of death certificates processed that list pneumonia or influenza as the underlying or contributing cause of death of the total deaths reported. This system provides an overall indication of whether flu-associated deaths are elevated, but does not provide an exact number of how many people died from flu. For more information, see Overview of Influenza Surveillance in the United States, “Mortality Surveillance.”

CDC also uses modeling studies to estimate numbers of flu-related deaths, but these studies apply only to past seasons and are not done each year. For more information, see Estimating Seasonal Influenza-Associated Deaths in the United States.
Why is it difficult to know how many people die from flu?

There are several factors that make it difficult to determine accurate numbers of deaths caused by flu regardless of reporting. Some of the challenges in counting influenza-associated deaths include the following: the sheer volume of deaths to be counted; the lack of testing (not everyone that dies with an influenza-like illness is tested for influenza); and the different coding of deaths (influenza-associated deaths are often a result of complications secondary to underlying medical problems, and this may be difficult to sort out). For more information, see Estimating Seasonal Influenza-Associated Deaths in the United States: CDC Study Confirms Variability of Flu.

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Protective Actions
What should I do to protect myself from flu this season?

CDC recommends a yearly flu vaccine for everyone 6 months of age and older as the first and most important step in protecting against this serious disease.

In addition to getting a seasonal flu vaccine, you can take everyday preventive actions like staying away from sick people and washing your hands to reduce the spread of germs. If you are sick with flu, stay home from work or school to prevent spreading flu to others. In addition, there are prescription medications called antiviral drugs that can be used to treat influenza illness. Visit What you Should Know About Flu Antiviral Drugs for more information.
What should I do to protect my loved ones from flu this season?

Encourage your loved ones to get vaccinated. Vaccination is especially important for people at high risk for developing flu-related complications, and their close contacts. Also, if you have a loved one who is at high risk of flu complications and they develop flu symptoms, encourage them to get a medical evaluation for possible treatment with influenza antiviral drugs. CDC recommends that people who are at high risk for serious flu complications who get flu symptoms during flu season be treated with influenza antiviral drugs as quickly as possible. People who are not at high risk for serious flu complications may also be treated with influenza antiviral drugs, especially if treatment can begin within 48 hours.

Some children 6 months through 8 years of age will require two doses of flu vaccine for adequate protection from flu. Children in this age group who are getting vaccinated for the first time will need two doses of flu vaccine, spaced at least 28 days apart. Some children who have received flu vaccine previously and children who have only received one dose in their lifetime also may need two doses. Your child’s doctor or other health care professional can tell you if your child needs two doses. Visit Children, the Flu, and the Flu Vaccine for more information.

Children younger than 6 months are at higher risk of serious flu complications, but are too young to get a flu vaccine. Because of this, safeguarding them from flu is especially important. If you live with or care for an infant younger than 6 months of age, you should get a flu vaccine to help protect them from flu. See Advice for Caregivers of Young Children for more information. Also, studies have shown that getting the flu vaccine during pregnancy can protect the baby after birth for several months.

In addition to getting vaccinated, you and your loved ones can take everyday preventive actions like staying away from sick people and washing your hands to reduce the spread of germs. If you are sick with flu, stay home from work or school to prevent spreading flu to others.

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Vaccine and Vaccination
How much flu vaccine will be available this season?

Flu vaccine is produced by private manufacturers, so supply depends on manufacturers. For the 2016-2017 season, manufacturers projected they would provide between 157 million and 168 million doses of injectable vaccine for the U.S. market. (Projections may change as the season progresses.)
Will live attenuated intranasal influenza vaccine (LAIV) be available this season even though it is not recommended for use?

FluMist Quadrivalent is still an FDA-licensed product. As such, there may be some supply of FluMist Quadrivalent on the U.S. market during the 2016-2017 season. It is important for clinicians and the public to be aware that because of concerns about this vaccine's effectiveness, CDC recommends that this vaccine not be used during the 2016-2017 influenza season.
Where can I find information about vaccine supply?

Information about flu vaccine supply is available at Seasonal Influenza Vaccine & Total Doses Distributed
When will flu vaccine become available?

Flu vaccine is produced by private manufacturers, so the timing of vaccine availability depends on when production is completed. As of late September, more than 90 million doses of 2016-2017 flu vaccine had already been distributed in the United States. Vaccine supply updates are available at the link above.
When should I get vaccinated?

Getting vaccinated before flu activity begins helps protect you once the flu season starts in your community. It takes about two weeks after vaccination for the body’s immune response to fully respond and for you to be protected so make plans to get vaccinated. CDC recommends that people get a flu vaccine by the end of October, if possible. However, getting vaccinated later can still be beneficial. CDC recommends ongoing flu vaccination as long as influenza viruses are circulating, even into January or later. Children aged 6 months through 8 years who need two doses of vaccine should get the first dose as soon as possible to allow time to get the second dose before the start of flu season. The two doses should be given at least 28 days apart.
Where can I get a flu vaccine?

Flu vaccines are offered by many doctor’s offices, clinics, health departments, pharmacies and college health centers, as well as by many employers, and even by some schools.

Even if you don’t have a regular doctor or nurse, you can get a flu vaccine somewhere else, like a health department, pharmacy, urgent care clinic, and often your school, college health center, or work.

Visit the HealthMap Vaccine Finder to locate where you can get a flu vaccine.
Are there new recommendations for the 2016-2017 influenza season?

On June 22, 2016, CDC’s Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) voted that the live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) should not be used during the 2016-2017 flu season. ACIP continues to recommend annual flu vaccination for everyone 6 months and older. The ACIP recommendation must be reviewed and approved by CDC’s director before it becomes CDC policy. The final annual recommendations on the prevention and control of influenza with vaccines will be published in a CDC Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) in late summer or early fall.
What flu viruses do this season’s Northern Hemisphere and Southern Hemisphere vaccines protect against?

There are many flu viruses and they are constantly changing. The composition of flu vaccines for the United States is reviewed annually and updated to match circulating flu viruses.

For the 2016-2017 season (Northern Hemisphere winter), trivalent vaccines are recommended to contain:

an A/California/7/2009 (H1N1)pdm09-like virus,
an A/Hong Kong/4801/2014 (H3N2)-like virus
a B/Brisbane/60/2008-like virus (B/Victoria lineage).

Quadrivalent vaccines will include the same viruses plus an additional flu B virus called B/Phuket/3073/2013-like virus (B/Yamagata lineage).
What is flu vaccination using a jet injector?

On August 14, 2014, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved use of one jet injector device (the PharmaJet Stratis 0.5ml Needle-free Jet Injector) for delivery of one particular flu vaccine (AFLURIA® by bioCSL Inc.) in people 18 through 64 years of age. A jet injector is a medical device used for vaccination that uses a high-pressure, narrow stream of fluid to penetrate the skin instead of a hypodermic needle. For more information, see Flu Vaccination by Jet Injector.
What is adjuvanted flu vaccine?

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) licensed a new seasonal influenza (flu) vaccine containing adjuvant for adults 65 years of age and older. An adjuvant is an ingredient added to a vaccine to create a stronger immune response to vaccination. FLUAD™[155 KB, 13 pages] was licensed in November 2015 and will be available during the 2016-2017 flu season. It contains the MF59 adjuvant, an oil-in-water emulsion of squalene oil. FLUAD™ is the first adjuvanted seasonal flu vaccine marketed in the United States. For more information visit: FLUAD™ Flu Vaccine With Adjuvant.
How well will flu vaccines work this season?

Influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) can vary from year-to-year among different age and risk groups and even by vaccine type. How well the vaccine works can depend in part on the match between the vaccine virus used to produce the vaccine and the circulating viruses that season. It’s not possible to predict what viruses will be most predominant during the upcoming season. CDC monitors circulating viruses throughout the year and provides new and updated information about the vaccine match as it becomes available. Information is published weekly in FluView and summarized at intervals in the Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR). Vaccine effectiveness estimates are also provided when they become available.For more information about vaccine effectiveness, visit How Well Does the Seasonal Flu Vaccine Work?.
Will this season's flu vaccine be a good match for circulating viruses?

It's not possible to predict with certainty if the vaccine will be a good match for circulating viruses. The vaccine is made to protect against the flu viruses that research and surveillance indicate will likely be most common during the season. However, experts must pick which viruses to include in the vaccine many months in advance in order for vaccine to be produced and delivered on time. Also flu viruses change constantly (called drift) – they can change from one season to the next or they can even change within the course of one flu season. Because of these factors, there is always the possibility of a less than optimal match between circulating viruses and the viruses in the vaccine.

Over the course of the flu season, CDC studies samples of circulating flu viruses to evaluate how close a match there is between viruses used to make the vaccine and circulating viruses.

One of the ways that helps CDC evaluate the match between vaccine viruses and circulating viruses is with a lab process called ‘genetic and antigenic characterization’. Results of genetic and antigenic characterization testing are published weekly in CDC’s FluView.
How long does a flu vaccine protect me from getting the flu?

Multiple studies conducted over different seasons and across vaccine types and influenza virus subtypes have shown that the body’s immunity to influenza viruses (acquired either through natural infection or vaccination) declines over time. The decline in antibodies is influenced by several factors, including the antigen used in the vaccine, the age of the person being vaccinated, and the person's general health (for example, certain chronic health conditions may have an impact on immunity). When most healthy people with regular immune systems are vaccinated, their bodies produce antibodies and they are protected throughout the flu season, even as antibody levels decline over time. Older people and others with weakened immune systems may not generate the same amount of antibodies after vaccination; further, their antibody levels may drop more quickly when compared to young, healthy people.

For everyone, getting vaccinated each year provides the best protection against influenza throughout flu season. It’s important to get a flu vaccine every season, even if you got vaccinated the season before and the viruses in the vaccine have not changed for the current season.
Can the vaccine provide protection even if the vaccine is not a "good" match?

Yes, antibodies made in response to vaccination with one flu virus can sometimes provide protection against different but related viruses. A less than ideal match may result in reduced vaccine effectiveness against the virus that is different from what is in the vaccine, but it can still provide some protection against influenza illness.

In addition, it's important to remember that the flu vaccine contains three or four flu viruses (depending on the type of vaccine you receive) so that even when there is a less than ideal match or lower effectiveness against one virus, the vaccine may protect against the other viruses.

For these reasons, even during seasons when there is a less than ideal match, CDC continues to recommend flu vaccination for everyone 6 months and older. Vaccination is particularly important for people at high risk for serious flu complications, and their close contacts.
Can I get vaccinated and still get the flu?

Yes. It’s possible to get sick with the flu even if you have been vaccinated (although you won’t know for sure unless you get a flu test). This is possible for the following reasons:

You may be exposed to a flu virus shortly before getting vaccinated or during the period that it takes the body to gain protection after getting vaccinated. This exposure may result in you becoming ill with flu before the vaccine begins to protect you. (About 2 weeks after vaccination, antibodies that provide protection develop in the body.)
You may be exposed to a flu virus that is not included in the seasonal flu vaccine. There are many different flu viruses that circulate every year. The flu vaccine is made to protect against the three or four flu viruses that research suggests will be most common.

Unfortunately, some people can become infected with a flu virus the flu vaccine is designed to protect against, despite getting vaccinated. Protection provided by flu vaccination can vary widely, based in part on health and age factors of the person getting vaccinated. In general, the flu vaccine works best among healthy younger adults and older children. Some older people and people with certain chronic illnesses may develop less immunity after vaccination. Flu vaccination is not a perfect tool, but it is the best way to protect against flu infection.

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If You Get Sick
What should I do if I get sick with the flu?

Antiviral drugs are prescription drugs that can be used to treat flu illness. People at high risk of serious flu complications (such as children younger than 5 years, adults 65 years of age and older, pregnant women, people with certain medical conditions, and residents of nursing homes and other long-term care facilities) and people who are very sick with flu (such as those hospitalized because of flu) should get antiviral drugs. Some other people can be treated with antivirals at their health care professional’s discretion. Treating high risk people or people who are very sick with flu with antiviral drugs is very important. Studies show that prompt treatment with antiviral drugs can prevent serious flu complications. Prompt treatment can mean the difference between having a milder illness versus very serious illness that could result in a hospital stay.

Treatment with antivirals works best when begun within 48 hours of getting sick, but can still be beneficial when given later in the course of illness. Antiviral drugs are effective across all age and risk groups. Studies show that antiviral drugs are under-prescribed for people who are at high risk of complications who get flu. Three FDA-approved antiviral medications are recommended for use during the 2016-2017 flu season: oseltamivir (Tamiflu®), zanamivir (Relenza®), and peramivir (Rapivab®). More information about antiviral drugs can be found at Treatment - Antiviral Drugs.

See “The Flu: What To Do If You Get Sick” for more information.

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Surveillance
How does CDC track influenza activity?

The Epidemiology and Prevention Branch in the Influenza Division at CDC collects, compiles and analyzes information on influenza activity year round in the United States and produces FluView, a weekly influenza surveillance report, and FluView Interactive, which allows for more in-depth exploration of influenza surveillance data. The U.S. influenza surveillance system is a collaborative effort between CDC and its many partners in state, local, and territorial health departments, public health and clinical laboratories, vital statistics offices, healthcare providers, clinics, and emergency departments. Information in five categories is collected from eight different data sources that allow CDC to:

Find out when and where influenza activity is occurring
Track influenza-related illness
Determine what influenza viruses are circulating
Detect changes in influenza viruses
Measure the impact influenza is having on hospitalizations and deaths in the United States

For more information, visit “Overview of Influenza Surveillance in the United States”.
Are there any new FluView interactive applications?

Yes. A new FluView interactive application was introduced over the summer that shows the distribution by age group of influenza-positive tests by influenza virus type and subtype or lineage. This application allows users to view laboratory data from multiple seasons and different age groups. Users also can view the chart data by week or cumulatively for the season. The new FluView application shows the distribution by age group of influenza-positive specimens from the 1997-1998 flu season through the current week of reporting. Influenza B lineage information is available starting from the 2015-16 season. It’s important to note, however, that because testing practices and the number of participating public health laboratories can change from year to year; it is not always appropriate to determine the relative severity of influenza seasons by comparing the number of positive specimens across seasons.
What will CDC do to monitor vaccine effectiveness for the 2016-2017 season?

CDC collaborates with other partners each season to assess how well the seasonal vaccines are working. During the 2016-2017 season, CDC is planning multiple studies on the effectiveness of flu shots. These studies measure vaccine effectiveness in preventing laboratory-confirmed influenza among persons 6 months of age and older. A summary of CDC’s latest vaccine effectiveness estimates is available at Seasonal Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness, 2005-2016.
What is CDC doing to monitor antiviral resistance in the United States during the 2016-2017 season?

CDC will continue to collect and monitor flu viruses for changes through an established network of domestic and global surveillance systems. CDC also is working with the state public health departments and the World Health Organization to collect additional information on antiviral resistance in the United States and worldwide. The information collected will assist in making informed recommendations regarding use of antiviral drugs to treat influenza.

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Note: For the 2016-2017 season, CDC recommends use of the flu shot (inactivated influenza vaccine or IIV) and the recombinant influenza vaccine (RIV). The nasal spray flu vaccine (live attenuated influenza vaccine or LAIV) should not be used during 2016-2017. The 2016-2017 influenza vaccination recommendations are now available.

While current U.S. flu activity is low overall, localized influenza outbreaks have been reported. Influenza activity often begins to increase in October.

CDC recommends a yearly flu vaccine for everyone 6 months and older. Now is a good time to get vaccinated. It takes about two weeks after vaccination for protection to set in.

Flu vaccination can reduce flu illnesses and prevent flu-related hospitalizations. Flu vaccines have been updated for the 2016-2017 season. More than 100 million doses of seasonal influenza vaccine have been distributed at this time.
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MessageSujet: Re: Mairie de Paris, Y'becca, 8 Novembre 2016 et Hildalgo.   Sam 8 Oct à 9:42



Faits et chiffres de l’ESA
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ExoMars 2016 en approche de Mars
7 octobre 2016

Le 19 octobre, la mission ExoMars 2016 s’insérera en orbite autour de la planète rouge alors qu’au même moment son atterrisseur Schiaparelli descendra vers la surface.

ExoMars est une mission conjointe de l’ESA et de l’Agence spatiale Russe Roscosmos, qui comprend l’orbiteur d’étude des gaz à l’état de traces (TGO) et le démonstrateur d’entrée, de descente et d’atterrissage Schiaparelli.

TGO a pour mission d’effectuer un inventaire complet des gaz présents dans l’atmosphère de Mars, tout en prêtant une attention particulière à des gaz rares comme le méthane, dont la présence implique une source active. TGO vise ainsi à mesurer la dépendance géographique et saisonnière du méthane afin de déterminer si sa source est géologique ou biologique.

TGO commencera sa mission scientifique à la fin de l’année 2017, après une année de complexes manœuvres de freinage atmosphérique destinées à circulariser son orbite. TGO servira également de relais pour le rover de la mission ExoMars 2020 de l’ESA.

La séparation entre Schiaparelli et TGO aura lieu le 16 octobre, et Schiaparelli entrera dans l’atmosphère le 19 octobre pour une descente d’environ 6 minutes vers la région de Meridiani Planum.

La descente de Schiaparelli sur Mars
Access the video

Schiaparelli fera la démonstration des technologies nécessaires pour effectuer une descente et un atterrissage contrôlé sur Mars lors de futures missions, notamment un bouclier thermique, un parachute, un système de propulsion et une structure écrasable.

Schiaparelli emporte également une petite charge utile scientifique qui va enregistrer la vitesse du vent, le taux d’humidité, la pression et la température au niveau du site d’atterrissage, et obtenir les premières mesures des champs électriques à la surface de Mars, qui pourraient fournir des informations sur les éléments déclencheurs des tempêtes de poussière.

Pour être informé en temps réel sur la mission ExoMars 2016, suivez sur Twitter @esaoperations, @ESA_TGO, @ESA_EDM et @ESA_ExoMars ou #ExoMars.
Pour plus d’informations sur la mission, consultez http://exploration.esa.int/mars/

Forum Armand-Peugeot, Poissy : retransmission en direct de l’arrivée de la mission spatiale ExoMars à partir de 14h15. Cette retransmission sera commentée par des scientifiques impliquées dans la mission ExoMars 2016. Entrée libre, mais inscription préalable obligatoire sur http://exomars.gpseo.fr

Cité de l’espace, Toulouse : retransmission en direct de l’arrivée de la mission spatiale ExoMars en présence de scientifiques de la mission ExoMars 2016. Pour plus d’informations : http://www.cite-espace.com/
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MessageSujet: Re: Mairie de Paris, Y'becca, 8 Novembre 2016 et Hildalgo.   Sam 8 Oct à 10:02

Study finds fossil fuel methane emissions greater than previously estimated
But energy development is not responsible for global methane uptick

Wednesday, October 5, 2016

Methane emissions from fossil fuel development around the world are up to 60 percent greater than estimated by previous studies, according to new research led by scientists from NOAA and CIRES. The study found that fossil fuel activities contribute between 132 million and 165 million tons of the 623 million tons of methane emitted by all sources every year. That’s about 20 to 25 percent of total global methane emissions, and 20 to 60 percent more than previous studies estimated.

Global methane emissions

Global methane emissions
A new NOAA/CIRES study has found that fossil fuel development contributes about 20 to 25 percent of the 623 million tons of methane emitted by all sources every year, significantly more than previous studies estimated. Credit: NOAA
However, the findings also confirm other work by NOAA scientists that conclude fossil fuel facilities are not directly responsible for the increased rate of global atmospheric methane emissions measured in the atmosphere since 2007.

“We recognize the findings might seem counterintuitive – methane emissions from fossil fuel development have been dramatically underestimated – but they’re not directly responsible for the increase in total methane emissions observed since 2007,” said lead author Stefan Schwietzke, a scientist with the Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences (CIRES) at the University of Colorado Boulder, working in NOAA’s Earth System Research Laboratory.

The upward revision in the estimate of fossil fuel methane emissions comes despite improvements in industry practices that has reduced leaks from oil and gas facilities from about 8 percent of production to about 2 percent over the past three decades. Dramatic production increases have canceled out efficiency gains however, keeping the overall contribution from fossil fuel activities constant.

The research, published today in the journal Nature, analyzed the largest database of methane measurements ever assembled to determine how much methane is coming from fossil fuel development, natural geologic sources, microbial activity, and biomass burning.

After carbon dioxide, methane is the second largest contributor to global warming. While not as abundant or as long-lived as CO2, methane is 28 times more effective at trapping heat in the Earth’s atmosphere over a 100-year time span. Reducing methane emissions from fossil fuel activities could be a cost-effective strategy to slow the rate of global warming during the next century, the authors said.

“Our study shows that leaks from oil and gas activities around the world are responsible for a lot more methane than we thought,” said co-author Lori Bruhwiler, a NOAA research scientist. “The good news is that fixing leaking oil and gas infrastructure is a very effective short-term way to reduce emissions of this important greenhouse gas.”

Measuring methane emissions

Measuring methane emissions
Stefan Schwietzke, scientist with NOAA and CIRES, prepares to get into a plane in 2014 to take measurements of methane to inform new research that shows global methane emissions from oil and gas extraction are greater than previously estimated. Credit: Will Von Dauster/ NOAA
Schwietzke and his team, which included scientists from the University of Colorado and other universities, assembled a database roughly 100 times larger than previous ones. That improved the accuracy of their results, he said.

“A key message is that the number and comprehensiveness of measurements matter,” said Schwietzke. “The models used to estimate methane emissions are very sensitive to the data we supply them with. Our method is based very strongly on empirical data to reduce the number of assumptions that influence results.”

Methane emissions have distinct isotopic signatures that distinguish whether a sample came from fossil fuel development and natural geologic sources, microbial activity, or biomass burning.

Though the new estimates of fossil fuel emissions represent a major adjustment of the global methane budget, the study results support other research findings on another methane-related subject: what’s causing the global uptick in atmospheric methane levels observed since 2007.

Isotopic analysis points to natural or human-caused microbial sources as the source of between 364 million to 419 million tons of methane per year, or 58 to 67 percent of methane released to the atmosphere each year, Schwietzke said. Total methane emissions from all sources increased by about 28 million tons per year between 2007 and 2013.

“We believe methane produced by microbial sources -- cows, agriculture, landfills, wetlands, and fresh waters - are responsible for the increase, but we cannot yet pinpoint which are the primary drivers,” he said. “If the methane is mainly coming from cows or ag, then we could potentially do something about it. If it's coming from decaying vegetation in wetlands or fresh waters, then a warming climate could be the culprit, which means that it could be part of a self-reinforcing feedback loop leading to more climate change. Those are big ifs, and we need to figure them out.”

Future research, Schwietzke said, would benefit from enlarging the database to add samples from microbial sources like cows, agriculture, and wetlands. More data would help further reduce uncertainty about contributions from all methane sources, including fossil fuels, and would help better quantify the individual sources at continental scales.

For more information, please contact Theo Stein, NOAA public affairs at NOAA's Earth System Research Laboratory, at 303-497-6288 or by email at theo.stein@noaa.gov



Measuring methane

Global methane emissions

Measuring methane emissions


Categories: Research HeadlinesPress Release2016Climate | Tags: Greenhouse Gasmethaneclimate
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MessageSujet: Re: Mairie de Paris, Y'becca, 8 Novembre 2016 et Hildalgo.   Sam 8 Oct à 10:18


Houses, trees, and powerlines in a New Orleans neighborhood flooded by Hurricane Katrina.

October 7, 2016
by Office of Response and Restoration Leave a comment
Preparing for Hurricanes

Hurricane Matthew is the latest storm to wreak havoc on our nation’s shores. Being involved in disaster response, we at NOAA’s Office of Response and Restoration know what can go wrong when a hurricane hits the coast—after all, we’ve seen it firsthand:

People can lose their belongings—or, tragically, their lives.
Neighborhoods, sometimes even our own, can flood, knocking down buildings.
Entire cities can be shut down, residents trapped in their homes, and emergency responders evacuated when yet another hurricane rolls through already impacted areas.
Oil and gas infrastructure can be torn apart, releasing hazardous materials such as oil into coastal waters.
Houses, boats, and a variety of debris can be swept out into the ocean.
The very shoreline can be reshaped.

Boats scattered in a marsh and onshore next to damaged buildings.

After Hurricanes Katrina and Rita in 2005, thousands of boats were scattered along the shores and waters of the Gulf of Mexico. Dealing with these vessels and their resulting pollution can be a long and difficult process. (NOAA)

Clearly, a lot is at stake when a hurricane sweeps through an area, which is why preparing for hurricanes and other disasters is so important. We can’t stop these powerful storms, but we can prepare ourselves, our homes, and our coastal communities to lessen the impacts and bounce back more quickly after storms hit. NOAA’s National Weather Service has plenty of tips and guidelines for preparing to weather these storms.

NOAA’s Office of Response and Restoration also takes care to prepare for hurricanes and other disasters.

Sometimes that means building internet and phone access into the stormproof bathrooms of our facilities so that we can continue providing sound science and support to deal with pollution from a storm. Other times that means working with coastal regions to create response plans for disaster debris, training other emergency responders to address oil and chemical spills, and developing software tools that pull together and display key information necessary for making critical response decisions during disasters.

NOAA’s National Weather Service has plenty of tips and guidelines for preparing to weather these storms.

Learn more about how to protect yourself and your belongings from a hurricane.

NOAA’s National Weather Service has the latest information on Hurricane Matthew.
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Categories: natural disasters, oil spills, preparedness | Tags: coasts, hurricanes, NOAA, preparedness | Permalink.

October 5, 2016
by Office of Response and Restoration Leave a comment
Are You Ready for the Storm? — NOAA’s Marine Debris Blog

Hurricanes and severe storms come with high winds, heavy rains, and storm surges that have the potential to damage property and create a large amount of marine debris. Protecting our families and possessions are usually our top priority when we hear of an approaching storm, as they should be, but do you know what else […]

via Are You Ready for the Storm? — NOAA’s Marine Debris Blog
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Categories: Uncategorized | Permalink.

October 4, 2016
by Office of Response and Restoration Leave a comment
Science of Oil Spills Training: Apply for Spring 2017
People sitting around desk in classroom

Science of Oil Spills class

October 3, 2016 —NOAA‘s Office of Response and Restoration (OR&R), a leader in providing scientific information in response to marine pollution, has scheduled two more Science of Oil Spills (SOS) classes:

Charleston, South Carolina, the week of February 13, 2017
Mobile, Alabama the week of March 27, 2017

OR&R will accept applications for these classes as follows:

The application period for the Charleston class will run through Monday, November 28, 2016. We will email applicants regarding their application status no later than Friday, December 9.
The application period for the Mobile class will run through Friday, January 20, 2017. We will email applicants regarding their application status no later than Friday, February 3, 2017.

SOS classes help spill responders increase their understanding of oil spill science when analyzing spills and making risk-based decisions. They are designed for new and mid-level spill responders.

The trainings cover:

Fate and behavior of oil spilled in the environment.
An introduction to oil chemistry and toxicity.
A review of basic spill response options for open water and shorelines.
Spill case studies.
Principles of ecological risk assessment.
A field trip.
An introduction to damage assessment techniques.
Determining cleanup endpoints.

To view the topics for the next SOS class, download a sample agenda [PDF, 170 KB].

Please understand that classes are not filled on a first-come, first-served basis. We try to diversify the participant composition to ensure a variety of perspectives and experiences, to enrich the workshop for the benefit of all participants. Classes are generally limited to 40 participants.

For more information, and to learn how to apply for the class, visit the SOS Classes page.
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Categories: oil spills, Uncategorized | Tags: oil spill, Science of Oil Spills classes | Permalink.

October 4, 2016
by Office of Response and Restoration Leave a comment
Response and Restoration in a Changing Arctic
ice on ocean with two people

The Beaufort Sea. (NOAA)

Last week, the Administration hosted the first White House Arctic Science Ministerial. The gathering of science ministers, chief science advisers, and additional high-level officials from countries worldwide, as well as indigenous representatives, provided an opportunity to discuss Arctic science, research, observations, monitoring, and data-sharing. Discussion topics included:

Identifying Arctic science challenges and their regional and global implications
Strengthening and integrating Arctic observations and data sharing
Applying expanded scientific understanding of the Arctic to build regional resilience and shape global responses
Empowering citizens through Science Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) education leveraging Arctic science

These issues are deeply entrenched in the work of NOAA’s Office of Response and Restoration (OR&R). Rising temperatures and thinning sea ice in the Arctic creates more opportunities for human activities that increase the threat of oil and chemical spills in a remote region that presents unique challenges.

As the lead science advisor to the U.S. Coast Guard (USCG) during oil and hazardous material spills, OR&R provides both preparedness training and support during spills. In August, OR&R participated in an Alaska North Slope oil spill drill, conducting Shoreline Cleanup Assessment Technique surveys, relaying information to the Incident Command Post in Anchorage, and sharing operational and environmental information using the Arctic Environmental Response Management Application (ERMA).

OR&R also conducts assessments of natural resources damaged by spills and often participates in exercises for such activities. In 2014, OR&R released Guidelines for Collecting High Priority Ephemeral Data for Oil Spills in the Arctic in Support of Natural Resource Damage Assessments. In May, OR&R and the NOAA Restoration Center led a tabletop drill and management training for the Alaska Natural Resource Damage Assessment and Restoration trustees.

OR&R’s Arctic work is not restricted to domestic activities. OR&R’s Spatial Data Branch Chief Dr. Amy Merten currently serves as chair of the Arctic Council’s Emergency Prevention, Preparedness, and Response Working Group, and OR&R frequently participates in international meetings and exercises. A few weeks ago, OR&R participated in an international cooperative information exchange with Canada and Norway hosted by USCG. Staff reviewed the use of Arctic ERMA and presented the Arctic Dispersant State of the Science initiative in coordination with the University of New Hampshire’s Coastal Response Research Center.

As the protection of Arctic natural resources and coastal communities gain increased attention, OR&R will continue to prepare and support partners with innovative science, tools, and services.
Graphic of cross section of oil spill.

Conceptual model of the impacts of an oil spill to various segments of the Arctic environment (NOAA)

Learn more about NOAA and oil spills, including challenges in the Arctic.

Learn more about the White House Arctic Science Ministerial.
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Categories: preparedness, restoration | Tags: Arctic, Natural Resource Damage Assessment, oil spill | Permalink.

October 3, 2016
by Office of Response and Restoration Leave a comment
50th Anniversary of Bodega Marine Laboratory
Aerial view of coastal bluff with buildings

Aerial view of the Bodega Marine Laboratory. Credit: Bodega Marine Laboratory

The Bodega Marine Laboratory is 50 years old and going strong along with the partnership between NOAA and the University of California (UC).

Back in 1956, undeveloped land stretched across a peninsula to Bodega Head. In 1966 the first lab opened under the supervision of UC Berkeley, by the 1980s UC Davis took the helm. Since then the laboratory has more than doubled in size and the research scope greatly expanded to include fields as diverse as organismal biology, coastal ecology, climate change effects and ocean acidification, toxicology, bio-engineering, physical oceanography, and biotechnology.

Students, faculty, and visiting scientists have studied the shoreline habitats and conducted research at the lab since its modest beginnings – expanding our understanding of marine and estuarine systems along a beautiful stretch of northern California coastline.

The lab is part of the Bodega Marine Reserve, which is part of the UC Natural Reserve System and within NOAA’s recently expanded Greater Farallones National Marine Sanctuary.

Some of the research at the BML includes:

Marine aquaculture
Toxicity studies
Effects of oil spill in San Francisco Bay on Pacific herring
Captive breeding programs to support recovery of the special status species such as white abalone (Haliotis sorenseni ) and salmon (Oncorhynchus)
Ocean acidification studies
Deployment of various types of sensors to monitor physical phenomena such as oxygen levels in sanctuary waters.

Partnerships with marine laboratories such as Bodega Marine Laboratory are critical to the NOAA mission to protect and restore coastal resources and to help us remain a strong science-based agency well connected with current scientific research, trends, and findings.
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Categories: ocean, science, Uncategorized | Tags: marine laboratory, marine sanctuaries | Permalink.
Ten Years of the NOAA Marine Debris Program: 2012

September 28, 2016 by Office of Response and Restoration Leave a comment
The Daini Katsu Maru was a JTMD vessel that was returned to Japan. (Photo Credit: DLNR, State of Hawaii)

NOAA Marine Debris Program is celebrating 10 years of protecting our nation’s marine environment.

NOAA's Marine Debris Blog

The NOAA Marine Debris Program 10 year anniversary identity marker.

This year marks the ten year anniversary of the NOAA Marine Debris Program and we will be celebrating throughout the year! As part of our celebration, we will be looking back on our accomplishments over the years (check out our timeline for a review of the past decade!). Let’s take a look back to 2012:
2012:

The NOAA Marine Debris Program (MDP) faced some important challenges in 2012 and was busier than ever! To start, the Marine Debris Act was amended, expanding to include regional coordination and emergency response. This made the MDP responsible for coordinating with partners on a daily basis, as well as responding to severe debris events. With the added responsibility of regional coordination, the MDP upgraded its reach from six to ten coastal regions, now including the Pacific Islands, Alaska, Pacific Northwest, California, Great Lakes, Gulf of Mexico, Northeast

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September 27, 2016
by Joe Inslee 1 Comment
An Estuary in the Shadow of Seattle
People working at marsh's edge.

Volunteers help restore the Duwamish River by planting native vegetation at an Earth Day event hosted at Codiga Park, April 2008. (NOAA)

Update: It’s been announced that a proposed settlement was reached with Seattle to resolve its liability for injured natural resources. Seattle has purchased restoration credits from Bluefield Holdings Inc., a company that develops restoration projects. The city’s credit purchase totals approximately $3.5 million worth of restoration. This is the first natural resource damages settlement to fund restoration through the purchase of credits by a restoration development company. For more details: https://www.justice.gov/opa/pr/city-seattle-agrees-natural-resource-damages-settlement-using-new-market-based-approach

What makes river water flow in one direction in the morning and change direction in the afternoon? Tides.

Where the Duwamish River meets Puget Sound in Washington state this shift of water flow happens daily. The Duwamish pours into the salty waters of Puget Sound, making it Seattle’s downtown estuary. The powerful tides that fill and drain the sound push and pull on the Duwamish causing a shift in directions at the river’s estuary.

This estuary does not look like the estuaries from high school text books. It no longer has a wide delta where the freshwater river fans out to meet the salty ocean. Instead, it looks like a channelized waterway. Almost all of the Duwamish estuarine wetlands and mudflats have been lost to dredging or filling for industrial purposes. Restoring the Duwamish‘s estuary is a massive challenge—requiring government agencies, industry, and the public to work together.
Aerial view of city with river.

Aerial photograph of the Lower Duwamish River. Harbor Island and Elliott Bay are shown in the top left and downtown Seattle in the top center of the photograph. (NOAA)

I am happy to report a significant step forward in this collaboration. NOAA recently produced key answers to some tough questions, based on lessons we learned as we worked on this restoration effort: What works the best to restore this highly urban and developed river and estuary? What are some of the key obstacles we encountered?

Main challenges for restoring the Duwamish:

Dealing with costs and challenges of existing contamination
Preventing erosion of new restoration
Keeping newly-planted vegetation alive—geese and other wildlife love to eat newly planted restoration sites

Key lessons learned for successful restoration:

Plan for uncertainty: the most common issue for restoration in urban areas is discovering unexpected challenges, such as sediment contamination during construction.
Allow for ongoing maintenance: Restoration isn’t over just because a project is complete. To ensure the long-term success of restoration efforts, continued stewardship of the site is necessary and should be included in project planning.
Get the biggest bang for your buck: When companies conduct cleanups of their sites, it is most cost effective to conduct restoration at the same time.

River with grid strung above it.

Geese inside goose exclusion fencing at Boeing Project. (Credit: Boeing)

The challenges and recommendations are only a snapshot of what can be found in the NOAA report, Habitat Restoration in an Urban Waterway: Lessons Learned from the Lower Duwamish River. While the Duwamish estuary may look nothing like it did historically, it is important to always be reminded that it is still full of life. From salmon to kayakers to industry, the estuary serves a key role in the Seattle community. Learn more about what we are doing to restore the Duwamish River.

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Categories: habitat, restoration | Tags: Assessment and Restoration Division, natural resources, restoration | Permalink.

September 22, 2016
by Office of Response and Restoration Leave a comment
Restoring Marsh Habitat by Sharing Assessment Techniques
Group of four people stand in a marsh.

Training participants examine a one meter square quadrant transect (rod at bottom) to illustrate how new metrics could be applied for a northeast assessment. (NOAA)

There is no one-size-fits-all approach to environmental assessments for oil spills or hazardous waste events. We must therefore custom-tailor our technical approach for each pollution incident.

We first determine whether impacts to natural resources have occurred and whether it is appropriate to proceed with a Natural Resource Damage Assessment (NRDA). We collect time-sensitive data, evaluate available research and information about the type of injury, and determine what species and habitats are likely to have been affected. If we determine that habitats, wildlife or human uses have been harmed or could experience significant impacts, we often proceed with a full damage assessment.

This type of scientific assessment is particularly challenging in a marsh environment given potential injury due to both oil persistence and toxicity. For example, a home heating oil released by the North Cape barge in 1996 caused acute injury to lobsters, clams, fish, crabs, and mussels in, and adjacent to, the marshes of southern Rhode Island. The light oil was highly toxic, but quickly dissipated, thereby causing a lot of immediate injury, but less long-term problems. By contrast, a more chronic impact was the result of persistent fuel oil released by the Barge Bouchard 120 in the salt marshes of Massachusetts in 2003. That oil saturated 100 miles of shoreline, impacting tidal marshes, mudflats, beaches, and rocky shorelines. These evolving factors are why we constantly share best practices and lessons learned among our colleagues in the northeast and nationwide.

Members of the Northeast and Spatial Data Branch of NOAA’s Office of Response and Restoration and NOAA’s Restoration Center recently met at Spermaceti Cove, Sandy Hook, New Jersey, to participate in a hands-on workshop to improve our salt marsh damage assessment techniques and data compilation.

They were building on previous findings presented at a 2015 salt marsh assessment workshop in Massachusetts, that information learned there should be shared in other locales. Of note were the variety of vegetation and native invertebrates around the coastal United States that necessitate region-specific marsh field training.
Two people standing in shallow water holding a seining net.

Scientists seining salt marsh tidal channel collecting native small fish for injury determination. (NOAA)

To address the study of natural resource damages in a mid-north Atlantic salt marsh environ, this 2016 effort included the count of flora and fauna species within a 2 meter square quadrant along a designated transect (see photo) to provide a measure of diversity and species richness. Also they used a seine, a lift net, and minnow traps to collect fish adjacent to the marsh for species identification and to measure body size and observe possible abnormalities, both external and internal.

Additionally, NOAA scientists discussed and demonstrated current best practices to perform our work regarding health and safety, sample custody, and data management.

In an actual future marsh injury assessment, the Trustees would develop a conceptual site model for guidance in testing the hypotheses, the specific study design, and the proper site and habitat injury measures.

Ken Finkelstein and Kathleen Goggin of NOAA’s Office of Response and Restoration contributed to this article.
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Categories: chemical releases, habitat, oil spills, restoration, science, Uncategorized | Tags: marsh, natural resources, NOAA, oil spills, pollution, science | Permalink.

September 15, 2016
by Office of Response and Restoration Leave a comment
What Scientists Learned About Cleaning up Oil Spills by Covering a Delaware Beach with Oil — on Purpose
Barrels and workers on a beach.

Delivery of barrels containing Bonny light Nigerian crude oil. Oil was weathered in a separate pool. (NOAA)

Most people don’t want to spill oil onto beaches. But after the disastrous 1989 Exxon Valdez spill covered the remote, rocky beaches of Alaska’s Prince William Sound with crude oil, Al Venosa was itching to do exactly that.

As an environmental scientist with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Venosa had been called up to Alaska to help study the Exxon Valdez oil spill and its cleanup. In particular, he was interested in an oil spill cleanup technique that was getting a lot of attention at the time—an approach known as “bioremediation.” It involved adding oil-eating microbes and extra nutrients to an oiled beach to accelerate the natural background process of microbes breaking down, or biodegrading, oil.

But Venosa wasn’t satisfied with the research attempts that came out of that spill. He wanted to set up a more scientifically rigorous and controlled study of how effective bioremediation was under realistic conditions in the marine environment. However, in the United States, getting permission to spill oil into the environment on purpose is a very difficult, and nearly impossible, thing to do.

Coming Together

Meanwhile, Ben Anderson, an oil spill biologist with the Delaware Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Control, had also been working on the cleanup after the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Just a couple months after that iconic spill and shortly after he returned home from Alaska, he had to deal with a spill of hundreds of thousands of gallons of bunker oil when the T/V Presidente Rivera ran aground in the Delaware River. He remembered 1989 as a tough year for oil spills. Anderson began wondering how to improve the efficiency of oil spill cleanup and better protect Delaware’s abundant natural resources.

A few years later, in 1993, Anderson was listening to Ken Lee from Fisheries and Oceans Canada as he presented on bioremediation at the International Oil Spill Conference. At the end of his presentation, Lee mentioned how important—and difficult—it was to do controlled field studies on bioremediation. The comment got Anderson thinking; maybe he could help make this happen in Delaware.

“Anything we can do to improve the aftermath of an oil spill in Delaware,” recalled Anderson.

After the presentation, he approached Lee, who introduced him to Al Venosa. The pair decided to work together to bring Venosa’s meticulous research approach to a study of oil bioremediation on Delaware’s beaches.

“From that time to next summer, I worked on getting a permit with EPA and with the state,” said Anderson. He and his collaborators also reached out to local environmental groups in Delaware and to NOAA, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and other agencies to build support for the research project, building in as many safeguards as possible to limit any potential environmental impacts.

One issue the research team would have to work around was the fact that each May, Delaware’s sandy shores are crawling with horseshoe crabs, a prehistoric marine creature with armor and a long, pointy tail, which comes ashore to lay its eggs. More than 20 species of birds, as they migrate north to nest in the Arctic each summer, stop along these shores to nourish themselves with a feast of horseshoe crab eggs. To avoid interfering with this ecological phenomenon, Anderson and Venosa would have to start the experiment after horseshoe crab spawning season had passed.

Oil Ashore

With just a few days left before the experiment was to begin on July 1, 1994 and with Venosa and his colleagues at EPA and the University of Cincinnati already on the road from Ohio to Delaware, Anderson finally secured the needed permit.

Permissions in hand, the researchers set up the experiment very carefully. Unlike previous studies, they focused intensely on replication and randomization. They cordoned off five separate blocks of sandy beach on Delaware Bay, so that each block was parallel to the ocean yet would still be within reach of the tides.
Oiled test plots on a beach.

View up beach of the 20 oiled plots. (NOAA)

Within each block, they randomly assigned three oil treatment plots and one control plot, which was sprayed with only seawater. Plots undergoing the three oil treatments, after having weathered crude oil applied at the very beginning, were sprayed daily at low tide with seawater and nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus), nutrients and oil-eating microbes, or nothing extra (essentially, only oil had been applied). This meant that each treatment and control was replicated five times, reducing the chance that human error or natural variation would skew the results.

“We grew up our microorganisms on the beach in 55 gallon drums using the same seawater, nutrients, and microorganism [species],” recounted Venosa, who served as the lead researcher for the study. “We added them back onto these plots every week, continuously growing and adding them. These [microbes] were adapted to the oil we used and to the climatic conditions at the site.”

As a precaution, the research team strung oil containment boom along the waters surrounding the experimental plots to catch any oil runoff. In addition, they lined up cages of filter-feeding oysters in the surf off of each study block, as well as farther up and down the shoreline, to act as natural oil monitors. NOAA ecologist Alan Mearns helped facilitate this monitoring and multiple toxicity studies to determine the potential toxicity of the various treatments over time.

Bioremediation for the Birds?

Fourteen weeks later, what did they find? According to one of the study write-ups published at the 1997 International Oil Spill Conference, the researchers found that:

“oil was lost naturally because of both physical and chemical processes and biodegradation, that degradation of oil alkanes and PAHs [polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons] in upper intertidal sandy sediments could be enhanced with the continuous addition of dissolved nutrients, that treatment with oil-degrading bacteria provided no additional benefit, and that treatment neither enhanced nor reduced the toxicity of the oil.”

While the team did detect a boost in how quickly oil broke down in plots sprayed with nutrients (which fed naturally occurring microbes), it was a pretty minor benefit in the big picture of oil spill cleanup. And adding more microbes didn’t increase the rate of oil breakdown at all.

Delaware Bay’s waters are already rich with nutrients—and oil-eating microbes. “It was probably a lot of runoff from fertilizer from agriculture and wastewater treatment plants,” speculated Venosa. “We had a two to three times increase in the rate of biodegradation.”

However, for an area like Delaware Bay with high background levels of nutrients, Venosa wouldn’t recommend going to the trouble and cost of using bioremediation techniques, unless a spill happened right before something like the annual horseshoe crab spawning and bird migration.

“What we found was you don’t have to do any more nutrient addition,” said Anderson. “Just keep adding ambient water and keep it aerated to get the [biodegradation] benefit. Let nature take its course, but give it a little hand by keeping it wet on the beach face.”

Scientific Success

Overall, the research team considered the experiment a success. They finally had hard data, meticulously gathered, that showed bioremediation to be a “polishing technique,” to be potentially used in oil spills when the local conditions were right and only after other, quicker-acting cleanup methods had been applied first. If an area showed high local levels of nutrients and oil-degrading microbes, bioremediation likely wouldn’t be very effective.

“I was expecting more of a quantifiable effect in biodegradation, but I didn’t realize the nutrients were going to be relatively high in the background,” reflected Venosa. “I was expecting to see somewhat similar increases in the field as in the lab. In the laboratory, it’s different because your controls don’t have any nutrients, so whenever you add nutrients that are in excess of what they need to grow, you’ll see huge increases.”

As a result of this and subsequent studies in Canada, the EPA released guidance documents on implementing bioremediation methods in different environments, such as marine shorelines, freshwater wetlands, [PDF] and salt marshes.

These days, however, bioremediation is starting to mean more than just adding microbes or nutrients, and now includes a range of other products meant to stimulate oil-degrading activity. How well do they work? More research is needed. But not since 1994 on the shores of Delaware Bay has the United States seen another field experiment that has intentionally released oil into the environment to find out. That summer was a unique opportunity for oil spill scientists to learn, as rigorously and realistically as possible, how well a certain cleanup method could work on an oil spill.

For more information read:

Field-Testing Bioremediation Treating Agents: Lessons from an Experimental Shoreline Oil Spill (1997, Alan Mearns et al)

Bioremediation Study of Spilled Crude Oil on Fowler Beach, Delaware



This post was written by Dr. Alan Mearns.
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Categories: ocean, oil spills, restoration, science | Tags: bioremediation, Exxon Valdez oil spill, science | Permalink.

September 13, 2016
by Office of Response and Restoration Leave a comment
Bay Long Oil Spill in Louisiana
Woman looking out at water with boom floating in it.

Overseeing cleanup operations on Chenier Ronquille Island. (U.S. Coast Guard)

On September 5, 2016, a marsh excavator operated by Great Lakes Dredge and Dock Company tracked over pipeline while performing restoration activities in Bay Long, a sub-estuary of Barataria Bay, discharging approximately 5,300 gallons of crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico. The pipeline was shut in and is no longer leaking. The incident occurred at an active restoration site for the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. The cause of the incident is still under investigation.

NOAA’s Office of Response and Restoration has been providing scientific support including trajectories and fate of oil, resources at risk, information on tides and currents, and technical guidance towards the response. Other roles provided by NOAA are guidance on Shoreline Cleanup and Assessment Technique (SCAT), a systematic method for surveying an affected shoreline after an oil spill, as well as data management and updates through Environmental Response Management Application (ERMA®). OR&R’s Emergency Response Division has a team of six on site.

For more information, read the September 11, 2016 news release from the U.S. Coast Guard.
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Categories: oil spills, science | Tags: Emergency Response Division (ERD), ERMA, Gulf of Mexico, NOAA, oil spills, scientific support, U.S. Coast Guard | Permalink.
Revenir en haut Aller en bas
Voir le profil de l'utilisateur http://www.atelier-yannistignard.com
yanis la chouette



Nombre de messages : 6446
Localisation : http://yanis.tignard.free.fr/
Date d'inscription : 09/11/2005

MessageSujet: Re: Mairie de Paris, Y'becca, 8 Novembre 2016 et Hildalgo.   Sam 8 Oct à 10:19



August 3, 2016
by Office of Response and Restoration Leave a comment
Preparing for Anything: What to Do When a Hypothetical Ferry Disaster Overlaps with a National Presidential Convention

This is a post by NOAA Scientific Support Coordinator Frank Csulak.
A small boat on the Delaware River with Philadelphia's skyline in the background

In June 2016, team of federal and state emergency responders practiced responding to a hypothetical ferry disaster and oil spill scenario in anticipation of the Democratic National Convention, which occurred in Philadelphia at the end of July. (Credit: Kevin Harber, CC BY-NC-ND 2.0)

When you’re in the business of emergency response, you need to be prepared for all kinds of disasters and all kinds of scenarios. Being a NOAA Scientific Support Coordinator, the disaster scenarios I’m usually involved with have some connection to the coast or major U.S. waterways.

And being ready for a disaster means practicing pretty much exactly what you would do during an emergency response, even if it’s for a relatively unlikely scenario, such as a catastrophic ferry explosion, collision, and oil spill during a major political party convention.

What follows is the hypothetical scenario that a team of federal and state emergency responders walked through at a training workshop from June 12-14, 2016 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

U.S Coast Guard Sector Delaware Bay hosted this practice scenario in anticipation of the Democratic National Convention, which occurred (thankfully without any major security incidents) in Philadelphia at the end of July. The team involved was comprised of members from the U.S. Secret Service, Federal Bureau of Investigation, New Jersey and Pennsylvania state police, U.S. Coast Guard, and NOAA.
Ready for Anything You Can Imagine (And This Is Imagined)

Exercise scenario: It is the first day of the Democratic National Convention, which is taking place in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Tens of thousands of people, including hundreds of elected officials and the Democratic Party’s presumptive presidential candidate, are just arriving at the event.

The Secret Service reports that VIPs continue to land at Philadelphia International Airport. Security is tight. A large safety perimeter has been established around the convention center, with surrounding streets and highways closed to all traffic and thousands of law enforcement officers posted at strategic locations throughout the city.

Meanwhile, the RiverLink Ferry is making the 2:00 p.m. trip from Philadelphia to Camden, New Jersey. There are 21 passengers and two crew members on board. The ferry is crossing the federal channel of the Delaware River when an explosion of unknown cause erupts from the ferry’s engine room. The explosion causes the vessel to lose propulsion and steering. It begins listing to the starboard side and drifting down the Delaware River. Smoke can be seen billowing from vents and openings.

Simultaneously, the tug The Caribbean Sea II is pushing the barge The Resource II upriver. The barge attempted to avoid the distressed ferry but is unsuccessful, striking the ferry and causing significant structural damage to both vessels.
Damaged barge on the Mississippi River.

A damaged barge which caused an oil spill on the Mississippi River in early 2016. Responders need to prepare for all kinds of maritime disasters. (U.S. Coast Guard)

Numerous ferry passengers are thrown onto the deck or into the river; others begin jumping into the water. Responders from the U.S. Coast Guard, New Jersey State Police Marine Services Bureau, and the marine units of the Philadelphia Fire and Police Departments all rushed to the scene. Already, they encounter both seriously injured survivors and casualties as far as 200 yards down river of the vessels.

Rescue boats pick up eight survivors from the water and begin offloading them at Penn’s Landing Marina. Responders continue to evacuate people from the sinking ferry until it slips completely under water in the vicinity of the Penn’s Landing helicopter port. A total of 14 people are rescued and three bodies recovered, some found as far as a quarter mile down river. Six people remain missing.

Thankfully, no injuries are reported among the tugboat’s four person crew. However, one of the two crewmembers on the barge, a 60-year-old male, has fallen and broken his arm. He appears to be going into shock and needs to be evacuated.

As a result of the collision, the tug only has partial steering capabilities but continues to push the barge several hundred yards up river, where it drops anchor. The two damaged vessels remain in the river channel, and as responders assess the vessels’ conditions, they uncover that the barge is leaking oil. Manhole-sized bubbles of oil are burping to the water’s surface, coming from the port side damage below the water line. Oil appears to be leaking from a tank which is holding 5,000 barrels of oil. In all, the barge is carrying 50,000 barrels of heavy bunker fuel oil.
Revenir en haut Aller en bas
Voir le profil de l'utilisateur http://www.atelier-yannistignard.com
yanis la chouette



Nombre de messages : 6446
Localisation : http://yanis.tignard.free.fr/
Date d'inscription : 09/11/2005

MessageSujet: Re: Mairie de Paris, Y'becca, 8 Novembre 2016 et Hildalgo.   Sam 8 Oct à 10:20



August 3, 2016
by Office of Response and Restoration Leave a comment
Preparing for Anything: What to Do When a Hypothetical Ferry Disaster Overlaps with a National Presidential Convention

This is a post by NOAA Scientific Support Coordinator Frank Csulak.
A small boat on the Delaware River with Philadelphia's skyline in the background

In June 2016, team of federal and state emergency responders practiced responding to a hypothetical ferry disaster and oil spill scenario in anticipation of the Democratic National Convention, which occurred in Philadelphia at the end of July. (Credit: Kevin Harber, CC BY-NC-ND 2.0)

When you’re in the business of emergency response, you need to be prepared for all kinds of disasters and all kinds of scenarios. Being a NOAA Scientific Support Coordinator, the disaster scenarios I’m usually involved with have some connection to the coast or major U.S. waterways.

And being ready for a disaster means practicing pretty much exactly what you would do during an emergency response, even if it’s for a relatively unlikely scenario, such as a catastrophic ferry explosion, collision, and oil spill during a major political party convention.

What follows is the hypothetical scenario that a team of federal and state emergency responders walked through at a training workshop from June 12-14, 2016 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

U.S Coast Guard Sector Delaware Bay hosted this practice scenario in anticipation of the Democratic National Convention, which occurred (thankfully without any major security incidents) in Philadelphia at the end of July. The team involved was comprised of members from the U.S. Secret Service, Federal Bureau of Investigation, New Jersey and Pennsylvania state police, U.S. Coast Guard, and NOAA.
Ready for Anything You Can Imagine (And This Is Imagined)

Exercise scenario: It is the first day of the Democratic National Convention, which is taking place in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Tens of thousands of people, including hundreds of elected officials and the Democratic Party’s presumptive presidential candidate, are just arriving at the event.

The Secret Service reports that VIPs continue to land at Philadelphia International Airport. Security is tight. A large safety perimeter has been established around the convention center, with surrounding streets and highways closed to all traffic and thousands of law enforcement officers posted at strategic locations throughout the city.

Meanwhile, the RiverLink Ferry is making the 2:00 p.m. trip from Philadelphia to Camden, New Jersey. There are 21 passengers and two crew members on board. The ferry is crossing the federal channel of the Delaware River when an explosion of unknown cause erupts from the ferry’s engine room. The explosion causes the vessel to lose propulsion and steering. It begins listing to the starboard side and drifting down the Delaware River. Smoke can be seen billowing from vents and openings.

Simultaneously, the tug The Caribbean Sea II is pushing the barge The Resource II upriver. The barge attempted to avoid the distressed ferry but is unsuccessful, striking the ferry and causing significant structural damage to both vessels.
Damaged barge on the Mississippi River.

A damaged barge which caused an oil spill on the Mississippi River in early 2016. Responders need to prepare for all kinds of maritime disasters. (U.S. Coast Guard)

Numerous ferry passengers are thrown onto the deck or into the river; others begin jumping into the water. Responders from the U.S. Coast Guard, New Jersey State Police Marine Services Bureau, and the marine units of the Philadelphia Fire and Police Departments all rushed to the scene. Already, they encounter both seriously injured survivors and casualties as far as 200 yards down river of the vessels.

Rescue boats pick up eight survivors from the water and begin offloading them at Penn’s Landing Marina. Responders continue to evacuate people from the sinking ferry until it slips completely under water in the vicinity of the Penn’s Landing helicopter port. A total of 14 people are rescued and three bodies recovered, some found as far as a quarter mile down river. Six people remain missing.

Thankfully, no injuries are reported among the tugboat’s four person crew. However, one of the two crewmembers on the barge, a 60-year-old male, has fallen and broken his arm. He appears to be going into shock and needs to be evacuated.

As a result of the collision, the tug only has partial steering capabilities but continues to push the barge several hundred yards up river, where it drops anchor. The two damaged vessels remain in the river channel, and as responders assess the vessels’ conditions, they uncover that the barge is leaking oil. Manhole-sized bubbles of oil are burping to the water’s surface, coming from the port side damage below the water line. Oil appears to be leaking from a tank which is holding 5,000 barrels of oil. In all, the barge is carrying 50,000 barrels of heavy bunker fuel oil.
Reining in Hypothetical Chaos

Three damaged vessels. People injured, dead, and missing. A potentially large oil spill on a busy river. First responders diverted from a high-security national event to a local aquatic incident In other words, quite a hypothetical mess.

Was the explosion on the ferry due to terrorism? Was it due to human error? Or was it due to a mechanical malfunction in the engine room? We had to imagine how we would deal with these many complicated issues in the heat of the moment.
Group of responders in safety vests standing and sitting around tables.

NOAA Scientific Support Coordinator Frank Csulak, standing at right, briefing the Unified Command during another U.S. Coast Guard oil spill training exercise in Virginia in 2015. (U.S. Coast Guard)

As a member of the local Coast Guard’s response team during this exercise, I helped with many key decisions and procedures and with establishing priorities for response. I acted as a member of what’s known in the emergency response community as the “Unified Command,” or the established hierarchy of agencies and organizations responding to an emergency, such as an oil spill or hurricane.

In this scenario, I was specifically charged with commanding, coordinating, and managing the oil spill response, which is my specialty. I started by identifying and obtaining resources to support the spill response and cleanup and conducting an assessment of natural resources at risk from the oil. Meanwhile, I coordinated with my NOAA support team of scientists back in Seattle, Washington, to provide information on local weather conditions, tides, oil trajectory forecasts, and modeling of the oil’s fate and effects.

In addition, I had to coordinate a variety of notifications and consultations required under the Endangered Species Act, the Essential Fish Habitat provision of the Magnuson-Stevens Act, and the National Historic Preservation Act, which protects historical and archaeological sites.

As you can see, my role during a disaster like this hypothetical one is far-reaching. And that’s not even everything. I also helped protect nearby wetlands and other environmentally sensitive areas from the thick, spreading oil; prioritized which areas needed protective booming to prevent contact with oil; and led the response’s environmental team, which had representatives from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Delaware, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and the U.S. Coast Guard. Of course, all of this was an exercise and there was no ferry incident and no oil spill.

During the actual Democratic National Convention, which took place July 25–29, 2016, I was ready and waiting for any call for help from Coast Guard Sector Delaware Bay. I’m pleased to report that it never came, but if it did, I’d know what to do.

Editor’s note: NOAA’s Office of Response and Restoration also supported the U.S. Coast Guard’s maritime security activities surrounding the Republican National Convention in Cleveland, Ohio, July 18–21, 2016. Two NOAA staff members worked as part of the Coast Guard’s Incident Management Team in Cleveland, managing the event’s data in our online mapping tool known as ERMA® (Environmental Response Management Application), and coordinating with the several other agencies involved with the convention’s security.

The Coast Guard provided maritime security and monitored potential situations along the Lake Erie shoreline and the Cuyahoga River during the convention. ERMA allowed Coast Guard leadership and others in the command post to access near real-time data, such as locations of field teams and tracked vessels, as well as other agency data such as Department of Homeland Security safety zones, infrastructure status, and protest locations. This gave them a comprehensive picture of the Coast Guard’s efforts and the ability to assess potential issues from any location.

Photo of Philadelphia waterfront courtesy of Kevin Harber and used under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 2.0 Generic license.

NOAA Scientific Support Coordinator Frank Csulak.

Frank Csulak is a NOAA Scientific Support Coordinator with the Office of Response and Restoration. Based in New Jersey, he is the primary scientific adviser to the U.S. Coast Guard for oil and chemical spill planning and response in the Mid-Atlantic region, covering New York, Delaware Bay, Baltimore, Hampton Roads, and North Carolina.
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Categories: oil spills, preparedness | Tags: Emergency Response Division (ERD), NOAA, oil spills, Pennsylvania, preparedness, response, rivers, scientific support, U.S. Coast Guard | Permalink.

July 28, 2016
by Office of Response and Restoration Leave a comment
Remotely Controlled Surfboards: Oil Spill Technology of the Future?

This is a post by the Office of Response and Restoration’s LTJG Rachel Pryor, Northwest Regional Response Officer.
A wave glider before being launched from the NOAA Ship Oscar Dyson.

NOAA is exploring how to use technology such as wave gliders, small autonomous robots that travel at the ocean surface via wave energy, to collect oceanographic data during oil spills. (NOAA)

What do remotely controlled surfboards have to do with oil spills? In the future, hopefully a lot more. These “remotely controlled surfboards” are actually wave gliders, small autonomous robots that travel at the ocean surface via wave energy, collecting oceanographic data. Solar panels on top of the gliders power the oceanographic sensors, which transmit the data back to us via satellites.

I recently learned how to use the software that (through the internet) remotely drives these wave gliders—and then actually started “driving” them out in the open ocean.
Gathering Waves of Information

On July 7, 2016, NOAA launched two wave gliders off the NOAA Ship Oscar Dyson to study ocean acidification through carbon analysis in the Bering Sea (which is off the southwest coast of Alaska).
A wave glider floating in the ocean.

One of the wave gliders recently deployed in the Bering Sea, with its solar panels on top powering the sensors. (NOAA)

One wave glider has “Conductivity Temperature Depth” (CTD) sensors, a fluorometer, water temperature sensors, and a meteorological sensor package that measures wind, temperature, and atmospheric pressure. The other glider has a sensor that measures the partial pressure of carbon (which basically tells us how much carbon dioxide the ocean is absorbing), an oxygen sensor, a CTD, pH instrumentation, and a meteorological package. The pair of gliders is following a long loop around the 60⁰N latitude line, with each leg of the loop about 200 nautical miles in length.

These wave gliders will be collecting data until the end of September 2016, when they will be retrieved by a research ship. The wave gliders require volunteer “pilots” to constantly (and remotely) monitor the wave gliders’ movements to ensure they stay on track and, as necessary, avoid any vessel traffic.

I’ve committed to piloting the wave gliders for multiple days during this mission. The pilot must be on call around the clock in order to adjust the gliders’ courses in case of an approaching ship or storm, as well as to keep an eye on instrument malfunctions, such as a low battery or failing Global Positioning System (GPS).
Screen view of software tracking and driving two wave gliders in the Bering Sea.

A view of the software used to track and pilot the wave gliders. The white cross is wave glider #1 and it is headed east. The orange cross marks show where it has been. The white star is wave glider #2, which is headed west, with the red stars showing where it has been. The blue lines indicate the vectors of where they will be and the direction they are headed. Wave glider #1 rounded the western portion of its path significantly faster than the other glider. As a result, the pilot rounded glider #2 to start heading east to catch up with glider #2. (NOAA)

The two wave gliders actually move through the water at different speeds, which means their pilot needs to be able to direct the vessels into U-turn maneuvers so that the pair stays within roughly 10 nautical miles of each other.
Remote Technologies, Real Applications

NOAA’s Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory has been using autonomous surface vessels to do oceanographic research since 2011. These autonomous vessels include wave gliders and Saildrones equipped with multiple sensors to collect oceanographic data.

During the summer of 2016, there are two missions underway in the Bering Sea using both types of vessels but with very different goals. The wave gliders are studying ocean acidification. Saildrones are wind- and solar-powered vessels that are bigger and faster. Their size allows them to carry a large suite of oceanographic instrumentation and conduct multiple research studies from the same vehicle.
Three people on a ship guide a wave glider as it's lowered into the ocean.
A bright orange Saildrone floats in front of a NOAA ship in the Bering Sea

For their latest mission, Saildrones are using acoustic sensors to detect habitat information about important commercial fisheries, such as pollock, and monitor the movement of endangered right whales. (Follow along with the mission.)

NOAA’s Office of Response and Restoration is interested in the potential use of aquatic unmanned systems such as wave gliders and Saildrones as a spill response tool for measuring water quality and conditions at the site of an oil spill.

These remotely operated devices have a number of advantages, particularly for spills in dangerous or hard-to-reach locations. They would be cost-efficient to deploy, collect real-time data on oil compound concentrations during a spill, reduce people’s exposure to dangerous conditions, and are easier to decontaminate after oil exposure. Scientists have already been experimenting with wave gliders’ potential as an oil spill technology tool in the harsh and remote conditions of the Arctic.

NOAA’s Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory is working closely with the designers of these two vehicles, developing them as tools for ocean research by outfitting them with a wide variety of oceanographic instrumentation. The lab is interested in outfitting Saildrones and wave gliders with special hydrocarbon sensors that would be able to detect oil for spill response. I’m excited to see—and potentially pilot—these new technologies as they continue to develop.

Woman in hard hat next to a tree on a boat.

NOAA Corps Officer LTJG Rachel Pryor has been with the Office of Response and Restoration’s Emergency Response Division as an Assistant Scientific Support Coordinator since the start of 2015. Her primary role is to support the West Coast Scientific Support Coordinators in responding to oil discharge and hazardous material spills.
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Categories: data and mapping, ocean, oil spills, science | Tags: Alaska, Arctic, Emergency Response Division (ERD), NOAA, ocean, oil spills, response, science, technology | Permalink.

July 20, 2016
by doughelton Leave a comment
Oil Spills, Seeps, and the Early Days of Drilling Oil Along California’s Coast
Black and white photo of early oil derricks and piers at Summerland, California, 1902

Some of the earliest offshore oil wells were located at Summerland in Santa Barbara County, California. Shown here in 1902, you can see the early wharves that extended from the shore out to derricks over the wells. (U.S. Geological Survey)

One of the challenges of the 2015 pipeline oil spill near Santa Barbara, California, was distinguishing between oil released from the pipeline and oil released naturally from the many seeps in the area. This challenge could become even more complicated when you consider the history of oil drilling in southern California [PDF] that dates back to the 1860s.

Unless you are a history buff or study environmental pollution, you probably didn’t realize that the beautiful sand beaches of southern California were once home to some of the earliest offshore oil rigs.

Oil seeps both on the shore and in the ocean were clues to the underground oil reservoirs in the Santa Barbara Channel. Even today, natural seeps in Santa Barbara’s Coal Oil Point area release an estimated 6,500-7,000 gallons of oil per day (Lorenson et al., 2011).
Drilling into History

The first offshore wells in the United States were drilled in 1896 in the Summerland region just east of Santa Barbara. Initial wells were built on piers sticking several hundred feet out into the ocean. Over the years, many more wells and offshore platforms were built in the region.

However, oil exploration and drilling was virtually unregulated at the time, and spills were common. California’s first out-of-control oil gusher occurred in February 1892 near Santa Paula, but since no one had a way to store so much oil (1,500 barrels were released per day), much of it eventually flowed into the ocean via the Santa Clara River.
Black and white photo of men building a pier over the ocean to reach oil derricks drilling offshore at Summerland, California, 1900.

A view looking down the Treadwell wharf toward shore and the central portion of the Summerland oil field in Santa Barbara County, California, in 1900. These early oil fields were essentially unregulated, resulting in spills and leaks back then as well as today. (U.S. Geological Survey)

In addition, many of these first flimsy piers and oil platforms at Summerland were destroyed by storms or fires or later abandoned without much thought about preventing spills in the future. The state’s first laws governing oil well abandonment came into place in 1915, in part to protect the oil and gas wells on neighboring properties. (Fortunately, the old and leaky Summerland wells were far enough away from the 2015 pipeline spill location that they didn’t add yet another possible source of oil in the area of the spill.)

By the 1960s offshore oil production began to take off in California, particularly along Santa Barbara County. That is, until January 1969, when Union Oil’s Platform A suffered a blowout six miles off the coast. The result was more than 3.2 million gallons of crude oil were released into the Santa Barbara Channel and on surrounding shorelines.

Public outcry was so great that not only did California ban new leases for offshore drilling in state-owned waters, but it helped catalyze a broader movement to protect the environment and prevent pollution in the United States. Still, natural seeps serve as a reminder of the area’s “Wild West” days of oil exploration.
Seep vs. Spill
Oil floating on the ocean surface.
Dark, thick oil seeps out of the ocean floor sediments.
Black and white photo of dozens of oil derricks on the shore of Venice, California.

Today, the region is much cleaner, but, as we saw after the 2015 pipeline spill at Refugio State Beach near Santa Barbara, that doesn’t mean it’s free of oil, either naturally released or spilled during extraction. While telling the two apart can be complicated, it isn’t impossible.

One clue for distinguishing seep oil from oil coming from production platforms is looking at how “weathered” the oil is. Oil being drilled by a platform is extracted directly from a deep underground reservoir and thus appears “fresher,” that is, less weathered by environmental processes.

The seep oil, on the other hand, generally appears more weathered, having migrated up through the seafloor and ocean depths. Seep oil is more weathered because many of its less stable compounds have been dissolved into the water column, oxidized by sunlight or evaporated into the atmosphere at the surface, or broken down by microbes that naturally metabolize hydrocarbon molecules.

Another method for distinguishing among oils is a process known as “fingerprinting,” which uses analytical chemistry to compare the relative quantities of hydrocarbons unique to petroleum in the spilled oil versus another oil.

Even though seeps release a lot of oil into the ocean, oil spills such as the 2015 pipeline spill near Santa Barbara have different and more significant impacts on the nearshore environment than the slower, steadier release of natural oil seeps. Spills often release relatively large volumes of oil suddenly into an area, which can overwhelm the ability of the environment (such as its oil-eating microbes) to adapt to the influx of oil.

That doesn’t mean seeps don’t have any environmental impacts themselves. Oil from seeps can be toxic to marine life, including fish, sea stars, shrimp, and seabirds, with impacts largely concentrated in the immediate area around a seep. While our job is to use science to minimize and evaluate potential environmental impacts during oil spills (and not seeps), knowing the history of an area like Santa Barbara can go a long way to helping us do just that.

NOAA environmental scientist Greg Baker also contributed to this post.
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Categories: ocean, oil spills | Tags: California, chemistry, drilling, history, natural resources, ocean, oil, oil spills, Refugio State Beach oil spill, response, seeps | Permalink.

July 13, 2016
by Office of Response and Restoration Leave a comment
Science of Oil Spills Training: Apply for Fall 2016
Two men speaking on a beach with a ferry in the background.

Science of Oil Spills classes help new and mid-level spill responders better understand the scientific principles underlying oil’s fate, behavior, and movement, and how that relates to various aspects of cleanup. The classes also inform responders of considerations to minimize environmental harm and promote recovery during an oil spill. (NOAA)

Science of Oil Spills (SOS) classes help spill responders increase their understanding of oil spill science when analyzing spills and making risk-based decisions.

NOAA’s Office of Response and Restoration, a leader in providing scientific information in response to marine pollution, has scheduled an autumn Science of Oil Spills (SOS) class in Portsmouth, New Hampshire, October 3-7, 2016.

OR&R will accept applications for this class through Monday, August 15, and will notify accepted participants by email no later than Monday, August 22.

SOS classes help spill responders increase their understanding of oil spill science when analyzing spills and making risk-based decisions. They are designed for new and mid-level spill responders.

The trainings cover:

Fate and behavior of oil spilled in the environment.
An introduction to oil chemistry and toxicity.
A review of basic spill response options for open water and shorelines.
Spill case studies.
Principles of ecological risk assessment.
A field trip.
An introduction to damage assessment techniques.
Determining cleanup endpoints.

To view the topics for the next SOS class, download a sample agenda [PDF, 170 KB].

Please understand that classes are not filled on a first-come, first-served basis. We try to diversify the participant composition to ensure a variety of perspectives and experiences, to enrich the workshop for the benefit of all participants. Classes are generally limited to 40 participants.

For more information, and to learn how to apply for the class, visit the SOS Classes page.
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Categories: ocean, oil spills, preparedness, science | Tags: Emergency Response Division (ERD), New England, New Hampshire, NOAA, oil spill response training, response, rivers, Science of Oil Spills classes, SOS classes | Permalink.

July 5, 2016
by Office of Response and Restoration Leave a comment
Washington Sea Grant Launches New Program to Prevent Small Oil Spills that Add Up

This is a guest post by Lauren Drakopulos of Washington Sea Grant.
Marina in Seattle with small boats.

Small recreational and commercial vessels account for 75 percent of the oil spilled in waters around Washington’s Puget Sound over the last 10 years. (NOAA)

To paraphrase an old saying, “There’s no use crying over spilled oil.” But many people in Washington worry a lot about oil pollution in Puget Sound and other coastal waters around the state.

What many don’t realize is that the biggest source of oil spills to date in Puget Sound isn’t tankers and freighters but small recreational and commercial vessels. Small oil spills from these types of vessels account for 75 percent of the oil spilled in local waters over the last 10 years.

How do these small oil spills happen? A common cause is when oil, along with water, builds up in the bottommost compartment of a boat, known as the bilge, which has a pump to keep rain and seawater from building up. Oil from broken oil lines in the engine area or spilled fuel on deck can get washed down into the bilge and then pumped into surrounding waters.
Taking Charge of Discharges
Aaron Barnett holds a bilge sock next to stacks of them.

Washington Sea Grant’s Aaron Barnett preparing to distribute small oil spill kits in 2015. (MaryAnn Wagner/Washington Sea Grant)

In the future, however, Washington boaters increasingly will have access to a simple remedy known as the Small Oil Spills Prevention Kit, which consists of a small absorbent pillow, or “bilge sock,” that is placed alongside bilge pumps to prevent oily discharges from entering the water. Washington boaters will be seeing and using a lot more of the kits.

The Clean Marina Program, a partnership of the Puget Soundkeeper Alliance, the Northwest Marine Trade Association, and Washington Sea Grant, has worked for 20 years to minimize small vessel spills. But the summer of 2016 marks a change: for the first time the campaigners are targeting private boaters rather than marina managers.

Washington Sea Grant, the Washington Department of Ecology, and Washington’s District 13 Coast Guard Auxiliary have launched the Small Spills Prevention Program to provide boaters with the knowledge and tools they need to stop oil pollution at the source. Last year, in a trial run, Washington Sea Grant Boating Program Specialist Aaron Barnett succeeded in distributing 1,000 oil spill prevention kits.

This year that labor is bearing fruit: according to Coast Guard Auxiliary Instructor Mike Brough, more and more boaters are requesting kits after seeing their friends and other boaters use them. As Barnett explains, the success of the program depends on first, getting the kits out to boaters, and second, word of mouth—with boaters educating each other about oil spills.
Pollution Prevention, Pollution Management

Boaters understand the importance of keeping their waterways clean. As frequent users, they serve as the first line of defense against pollution. “Boaters want to do the right thing,” says Brough, “and these [kits] make it easier.” He recently handed out spill prevention kits at a local marina on National Marina Day. “It’s like handing out candy on Halloween. Anyone with a bilge and inboard engine will take one.”

Brough also got a chance to see the kits in action. “At the marina office, one boater was getting a bilge sock to replace his old one from some extras I had given the yacht club a few months earlier,” he recounts. “The guy had gotten a crack in the lubrication oil line during a trip on the Sound. The broken line dumped a significant amount of oil into the bilge. The bilge sock he was using caught all of the oil, and none went overboard.”

Small spills can be expensive for boaters to clean up, and often cost is the first question boaters ask. In Washington the kits are funded through state oil taxes and made available to boaters at no cost, as part of the Small Spills Prevention Program. This summer, Washington Sea Grant hopes to hand out another 1,000 kits to boaters.

Lauren Drakopulos.Lauren Drakopulos is a Science Communications Fellow with Washington Sea Grant and is pursuing her Ph.D. in geography at the University of Washington. Lauren has worked for the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission and her current research looks at community engagement in fisheries science. Washington Sea Grant, based at the University of Washington, provides statewide marine research, outreach, and education services. The National Sea Grant College Program is part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) U.S. Department of Commerce. Visit www.wsg.washington.edu for more information or join the conversation with @WASeaGrant on Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram.

The views expressed in this post reflect those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the official views of NOAA or the U.S. federal government.
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Categories: ocean, oil spills, preparedness, public outreach | Tags: NOAA, ocean, oil, oil spills, pollution, Sea Grant, Washington | Permalink.

June 30, 2016
by Ashley Braun Leave a comment
In Florida, Rallying Citizen Scientists to Place an Ocean-Sized Problem Under the Microscope

This week, we’re exploring the problem of plastics in our ocean and the solutions that are making a difference. To learn more about #OceanPlastics this week, keep your eye on Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, NOAA’s Marine Debris Blog, and, of course, here.
Young woman filling a one liter bottle with water along a marshy beach.

Florida Sea Grant has been teaching volunteers how to sample and examine Florida’s coastal waters for microplastics and educating the public on reducing their contribution to microplastic pollution. (Credit: Tyler Jones, University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences)

Have you ever looked under a microscope at what’s in a sample of ocean water? What do you think you would find?

These days, chances are you would spot tiny bits of plastic known as microplastics, which are less than 5 millimeters long (about the size of a sesame seed).

The Florida Microplastic Awareness Project is giving people the opportunity to glimpse into Florida’s waters and see a microscopic world of plastic pollution up close. This project integrates citizen science—when volunteers contribute to scientific research—with education about microplastics.

I recently spoke with Dr. Maia McGuire of Florida Sea Grant. She’s leading the Florida Microplastic Awareness Project, which is funded by a grant from the NOAA Marine Debris Program. NOAA’s Office of Response and Restoration, of which the Marine Debris Program is a part, has a long history of collaborating with Sea Grant programs across the nation on a range of issues, including marine debris.

The NOAA Marine Debris Program has funded more than a dozen marine debris removal and prevention projects involving Sea Grant, and has participated in other collaborations with regional Sea Grant offices on planning, outreach, education, and training efforts. Many of these efforts, including the Florida Microplastic Awareness Project, center on preventing marine debris by increasing people’s awareness of what contributes to this problem.
Combining Science with Action
Blue and white plastic fibers viewed under a microscope.

Volunteers record an average of eight pieces of microplastic per liter of water, with seven of those eight identified as plastic fibers (viewed here under a microscope). (Credit: Maia McGuire, University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences)

This latest effort, the Florida Microplastic Awareness Project, involves building a network of volunteers and training them to collect one liter water samples from around coastal Florida, to examine those samples under the microscope, and then to assess and record how many and what kinds of microplastics they find.

“Everything is microscopic-sized,” explains McGuire. “We’re educating people about sources of these plastics. A lot of it is single-use plastic items, like bags, coffee cups, and drinking straws. But we’re finding a large number are fibers, which come from laundering synthetic clothes or from ropes and tarps.”

Volunteers (and everyone else McGuire’s team talks to) also choose from a list of eight actions to reduce their contribution to plastic pollution and make pledges that range from saying no to plastic drinking straws to bringing washable to-go containers to restaurants for leftovers. For those who opt-in, the project coordinators follow up every three months to find out which actions the pledgers have actually taken.

“It’s been encouraging,” McGuire says, “because with the pledge and follow up, what we’ve found is that they pledge to take 3.5 actions on average and actually take 3.5 actions when you follow up.”

She adds a caveat, “It’s all self-reported, so take that for what it’s worth. But people are coming up to me and saying, ‘I checked my face scrub and it had those microbeads.’ It’s definitely resonating with people.”
Microplastics Under the Microscope
A young woman uses a vaccum pump to filter water into a flask in a lab.
Two pieces of filter paper with dried sea salt and microplastics inside two petri dishes.

The project has trained 16 regional coordinators, who are based all around coastal Florida. They in turn train the volunteer citizen scientists, who, as of June 1, 2016, have collected 459 water samples from 185 different locations, such as boat ramps, private docks, and county parks along the coast.

“Some folks are going out monthly to the same spot to sample,” McGuire says, “some are going out to one place once, and others are going out occasionally.”

After volunteers collect their one liter sample of water, they bring it into the nearest partner facility with filtration equipment, which are often offices or university laboratories close to the beach. In each lab, volunteers then filter the water sample, using a vacuum filter pump, through a funnel lined with filter paper. “The filter paper has grid lines printed on it so you’re not double counting or missing any pieces,” McGuire adds.

Once the entire sample has been filtered, volunteers place the filter paper with the sample’s contents into a petri dish under a microscope at 40 times magnification. “Because we’re collecting one liter water samples, everything we’re getting is teeny-tiny,” McGuire says. “Nothing really is visible with the naked eye.”

Letting the filter paper dry often makes identifying microplastics easier because microscopic plastic fibers spring up when dry. And they are finding a lot of plastic fibers. On average, volunteers record eight pieces of microplastic per liter of water, and of those, seven are fibers. They are discovering at least one piece of plastic in nearly all of the water samples.

“If they have questions about if something is plastic, we have a sewing needle they heat in a flame,” McGuire says, “and put it under the microscope next to the fiber, and if it’s plastic, it changes shape in response to the heat.”

Next, volunteers record their data, categorizing everything into four different types of plastic: plastic wrap and bags, fibers, beads, or fragments. They use online forms to send in their data and log their volunteer information. McGuire is the recipient of all that data, which she sorts and then uploads to an online map, where anyone can view the project’s progress.
A Learning Process
Tiny white and purple beads piled next to a dime.

These purple and white microbeads are what microplastics extracted from facial scrub looks like next to a dime. Microbeads are being phased out of personal care products thanks to federal law. (Credit: Dave Graff)

“When I first wrote the grant proposal—a year and a half ago or more—I was expecting to find a lot more of the microbeads, because we were starting to hear more in the news about toothpaste and facial scrubs and the quantity of microbeads,” McGuire relates. “It was a little surprising at first to find so many [plastic] fibers. We have some sites near effluent outfalls from water treatment plants.”

However, McGuire points out that what they’re finding is comparable to what other researchers are turning up in the ocean and Great Lakes, except for one important point. Many of those researchers take water samples using nets with a 0.3 millimeter mesh size. By filtering through paper rather than a net, McGuire’s volunteers are able to detect much smaller microplastics, like the fibers, which otherwise would pass through a net.

“I think one big take-home message is there’s still so much we don’t know,” McGuire says. “We don’t have a lot of knowledge or research about what the impacts [of microplastics] actually are. We need a lot more research on this topic.”

Learn more about what you can do to reduce your contribution to plastic pollution, take the pledge with the Florida Microplastic Awareness Project, and dive into the research projects supported by the NOAA Marine Debris Program, which are exploring:

how many microplastics are in the guts of young fish living in large seaweed mats.
how contaminants associated with microplastics move through aquatic food chains.
how different conditions affect whether contaminants leach from and attach to microplastics.
how microplastics and contaminants may affect how and what marine plankton eat.

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Categories: marine debris, ocean, public outreach, science | Tags: citizen science, coasts, Florida, marine debris, microplastics, NOAA, ocean, plastic, science | Permalink.

June 29, 2016
by Vicki Loe 4 Comments
What You Can Do to Keep Plastic out of the Ocean

This week, we’re exploring the problem of plastics in our ocean and the solutions that are making a difference. To learn more about #OceanPlastics this week, keep your eye on Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, NOAA’s Marine Debris Blog, and, of course, here.
A Starbucks coffee cup on a sandy beach by a seabird and people picking up trash.

Keeping a reusable mug in your bag or car can help you remember to opt out of much of the single-use plastic waste that inundates our lives. This coffee cup ended up on a beach in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, thousands of miles from the nearest city. (NOAA)

“Plastic doesn’t go away.” This point was really driven home for me after watching the video, “Open Your Eyes,” which is narrated by Jeff Bridges and produced by the Plastic Pollution Coalition. It serves to remind us how much single-use, disposable plastic we can go through in an average day—and the impacts of all that plastic on the natural world.

The majority of marine debris found around the world is made of plastic. The world’s more industrialized nations, including the United States, create a huge amount of plastic, and unfortunately too much of it ends up in earth’s waters and along its coastlines. The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) predicts [PDF] that in the future, as more countries become industrialized, the amount of plastic waste in the ocean will increase as well.

Reflecting on the pervasiveness of single-use disposable plastics, which are manufactured to be used once and thrown away, has forced me to look at my own behavior and ask myself, What types of plastic do I personally use in my daily life? How could we all use less plastic? And what could we do to keep the plastic we do use out of the ocean?

Here are a few areas to get started:

Snacks. I tend to dash out of the house with grapes or apple slices in a plastic bag to eat while driving to work or the gym. A logical alternative would be to eat at home and skip the bag (eating in the car is a bad habit anyway!) or pack snacks in a reusable container.
Coffee. On my way to work, I stop for a latte, complete with plastic lid so it won’t spill while I’m drinking it in the car. It would be better to drink it at the coffee shop in their ceramic mugs—it doesn’t take that long and doesn’t require a plastic lid. Better yet is to bring your own to-go mug.
Grocery shopping. When I buy fresh fruits and vegetables, I could skip the provided plastic bags, or opt for paper or reusable mesh produce bags. Other things to consider at the supermarket: Buying foods like yogurt, cereal, and oatmeal in bulk, rather than single-serving packages; choosing a product packaged in cardboard or glass rather than plastic, such as cleaning products, ice cream, milk, condiments, and soda; and bringing your own grocery bags or boxes to get everything home.
Eating out and on the go. At lunch I frequently buy salads to go in those plastic “clamshell” containers; better to bring food from home in a non-disposable container or buy something that doesn’t come encased in plastic. A lot of restaurants automatically include a straw in your iced tea or soda, so asking the wait staff to skip the straw when ordering makes sense (or bring your own glass or metal straw). Opt to drink water and other refreshing beverages out of a reusable glass or bottle, but if necessary, reuse and then recycle any plastic bottles and cups you do use. When taking food home or to-go, bring your own resusable containers and utensils, and skip the plastic forks, spoons, and to-go containers.
Dry cleaning. Let your dry cleaners know you’d prefer to pick up your clean clothes without the plastic coverings.
Cosmetics. Cosmetics and personal care manufacturers are phasing out polyethylene microbeads from cosmetics, cleansers, and toothpastes, which have been banned in the United States, but until the phase-out is complete, check labels and avoid products with “polyethylene” in the ingredients. Because of their tiny size, microplastics which are usually added to products as an abrasive (like exfoliants) pass through water treatment systems and end up in the ocean and Great Lakes.
Trash cans. Open and overflowing trash cans (or recycling bins) don’t do much to keep trash off the street and out of our waterways. Use waste containers with a lid, and never toss trash on top of an overflowing trash can. Take it with you instead and recycle what you can.
Beaches. When you visit the beach, pack out all your trash and pick up any trash you do see there (and report it with our Marine Debris Tracker smartphone app). Better yet, join beach cleanups to help remove trash from our waterways and coasts (which helps keep bigger plastics from breaking down into microplastics).
Science. Join citizen scientists around the country and adopt a shoreline to help monitor how much and what kinds of plastic and other marine debris wash up each month. You can check out an existing project near you, such as the Florida Microplastic Awareness Project and the projects in National Marine Sanctuaries up and down the West Coast. Or start your own dedicated effort using these tools and resources and report your data to our national database.
Community. We can all talk to our friends, family, students, or coworkers about the issue of plastics in the ocean and share this list of actions they can take too.

These steps are just a start, but they’re all things we can do with minimum impact to our daily lives. Even incorporating one of these actions into your life can make a difference in the amount of plastic pollution in our ocean.

As the lead federal agency for addressing this problem, the NOAA Marine Debris Program funds research on the harmful effects of debris, such as plastics, to the marine environment and efforts to clean up our nation’s coastal waters. They have lots of education and outreach materials with more information about the many ways we, as individuals, can help remedy this growing problem of plastics in our ocean.
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Categories: marine debris, ocean | Tags: marine debris, microplastics, NOAA, ocean, plastic, pollution | Permalink.
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by Office of Response and Restoration 1 Comment
Innovative Solutions to Tackling Plastic Pollution in the Ocean

This week, we’re exploring the problem of plastics in our ocean and the solutions that are making a difference. To learn more about #OceanPlastics this week, keep your eye on Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, NOAA’s Marine Debris Blog, and, of course, here.
Washed Ashore founder Angela Haseltine Pozzi with a giant marlin statue made of marine debris.

Washed Ashore Executive Director Angela Haseltine Pozzi leads a lesson on how marine debris can be used as a powerful art medium to engage students on the topic while at the Smithsonian’s National Zoo. Behind her is one of her organization’s marine life sculptures crafted entirely from trash retrieved from the ocean and coasts. (NOAA)

You don’t have to get too fancy in order to help keep plastic and other marine debris out of the ocean. Solutions can be pretty simple: Reducing your use of single-use, “disposable” plastic items; picking up a plastic wrapper littered on the sidewalk; participating in a beach cleanup. (Stay tuned: we’ll get deeper into ways you can help later this week.)

Sometimes, however, the particulars of this problem can be more complex. Sometimes just getting people’s attention and encouraging them to take those simple actions require more creative approaches. We’ve rounded up a few projects that have our attention, projects which are aimed at making a dent in the many problems associated with ocean plastics.

Know of another notable ocean plastics project? Let us know in the comments or on social media using #OceanPlastics.
Turning what’s Washed Ashore into powerful pieces of art
A large, bright orange fish sculpture made from ocean trash, mostly plastic.

Washed Ashore rallies volunteers to clean beaches, using the collected debris to create larger-than-life sculptures of the marine life affected by ocean trash. Here, Henry the Fish stands outside Washed Ashore’s gallery in Bandon, Oregon. (NOAA)

Walking southern Oregon’s otherwise beautiful beaches, artist Angela Haseltine Pozzi began despairing how much plastic pollution seemed to appear on its shores. Inspired to turn that pollution into something more positive, she rallied volunteers to clean the beaches and turn the trash into sculptures of the marine life affected by plastic pollution. That’s how Washed Ashore was born. In addition to creating these larger-than-life recycled sculptures, Washed Ashore’s latest project, funded by the NOAA Marine Debris Program, incorporates theater, movement, and creative writing into a curriculum for teaching students about marine debris.

From a sleek marlin to an inquisitive puffin, Washed Ashore’s mostly plastic, often massive sculptures serve as dramatic backdrops—and powerful ocean ambassadors—for these educational programs in zoos, aquariums, and museums around the country. According to Washed Ashore, since its inception in 2010, the program has processed 38,000 pounds of marine debris, turning it into more than 60 sculptures.
Transforming lost fishing nets into energy
Man using a forklift to place old fishing nets in a collection dumpster.

Since begun in 2008, the Fishing for Energy partnership has removed and diverted 3 million pounds of fishing gear from the ocean. (Credit: National Fish and Wildlife Foundation)

The Fishing for Energy partnership helps fishermen properly dispose of old and abandoned fishing nets and other gear—much of it plastic—at no cost to the fishermen. In addition to donating their own worn-out nets, some fishermen also directly retrieve lost fishing gear out of the ocean. After being collected and sorted, any metal parts are recycled, and everything else is converted into electricity, with roughly one ton of old nets producing enough electricity to power a house for 25 days.

The National Fish and Wildlife Foundation works with the NOAA Marine Debris Program, Covanta, and Schnitzer Steel Industries, Inc. to carry out this partnership, which has expanded to include funding other projects that seek to prevent or remove lost fishing gear in U.S. coastal waters. Since it started in 2008, the Fishing for Energy partnership has removed and kept 3 million pounds of fishing gear out of the ocean.
Rethinking “disposable” plastic at dinner time
Left: Salad in a to-go container with plastic fork and dressing cup. Right: Salad in a ceramic bowl with metal fork and dressing cup.

The Clean Water Fund’s ReThink Disposable campaign works with San Francisco Bay-area food businesses and institutional food services to help them find more sustainable alternatives to disposable plastic food and beverage packaging. (Credit: Clean Water Fund)

Plastic straws, cups, plates, bags, forks, and spoons turn up among the most frequently found items at beach cleanups year after year. Eating with these so-called “disposable” plastics creates huge amounts of waste, and the Clean Water Fund, with the support of the NOAA Marine Debris Program, is working to stem this flow of food-related plastics coming from restaurants in California’s San Francisco Bay region.

Through their ReThink Disposable campaign, Clean Water Fund is collaborating with local food businesses and institutional food services by auditing their waste and helping to find more sustainable alternatives to disposable plastic food and beverage packaging. They’re also working with the businesses to communicate to the public the benefits of cutting down on this type of waste and how it impacts the environment.

One of them, El Metate Restaurant, a fast-casual Mexican restaurant, swapped plastic cutlery and salsa cups, previously provided to both dine-in and take-out customers, for reusable metal cutlery and ceramic salsa bowls. After implementing these changes, not only did El Metate manage to keep 493,711 disposable food ware items out of the landfill (and coastal waters) each year, but the changes improved the dining experience, increased dine-in customers, and is saving nearly $9,000 a year.
Diving deep into the belly of a whale to see impacts to wildlife
A circle of students and teachers with trash in the middle and the inflatable whale in the back of the gymnasium.

The University of North Carolina Wilmington MarineQuest’s Traveling Through Trash program takes students inside the belly of a 58-foot-long inflatable whale, Watson, to teach about the impacts of ocean trash on marine life. (Credit: University of North Carolina Wilmington)

Few things can communicate the scale of plastic’s impacts on wildlife like walking inside a life-sized inflatable whale and “dissecting” its organs to uncover the marine debris it’s swallowed. That’s exactly what middle and elementary school kids in rural North and South Carolina have the opportunity to do through the University of North Carolina Wilmington MarineQuest’s Traveling Through Trash program, which received funding from the NOAA Marine Debris Program.

People have found plastic bags, rope, juice packs, broken CD cases, and much more inside dead whales. Watson, the 58-foot-long inflatable right whale, offers students the chance to experience this reality close up and learn how they can take responsibility for keeping trash, no matter where it comes from, far away from the ocean and marine life. During the 2015-2016 school year, Watson the Whale traveled more than 8,000 miles and taught more than 9,500 students about how trash affects migrating marine species.
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Categories: marine debris, ocean, public outreach | Tags: art, marine debris, NOAA, ocean, plastic, pollution, public outreach | Permalink.

June 23, 2016
by Office of Response and Restoration Leave a comment
Improving Currents Predictions for Washington Waters Will Help Efforts to Prevent and Respond to Oil Spills
Front of a kayak pushing through floating wood in the Strait of Juan de Fuca.

Kayakers and oil spill responders alike will appreciate the updated currents predictions NOAA is producing from a survey of Washington’s Puget Sound, San Juan Islands, and Strait of Juan de Fuca. (Courtesy of Amy MacFadyen)

This is a post by Amy MacFadyen, NOAA oceanographer and modeler in the Office of Response and Restoration’s Emergency Response Division.

As a sea kayaking enthusiast who enjoys paddling the waters of Washington’s Puget Sound, I need to have up-to-date information about the currents I’m passing through. Accurate predictions of the strong tidal currents in the sound are critical to safe navigation, and kayak trips in particular need to be timed carefully to ensure safe passage of certain regions.

As a NOAA oceanographer and modeler, I also depend on accurate information about ocean currents to predict where spilled pollutants may travel in the marine environment.
Sound Information

These are two reasons I was excited to learn that NOAA’s Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services (CO-OPS) is performing a scientific survey of currents in the marine waters of the Puget Sound, the San Juan Islands, and the Strait of Juan de Fuca. They began in the south sound in the summer of 2015, deploying almost 50 devices known as Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers to measure ocean currents at various depths throughout the water column.

Work is getting underway this summer to continue gathering data. The observations collected during this survey will enable NOAA to provide improved tidal current predictions to commercial and recreational mariners. But these updated predictions will also help my line of work with oil spill response.

When oil spills occur at sea, NOAA’s Office of Response and Restoration provides scientific support to the Coast Guard, including predictions of the movement and fate of the oil. Accurate predictions of the oil trajectory may help responders protect sensitive shorelines and direct cleanup operations.
Spills Closer to Home
U.S. Coast Survey nautical chart of Washington's Puget Sound in 1867.

A U.S. Coast Survey nautical chart showing the complex channels of Puget Sound when Washington was just a territory in 1867. (NOAA)

In the last few years, I’ve modeled oil movement for numerous spills and traveled on scene to assist in the oil spill response.

Seeing oil on the water and shorelines of places ranging from Santa Barbara, California, to Matagorda Island, Texas, I can’t help but think about both the possibility of a spill closer to my home in Puget Sound and our ability to model the movement of the oil there.

When oil spills in the marine environment, it spreads quickly, forming thin slicks on the ocean surface that are transported by winds and currents.

Puget Sound is a glacially carved fjord system of interconnected marine waterways and deep basins separated by shallower regions called sills.

Tidal currents in these narrow, silled connection channels can reach fairly swift speeds of up to 5-6 mph, whereas in the deep basins the currents are much slower (typically less than 1-2 mph).

Accurate predictions of currents within the sound will be critical to forecasting oil movement. Today’s predictions for this region rely on limited amounts of data gathered from the 1930s-1960s. Thanks to both these current surveys and modern technological advances, we can expect significant progress in the accuracy of these predictions.

The information collected on the NOAA current surveys will also be used to support the creation of an Operational Forecast System for Puget Sound, a numerical model which will provide short-term forecasts of water level, currents, water temperature, and salinity—information that is critical to oil spill trajectory forecasting.
Making Safer Moves
A fuel barge in Puget Sound on a cloudy day.

With the methods for transporting oil through Washington rapidly shifting and the number of vessels carrying oil increasing, the risks for oil spills are changing as well. Here, a fuel barge passes through Puget Sound. (NOAA)

More accurate current and water level predictions are good for oil spill modeling, but they are even better for oil spill prevention by making navigating through our waterways safer.

Until fairly recently, 90% of the oil moving through Washington (mainly to and from refineries) traveled by ship. But by 2014, that number dropped to less than 60%, with rail and pipelines making up the difference.

Because the methods for transporting oil through Washington are shifting, the risks for oil spills shift as well. However, even with the recent increase in crude oil being delivered by train, the number of vessels transporting oil through state waters has gone up as well, increasing the risk of a large oil spill in Puget Sound.

With such a dynamic oil transportation system and last December’s repeal of a decades-long ban on exporting U.S. crude oil, the Washington Department of Ecology has decided to update its vessel traffic risk assessment for the Puget Sound. Results from the risk assessment will ultimately be used to inform spill prevention measures and help us become even better prepared to respond to a spill.

The takeaway? Both state and federal agencies are working to make Washington waters safer.

Amy MacFadyenAmy MacFadyen is a physical oceanographer at the Emergency Response Division of the Office of Response and Restoration (NOAA). The Emergency Response Division provides scientific support for oil and chemical spill response — a key part of which is trajectory forecasting to predict the movement of spills. During the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, Amy helped provide daily trajectories to the incident command. Before moving to NOAA, Amy was at the University of Washington, first as a graduate student, then as a postdoctoral researcher. Her research examined transport of harmful algal blooms from offshore initiation sites to the Washington coast.
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Categories: data and mapping, ocean, oil spills, preparedness, science | Tags: Emergency Response Division (ERD), modeling, NOAA, ocean, oil, oil spills, response, science, scientific support, shipping, transportation, Washington | Permalink.

June 21, 2016
by Office of Response and Restoration Leave a comment
Studying Marine Life a Year After the Oil Spill at Refugio State Beach
Scientist recording data on a beach with trowels and flags marking sampling sites.
Small silver fish called grunion on a sandy beach at night.

One year after the pipeline oil spill at Refugio State Beach near Santa Barbara, California, scientists from NOAA and our partners have been back to the site of the spill. They are gathering a new round of samples to help determine the health of the environment and marine life.

This May and June, these teams have been conducting comprehensive scientific surveys to collect data on three distinct but interconnected habitats within the impacted spill zone: sandy beach, subtidal, and rocky intertidal habitats.

Specifically, the surveys are examining:

talitrid (beach hopper or “sand flea”) populations in sandy beach habitats.
a variety of organisms in rocky intertidal habitat.
surfgrass in subtidal habitats.
fish, including grunion spawning on the beaches and surfperch in nearshore waters.

Information collected from these sampling efforts will be used to determine the amount of restoration needed to return the environment to the condition it would have been in if not for the spill, and to compensate the public for natural resource injuries and lost recreational opportunities. This is part of the Natural Resource Damage Assessment process, which evaluates the environmental impacts of pollution and implements restoration to make up for those effects.
Ten people stand in the beach surf pulling a seine net to shore.

Scientists pull in a seine net along a beach near Santa Barbara, California, about a year after the oil spill at Refugio State Beach. They are sampling fish known as surfperch to evaluate any impacts from the oil spill. (NOAA)

This pipeline spill occurred on May 19, 2015 and resulted in more than 100,000 gallons of crude oil being released on land, with a portion of the oil reaching the Pacific Ocean. Field teams documented dead fish, invertebrates, and other wildlife in the oiled areas following the spill. The spill also shut down fisheries, closed multiple beaches, and impacted recreational uses, such as camping, non-commercial fishing, and beach visits.

To submit a restoration project idea, please visit: http://bit.ly/refugiorestoration. Learn more about spill cleanup and response efforts at www.refugioresponse.com.
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Categories: habitat, ocean, oil spills, restoration, science | Tags: Assessment and Restoration Division, California, natural resources, NOAA, ocean, oil spills, restoration, science | Permalink.

June 16, 2016
by Office of Response and Restoration Leave a comment
How Do Oil Spills Affect Sea Turtles?
Head and upper body of Kemp's Ridley sea turtle coated in thick brown oil.

A Kemp’s Ridley sea turtle covered in oil from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico. (NOAA)

Sea turtles: These beloved marine reptiles have been swimming the seas for millions of years. Yet, in less than a hundred years, threats from humans, such as accidentally catching turtles in fishing gear (“bycatch”), killing nesting turtles and their eggs, and destroying habitat, have caused sea turtle populations to plummet. In fact, all six species of sea turtles found in U.S. waters are listed as threatened or endangered under the U.S. Endangered Species Act.

As we’ve seen in the Gulf of Mexico in recent years, oil spills represent yet another danger for these air-breathing reptiles that rely on clean water and clean beaches. But how exactly do oil spills affect sea turtles? And what do people do during and after an oil spill to look out for the well-being of sea turtles?
Living the Ocean Life

From the oil itself to the spill response and cleanup activities, a major oil spill has the potential to have serious negative effects on sea turtles. Part of the reason for this is because sea turtles migrate long distances and inhabit so many different parts of the ocean environment at different stages of their lives.
Graphic showing the life cycle of sea turtles in the ocean: egg laying; hatchling dispersal; oceanic feeding: small juveniles in sargassum; feeding on the continental shelf: large juveniles and adults, mating and breeding migration; and internesting near beach.

The life cycle of a sea turtle spans multiple habitats across the ocean, from sandy beaches to the open ocean. (NOAA)

For starters, sea turtles hatch (and females later return as adults to lay eggs) on sandy beaches. Then, they head to the vast open ocean where the tiny young turtles drift, hide from predators, and grow among floating islands of seaweed called sargassum. Finally, as larger juveniles and adults, they swim to the shallower waters of the continental shelf and near shore, where they spend the majority of the rest of their lives.

If a large offshore spill releases oil into the open ocean, currents and winds can carry oil across all of the habitats where sea turtles are found—and into the potential path of sea turtles of every age—as it makes its way to shore.

Another reason sea turtles can be particularly vulnerable to ocean oil spills is simply because they breathe air. Even though sea turtles can hold their breath on dives for extended periods of time, they usually come to the surface to breathe several times an hour. Because most oils float, sea turtles can surface into large oil slicks over and over again.

The situation can be even worse for very young sea turtles living among floating sargassum patches, as these small turtles almost never leave the top few feet of water, increasing their exposure to a floating oil slick. Furthermore, ocean currents and winds often bring oil to the same oceanic convergence zones that bring sargassum and young sea turtles together.
Turtle Meets Oil, Inside and Out

So, we know the many places sea turtles can run into an oil spill, but how exactly do they encounter the oil during a spill?
Graphic showing how spilled oil in the ocean can affect sea turtles at all stages of life and across ocean habitats: Oil on the shoreline can contaminate nesting females, nests, and hatchlings; larger turtles can inhale oil vapors, ingest oil in prey or sediment, and become coated in oil at the surface; winds and currents create ocean fronts, bringing together oil, dispersants, and sargassum communities, causing prolonged floating oil exposure; juvenile turtles ingest oil, inhale vapors, and become fatally mired and overheated; prey items may also be killed by becoming stuck in heavy oil or by dissolved oil components; and sargassum fouled by oil and dispersants can sink, leaving sargassum-dependent animals without food and cover and vulnerable to predators. Dead sea turtles may sink.

The potential impacts of an oil spill on sea turtles are many and varied. For example, some impacts can result from sea turtles inhaling and ingesting oil, becoming covered in oil to the point of being unable to swim, or losing important habitat or food that is killed or contaminated by oil. (NOAA)

It likely starts when they raise their heads above the water’s surface to breathe. When sea turtles surface in a slick, they can inhale oil and its vapors into their lungs; gulp oil into their mouths, down their throats, and into their digestive tracts while feeding; and become coated in oil, to the point of becoming entirely mired and unable to swim. Similarly, sea turtles may swim through oil drifting in the water column or disturb it in the sediments on the ocean bottom.

Female sea turtles that ingest oil can even pass oil compounds on to their developing young, and once laid, the eggs can absorb oil components in the sand through the eggshell, potentially damaging the baby turtle developing inside. Nesting turtles and their hatchlings are also likely to crawl into oil on contaminated beaches.
Not the Picture of Health
Graphic showing how oil spill cleanup and response activities can negatively affect sea turtles: Cleaning oil from surface and subsurface shores with large machines deters nesting; booms and other barriers prevent females from nesting; response vessels can strike and kill sea turtles and relocation trawlers can inadvertently drown them; application of dispersants may have effects on sea turtles; and skimming and burning heavy oil may kill some sea turtles, while also exposing others to smoke inhalation.

Oil spill cleanup and response activities can negatively affect sea turtles as well. For example, oil containment booms along beaches can prevent nesting females from reaching the shores to lay their eggs. (NOAA)

Once sea turtles encounter oil, what are the impacts of that exposure?

Inhaling and swallowing oil generally result in negative health effects for animals, as shown in dolphins and other wildlife, hindering their overall health, growth, and survival. Lining the inside of sea turtles’ throats are pointy spines called esophageal papillae, which normally act to keep swallowed food inside while allowing water to be expelled. Unfortunately, these projections also seem to trap thick oil in sea turtles’ throats, and evidence of oil has been detected in the feces of oiled turtles taken into wildlife rehabilitation centers.

Oil can irritate sensitive mucus membranes around the eyes, mouth, lungs, and digestive tract of sea turtles, and toxic oil compounds known as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) can be absorbed into vital organ tissues such as the lungs and liver. Because sea turtles can hold their breath for long periods, inhaled oil has a greater chance of being absorbed into their bodies. Oil compounds that get passed from mother turtles to their young can interfere with development and threaten the survival of sea turtles still developing in the eggs.

Once inside their systems, oil can impede breathing and heart function in sea turtles, which can make diving, feeding, migrating, mating, and escaping predators more difficult. Being heavily covered in oil likewise impedes sea turtles’ abilities to undertake these activities, which puts them at risk of exhaustion and dehydration. In addition, dark oil under a hot summer sun can heat up turtles to dangerous temperatures, further jeopardizing their health and even killing them. In fact, sea turtles heavily coated in oil are not likely to survive without medical attention from humans.

Another, less direct way oil spills can affect the health of sea turtles is by killing or contaminating what they eat, which, depending on the species, can range from fish and crabs to jellyfish to seagrass and algae. In addition, if oil kills the sargassum where young sea turtles live, they lose their shelter and source of food and are forced to find suitable habitat elsewhere, which makes them more vulnerable to predators and uses more energy.

Spill response and cleanup operations also can harm sea turtles unintentionally. Turtles can be killed after being struck by response vessels or as a result of oil burning and skimming activities. Extra lighting and activity on beaches can disrupt nesting and hatchling turtles, as well as incubating eggs.
Help Is on the Way
A person holding a small clean Kemp's Ridley sea turtle over a blue bin.

A Kemp’s Ridley sea turtle ready to be returned to the wild after being cleaned and rehabilitated during an oil spill. (NOAA)

The harm that oil spills can cause to sea turtles is significant, and estimating the full suite of impacts to these species is a long and complicated process. There are some actions that have been taken to protect these vulnerable marine reptiles during oil spills. These include activities such as:

Performing rescue operations by boat, which involve scooping turtles out of oil or water using dip-nets and assessing their health.
Taking rescued turtles to wildlife rehabilitation centers to be cleaned and cared for.
Monitoring beaches and coastlines for injured (and sometimes dead) turtles.
Monitoring nesting beaches to safeguard incubating nests.
Conducting aerial surveys to assess abundance of adults and large juvenile turtles potentially in the footprint of an oil spill.

Finally, the government agencies acting as stewards on behalf of sea turtles, as well as other wildlife and habitats, will undertake a scientific evaluation of an oil spill’s environmental impacts and identify restoration projects that make up for any impacts.

As an example, read about the impacts to sea turtles from the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill, details about how they were harmed, and the proposed restoration path forward.
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Categories: habitat, ocean, oil spills, science | Tags: Assessment and Restoration Division, coasts, ecology, Natural Resource Damage Assessment, natural resources, NOAA, ocean, oil, oil spills, response, science, sea turtles, wildlife | Permalink.

June 9, 2016
by Office of Response and Restoration Leave a comment
University of Washington Helps ITOPF and NOAA Analyze Emerging Risks in Marine Transportation
Huge container ship MSC Oscar being guided by two small ships into port.

Massive container ships, carrying unprecedented amounts of fuel and cargo, are one of many developments in marine transportation that also is bringing new risks of oil spills to the high seas. Shown here is the MSC Oscar, one of the largest container ships in the world. (Credit: kees torn, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 2.0 Generic license)

This is a guest post by University of Washington graduate students Megan Desillier, Seth Sivinski, and Nicole White.

A warming climate is opening up new shipping routes—and hence, new avenues for trade—through the Arctic Ocean as summer sea ice shrinks and thins. Developing technologies have also allowed for mega-ships (unprecedented in size) and newer cargoes to begin transiting the ocean. These developments could bring new or greater hazards, including oil spills, for the maritime shipping network worldwide.

Our group of three graduate students at the University of Washington, with the support of the International Tanker Owners Pollution Federation (ITOPF) and NOAA’s Office of Response and Restoration, sought to understand how the world’s shipping dynamic has changed in recent years and how these emerging challenges in marine transportation will affect that dynamic. The ITOPF, NOAA, and the marine industry can consider these emerging risks in marine transportation as they plan for the future.

Here’s what we found.
A Changing Climate

Based on climate changes that have already occurred, ports are likely to experience more intense storm events and increased precipitation. In the more distant future, this greater degree of storminess will combine with sea level rise, causing both the probabilities and consequences of risk to marine transportation to increase.

Given the resources and services that ports provide, climate change could seriously impact the efficiency of the greater maritime transportation network. While infrastructure risks can be mitigated, it is important to note that according to experts in the field interviewed during this project, the majority of ports have made few preparations or plans for sea level rise related to climate change.

Although Arctic climate change is creating new shipping opportunities, these come with great challenges for the marine transportation system, especially in the second half of this century. At sea, the retreat of sea ice is accompanied by an increase in storminess, increasing risks to ships and shipping infrastructure from storm surge and waves. On land, permafrost has already begun to thaw, contributing to impacts to infrastructure, including railroads, ice roads, airstrips, and pipelines.

Taken together, the changing Arctic climate will require changes in the marine transportation system both at sea and on land. These changes include improved infrastructure along shipping routes, harbors of refuge, search and rescue capabilities, ice-breaking services, and coordination among organizations with a central role in spill response.
Changing Patterns of Trade
Rough seas pound the hull of support ship USNS Arctic as it sails alongside aircraft carrier USS Harry S. Truman.

A changing climate opens up greater potential for marine traffic in the Arctic, but it is accompanied by an increase in storms and other threats to maritime infrastructure. Here, rough seas pound the hull of support ship USNS Arctic as it sails alongside aircraft carrier USS Harry S. Truman during a mission to the Arctic. (U.S. Navy)

An increase in maritime activity surrounding both the Panama and Suez Canals could increase the risk of incidents in these areas, especially as infrastructure development around them increases. Larger canals will allow for bigger ships, which will make more concentrated port calls. This means that the vessels will spend more time in ports and unload more cargo. This is expected to be most common on the eastern seaboard of the United States as the Panama Canal expands.

In addition, the lifting of the American ban on crude oil exports could impact imports and exports of both crude and refined products. Much of the increase in oil exports from the United States would head to Europe and Asia.

The Arctic is receiving considerable emphasis as an emerging trade shortcut for maritime shipping, especially from Asian nations, but currently the majority of the activity in this region comes from tourism, mining, and fossil fuel extraction. This includes marine traffic supplying these activities as well as the transport of extracted resources.
Developing Technologies

Recently, the marine transportation system witnessed the introduction of the “mega-container ship.” A “mega-container ship” could be considered any container ship over 10,000 twenty-foot equivalent units, or TEUs. However, the largest “mega-container ship” to date can handle 18,000 TEUs. The development of these vessels has brought a safer, more fuel-efficient method of transportation for shipping containers throughout the world.

However, these massive vessels potentially increase the consequences of pollution-related incidents, as they carry larger amounts of fuel and cargo, which could result in larger oil spills. Incidents involving these vessels may also be more difficult for salvage and response organizations to mitigate as they would have to remove more fuel and cargo from larger disabled ships.

Another vessel to watch is the LNG carrier. These vessels transport liquefied natural gas (LNG), which requires special attention to temperature and pressure for it to remain in liquid form. U.S. imports and exports of LNG are expected to increase. This will require monitoring during transit, as well as safe handling practices while being loaded and unloaded in port.

Increased vessel automation potentially introduces new risks via reduced crew size and increasing bridge automation, even though enhanced bridge automation ostensibly represents a safety improvement. For example, if a vessel is being operating by a “minimally manned crew,” crew members may find it harder to meet required rest hours, becoming fatigued. In a situation where a fatigued crewmember is operating automated equipment on the bridge, the chances for human error increase. Additionally, if that equipment fails, fatigued crewmembers might find themselves relying largely on their own technical skills to mitigate the risks—all while fatigued.

Finally, we’ve noted concern over the introduction of new ship propulsion fuels, such as LNG. The emergency response community lacks experience with LNG propulsion fuel incidents, leaving some uncertainty surrounding the probability and consequences of such an accident. As LNG is further adopted as a propulsion fuel, the supporting infrastructure to transport it will have to be updated as well. Training for safe handling and transport of the fuel will also need to be further introduced to crews and ports in order to mitigate the associated risks of managing this fuel.
Conclusions

Response organizations will need to emphasize new contingency planning and condition monitoring and assessment in response to these changes in the marine transportation system. For example, there is a fairly high certainty regarding how sea-level rise and other climate change–associated impacts will affect ports in coming years, and ports will need to take the changing environment into account in their planning and preparedness to reduce the likelihood of future incidents associated with these changes.

This contrasts with the Arctic where there are higher uncertainties associated with the emerging risks outlined here. In the Arctic, response organizations will need to focus on monitoring the evolution of climate change impacts and shipping activities as well as participate in the development of mitigation actions. All parties will need to identify the steps that will lead to safe Arctic shipping, salvage, and pollution response.

While there is no one complete solution to address all risks, our analysis offers information relevant to multiple sectors of the maritime transportation network. By forging relationships among these sectors, response organizations will be able to better develop the most comprehensive responses to address pressures and gaps emerging as a result of the changing environment, changing patterns of trade, and developing technologies. And hopefully these organizations will be even better prepared for the oil spills of the future, no matter the scenario.

Megan Desillier, Seth Sivinski, and Nicole White are Master’s candidates at the University of Washington (UW) in the School of Marine and Environmental Affairs working with faculty advisors Robert Pavia and Thomas M. Leschine. The team completed the research of emerging risks in marine transportation for the International Tanker Owner Pollution Federation (ITOPF) and was provided additional assistance in their research from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The students completed this research over the course of an academic year as part of the thesis/capstone requirement for the School of Marine and Environmental Affairs at the UW. Our team would like to thank our sponsor, ITOPF, as well as NOAA for providing additional assistance. To contact the authors, please email Robert Pavia at bobpavia@uw.edu.

The views expressed in this post reflect those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the official views of ITOPF, NOAA, or the U.S. federal government.

Photo of MSC Oscar: kees torn, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 2.0 Generic license
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Categories: natural disasters, ocean, oil spills, preparedness | Tags: climate change, emergency planning, NOAA, ocean, oil spills, pollution, response, shipping, technology | Permalink.

June 2, 2016
by doughelton 7 Comments
At the U.S.-Canadian Border, Surveying a World War II Shipwreck for History and Oil
Historical photo of the Coast Trader at port in San Francisco.

The Coast Trader, first launched in 1920, was sunk by a Japanese torpedo in 1942. (San Francisco Maritime National Historical Park)

On June 2, 2016, an underwater survey team is looking at what they believe to be the wreck of the 324-foot-long Coast Trader, a U.S. Army-chartered freight ship sunk somewhere off the Washington coast during World War II. The shipwreck being surveyed is located near the entrance to the Strait of Juan de Fuca just across the border of Washington state and British Columbia in Canadian waters.

The Coast Trader sank on June 7, 1942 after the Imperial Japanese Navy’s deadly I-26 submarine torpedoed it on its journey between Port Angeles, Washington, and San Francisco, California. Its precise location on the seafloor remained unknown until a 2010 survey by the Canadian Hydrographic Service. A wreck with the same dimensions and basic shape as the Coast Trader lies in 450 feet of water just two miles from where the ship’s master reported his ship was attacked.

The survey team is led by archaeologist James Delgado, director of maritime heritage for NOAA’s Office of National Marine Sanctuaries, and Michael Brennan, archaeological director for the Ocean Exploration Trust, which was founded by underwater explorer Robert Ballard, who years ago discovered the wreck of the Titanic.

Joining the team at the University of Rhode Island’s Inner Space Center is Frank Cantelas, archaeologist for NOAA’s Office of Ocean Exploration Research, along with naval architects, corrosion and oil spill response experts from the U.S. Coast Guard, and a Canadian historian from the Vancouver Maritime Museum. While the Coast Trader appears to rest in Canadian waters, it is just north of Washington’s Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary.
Natuical chart showing approximate location of Coast Trader wreck between Washington state and Vancouver Island.

A map of what was believed to be the approximate location of the wreck of the Coast Trader, on the border of the Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary and Canada. The likeliest scenario of oil release from most sunken wrecks, including the Coast Trader, is a small, episodic release that may be precipitated by disturbance of the vessel in storms. However, NOAA’s modeling shows that a worst-case scenario spill would oil shorelines on the southern coast of Canada’s Vancouver Island. (NOAA)

Why the interest in a 74-year-old wreck? History and the threat of oil pollution. While the Coast Trader was a pretty typical ship of its era, the wreck is now considered historically significant for being one of a handful of ships sunk on this side of the Pacific during World War II.

In addition, in 2013, it was one of the priority shipwrecks NOAA’s Office of Response and Restoration, along with the National Marine Sanctuaries program, identified for its potential risk of spilling oil. While the Coast Trader was carrying a cargo of newsprint when it sank, it was also loaded with more than 7,000 barrels of a heavy fuel oil known as Bunker C.

The marine archaeologists looking at the wreck will be trying to confirm that it is in fact the Coast Trader, and they’ll be searching for clues as to whether the ship’s hull is still intact and likely still holding its fuel.

Our 2013 assessment of the Coast Trader’s pollution potential [PDF] reports the following about the ship’s sinking and its potential condition:

The explosion blew the hatch covers off the cargo hold and sent rolls of newsprint flying through the air. Survivors of the attack reported looking down into the hatches and seeing a “sea of oil and water” in and around the damaged portion of the ship and that “quite a bit of fuel oil surrounded ship.” The vessel eventually sank by the stern and the survivors watched as each of the hatch covers were blown off in succession as the ship sank.

Based on the large degree of inaccuracy in the reported sinking location and the depths of water the ship was lost in, it is unlikely that the shipwreck will be intentionally located. Although the survivor reports of the sinking make it sound like substantial amounts of oil was lost when the vessel sank, it is not possible to determine with any degree of accuracy what the current condition of the wreck is and how likely the vessel is to contain oil since the shipwreck has never been discovered.

The only way to conclusively determine the condition of the shipwreck will be to examine the site after it is discovered.

Hopefully, we’ll soon find out if this wreck actually is the long-lost Coast Trader. You can watch video of the underwater survey as it takes place at http://www.nautiluslive.org/.

UPDATED JUNE 2, 2016: The survey team has confirmed that this wreck is, with very little doubt, the Coast Trader. Here are a few photos of the livestream exploration of the wreck:
Underwater photo of fish swimming around barnacle-covered features of the Coast Trader shipwreck.
Underwater photo of a fishing net caught on the Coast Trader shipwreck.
Underwater photo of the rusting hull, with fish and a net, of the Coast Trader shipwreck.
Underwater photo of the deck of the Coast Trader shipwreck, with chains, a fish, and bell in view.
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Categories: ocean, oil spills | Tags: archeology, Canada, history, NOAA, ocean, oil spills, pollution, shipwrecks, Washington | Permalink.

May 31, 2016
by Vicki Loe Leave a comment
How Do You Begin to Clean up a Century of Pollution on New Jersey’s Passaic River?
A mechanical dredge pulls contaminated sediment from the bottom of the Passaic River.

A mechanical dredge removes sediment from an area with high dioxin concentrations on the Passaic River, adjacent to the former Diamond Alkali facility in Newark, New Jersey. (NOAA)

Dozens of companies share responsibility for the industrial pollution on New Jersey’s Passaic River, and several Superfund sites dot the lower portion of the river. But one of the perhaps best-known of these companies (and Superfund sites) is Diamond Alkali.

In the mid-20th century, Diamond Alkali (later Diamond Shamrock Chemicals Company) and others manufactured pesticides and herbicides, including those constituting “Agent Orange,” along the Passaic. The toxic waste from these activities left an undeniable mark on the river, which winds about 80 miles through northern New Jersey until it meets the Hackensack River and forms Newark Bay.

Fortunately, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), with support from the natural resource trustees, including NOAA, U.S. Department of Interior, New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection, and the New York State Department of Environmental Protection, has released a plan to clean up the lower eight miles of the Passaic River, which passes through Newark.

Those lower eight miles are where 90 percent of the river’s contaminated sediments are located [PDF] and addressing contamination in this section of the river is an important first step.
A History of War
Ruins of an old railroad bridge end part way over the Passaic River.

Ruins of an old Central Railroad of New Jersey bridge along the Passaic River hint at a bustling era of industrialization gone by. (Credit: Joseph, Creative Commons)

A major contributor to that contamination came from what is known as Agent Orange, a mix of “tactical herbicides,” which the U.S. military sprayed from 1962 to 1971 during the Vietnam War. These herbicides removed tropical foliage hiding enemy soldiers.

However, an unwanted byproduct of manufacturing Agent Orange was the extremely toxic dioxin known as TCDD. Dioxins are commonly released into the environment from burning waste, diesel exhaust, chemical manufacturing, and other processes. The EPA classifies TCDD as a human carcinogen (cause of cancer).

Pollution on the Passaic River stretches back more than two centuries, but its 20th century industrial history has left traces of dioxins, pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), heavy metals, and volatile organic compounds in sediments of the Passaic River and surrounding the Diamond Alkali site. Testing in the early 1980s confirmed this contamination, and the area was added to the National Priorities List, becoming a Superfund site in 1984.

Many of these contaminants persist for a long time in the environment, meaning concentrations of them have declined very little in the last 20 years. As a result of this pollution, no one should eat fish or crab caught from the Lower Passaic River, a 17 mile stretch of river leading to Newark Bay.
Finding a Solution

But how do you clean up such a complex and toxic history? The federal and state trustees for the Lower Passaic River provided technical support as EPA grappled with this question, debating two possible cleanup options, or “remedies,” for the river. The cleanup option EPA ultimately settled on involves dredging 3.5 million cubic yards of contaminated sediments from the river bottom and removing those sediments from the site. Then, a two-foot-deep “cap” made of sand and stone will be placed over contaminated sediments remaining at the bottom of the river.

This will be an enormous effort—one cubic yard is roughly the size of a standard dishwasher. According to NOAA Regional Resource Coordinator Reyhan Mehran, it will be one of the largest dredging projects in Superfund history. While the entire project could take more than ten years, Judith Enck, EPA Regional Administrator for New York, has pointed out that the process involves “cleaning up over a century of toxic pollution.”
A Tale of Two Remedies
Aerial view of New York City skyline, Newark, and industrial river landscape.

Manhattan skyline from over Newark, New Jersey. The view is across the confluence of the Passaic and Hackensack Rivers and shows the industrial buildup in the area. (Credit: Doc Searls, Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic license)

Mehran describes the alternatives analysis as a complicated one—choosing between two cleanup remedies, the one described above and an “in-water” disposal solution. This second approach called for removing the contaminated sediments from the riverbed and burying them in Newark Bay, in what is known as a “confined aquatic disposal cell.” That essentially involves digging a big hole in the bottom of the bay, removing the clean sediments for use elsewhere, filling it with the contaminated sediments, and capping it to keep everything in place.

While the less expensive of the two options, serious concerns were raised about the potential effect this in-water solution would have on the long-term ecosystem health of Newark Bay.

The chosen remedy, which calls for removing the contaminated sediment from the riverbed and transporting it away by rail to a remote site on land, was selected as the better solution for the long-term health of the ecosystem. Finding the best option incorporated the scientific support and analysis of NOAA and the trustees.

As NOAA’s Mehran explains, “The site, with some of the highest concentrations of dioxins in sediment, is in the middle of one of the most densely populated parts of our nation, which makes the threat to public resources tremendous.”

While the upper and middle segments of the Passaic River flow through forests and natural marshes, areas bordering the lower river are densely populated and industrial. Because of industrialization, habitat for wildlife within Newark Bay has already been severely altered, yet the bay’s shallow waters continue to provide critically needed habitat for fish such as winter flounder, migratory birds including herons and egrets, and numerous other species.

“The watershed of the Lower Passaic River and Newark Bay is highly developed,” emphasizes Mehran, “and the resulting scarcity of ecological habitat makes it all the more valuable and important to protect and restore.”

Learn more about the cleanup plan for the Lower Passaic River [PDF].

Photo of Jersey Central Ruins used courtesy of Joseph, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 Generic license.

Photo of Manhattan skyline with Passaic and Hackensack Rivers used courtesy of Doc Searls, Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic license.
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Categories: chemical releases | Tags: Assessment and Restoration Division, chemicals, cleanup, New Jersey, NOAA, pollution, rivers, Superfund sites, waste sites | Permalink.
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MessageSujet: Re: Mairie de Paris, Y'becca, 8 Novembre 2016 et Hildalgo.   Sam 8 Oct à 10:33


Extensive Hawaiian Reefs in Oceanic “Twilight Zone” Harbor Many Unique Species

Posted on October 5th, 2016 (3 days ago) in Coral, Ecosystem Management
Mesophotic coral ecosystems are populated with many of the same fish species found on shallow reefs. 'Au'au Channel, off the southwest coast of Maui, at a depth of 230 feet. Credit: NOAA Hawai'i Undersea Research Laboratory.

Mesophotic coral ecosystems are populated with many of the same fish species found on shallow reefs. ‘Au’au Channel, off the southwest coast of Maui, at a depth of 230 feet. Credit: NOAA and Hawai’i Undersea Research Laboratory.

NOAA-supported scientists working in the Hawaiian Archipelago documented some of the most expansive mesophotic reefs (deeper light-dependent reefs between 100-500 feet depths) in what some refer to as the oceanic “twilight zone.” The exploration revealed several large areas of 100-percent coral cover, particularly in Maui’s ʻAu‘au Channel. Of the fish species observed, 43 percent were unique to the Hawaiian Islands, which is more than double the 17 percent of unique species found on shallow Hawaiian reefs.

Because of the challenges associated with working at such depths, mesophotic coral ecosystems are less understood and often not considered in coral reef management efforts. For this study, scientists used a combination of submersibles, remotely operated vehicles, and technical diving to study these difficult-to-reach environments.

“With coral reefs facing a myriad of threats, these findings are important for understanding, managing and protecting coral reef habitat and the organisms that live on them,” said Kimberly Puglise, an oceanographer with NOAA’s National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science. “Some species of fish and corals studied can live in both shallow and mesophotic reefs, and could potentially replenish each other if one population is overexploited.”
The study area covered mesophotic coral ecosystems found from 100-500 feet in depth in both the Northwestern and Main Hawaiian Islands. The 'Au'au Channel, off the southwest coast of Maui, is home to the largest mesophotic coral ecosystem ever recorded with areas of 100-percent coral cover. Credit: NOAA.

The study area covered mesophotic coral ecosystems found from 100-500 feet in depth in both the Northwestern and Main Hawaiian Islands. The ‘Au’au Channel, off the southwest coast of Maui, is home to the largest mesophotic coral ecosystem ever recorded with areas of 100-percent coral cover. Credit: NOAA.
Kure Atoll, the northernmost reef in the Hawaiian archipelago, hosts mesophotic reefs with the highest level endemism known from any marine ecosystem on Earth. All of the fishes in this image (90 m depth) are endemic or unique to the Hawaiian Islands, and are not found anywhere else. Credit: Bishop Museum and NOAA.

Kure Atoll, the northernmost reef in the Hawaiian archipelago, hosts mesophotic reefs with the highest level endemism known from any marine ecosystem on Earth. All of the fishes in this image (90 m depth) are endemic or unique to the Hawaiian Islands. Credit: Bishop Museum and NOAA.

This paper, led by Bishop Museum, represents a collaboration of 16 scientists from five institutions and two federal agencies. The research was supported by NOAA’s National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument, Coral Reef Conservation Program, Office of Ocean Exploration and Research, and the Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center, as well as, the Hawai‘i Undersea Research Laboratory and the State of Hawai‘i.

For more information check out the project page or contact Kimberly.Puglise@noaa.gov.

Related NCCOS Center(s): CSCOR
Related Region(s): Hawaii
Shorter web link for sharing: https://coastalscience.noaa.gov/news/?p=19713
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MessageSujet: Re: Mairie de Paris, Y'becca, 8 Novembre 2016 et Hildalgo.   Sam 8 Oct à 10:37

À l'issue de l'Euro, le 1er juillet, le sélectionneur national Michel Hidalgo cède les commandes de l'équipe à Henri Michel. C'est sous sa direction que les Bleus entament victorieusement leurs éliminatoires pour la Coupe du monde 1986.
L'équipe remporte l'ensemble de ses 12 matchs de l'année.

Année historique pour l'équipe de France qui remporte l'Euro 1984 à domicile, le premier tournoi majeur de son existence. Avec son fameux « carré magique » remanié (Fernandez s'est imposé au milieu de terrain à la place de Genghini), la France se montre intraitable et spectaculaire (ce qui vaut aux Bleus le surnom de « Brésiliens d'Europe »). Les Tricolores ont pu notamment compter durant la compétition sur un Michel Platini au sommet de son art, auteur de 9 buts en 5 matches.

Gardiens de but
Joël Bats
Philippe Bergeroo
Défenseurs
Maxime Bossis
Patrick Battiston
Yvon Le Roux
Manuel Amoros
Thierry Tusseau
Jean-François Domergue
Michel Bibard
Didier Sénac
Milieux
Luis Fernandez
Alain Giresse
Jean Tigana
Michel Platini
Bernard Genghini
Jean-Marc Ferreri
Attaquants
Bruno Bellone
Dominique Rocheteau
José Touré
Didier Six
Bernard Lacombe
Philippe Anziani
Daniel Bravo
Yannick Stopyra
François Brisson
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MessageSujet: Re: Mairie de Paris, Y'becca, 8 Novembre 2016 et Hildalgo.   Sam 8 Oct à 10:38

NOAA awards $44 million for climate research to improve community resilience

Monday, October 3, 2016

NOAA’s Climate Program Office (CPO) has awarded $44.34 million for 73 new projects designed to help advance the understanding, modeling, and prediction of Earth’s climate system and to foster effective decision making.

The projects, ranging from observing systems in the tropical Pacific Ocean to on-the-ground community-based research institutions, will be conducted by NOAA, universities, and other agency and research institutions.

Some anticipated outcomes include more accurate forecasts, early warning hazards of drought, more robust decision support services, enhanced community and drought preparedness, and improved ability to respond and adapt to climate-related public health impacts.

Wildfire research

Wildfire research
NOAA funded research will examine pollution from wildfires in the western U.S. Credit: NOAA
The funds will be distributed over the life of the projects, many of which are multi-year. All awards were selected in an open, competitive process. With these new awards, CPO expands the breadth and scope of NOAA’s climate research, products, and services, and offers opportunities for collaboration within and integration between programs.

“Climate change and extreme events impact individuals, communities, and businesses in the U.S. and around the world. The people grappling with these environmental challenges want timely and relevant information on how climate variability and change affects human and natural systems,” said Wayne Higgins, director of the Climate Program Office. “With these grants, we help advance understanding of the Earth’s climate system, and put information into the hands of those who need it. Overall, these activities are contributing to healthier populations, sustainable fisheries, resilient inland and coastal communities, and a more robust economy.”

The new projects support these priorities:

● Improve the understanding of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), its prediction, and how it affects Earth’s weather and climate, $4.5 million to advance the readiness of new ocean observing platforms and assess their potential to enhance the international Tropical Pacific Observing System (TPOS 2020).

Planning for climate change

Planning for climate change
Local resource managers meet with scientists from NOAA and the Pacific Regional Integrated Sciences and Assessments program in Majuro, the Republic of the Marshall Islands, plan strategies to address local climate impacts. Credit: Pacific RISA.
● Improve the understanding of the ocean and the air, $11.9 million—including $6.5 million to support the Fire Influence on Regional and Global Environment Experiment (FIREX), which investigates emissions and chemical transformation resulting from wildfires in the western U.S.

● Help transition research into operational models, products, and services to improve weather and climate prediction, $12.14 million—including $6.7 million to help advance the prediction of phenomena occurring between current weather and seasonal predictions.

● Provide leadership and support for research, assessments, and climate services development activities, $15.8 million—including $11.6 million for the Regional Integrated Sciences and Assessments Programs in Alaska, the Carolinas, and the Mid-Atlantic— to improve the expertise and ability of managers and planners to prepare for and adapt to climate variability and change.

CPO manages competitive research programs, which fund climate science, assessments, decision-support research, modeling improvements, transition of research and capacity-building activities in four complementary areas: observations and monitoring; process understanding and analysis; modeling, predictions, and projections; and societal interactions.

CPO’s network of partners, specialists, and principal investigators will integrate and transition research findings from these projects into applications to help build resilience in the face of climate challenges.

A full list of awards, as well as individual announcements for each program, is available online at: http://cpo.noaa.gov/AboutCPO/AllNews/TabId/315/artmid/668/articleid/617026/Default.aspx

For more information, please contact Monica Allen, director of public affairs at NOAA Research at 301-734-1123 or by email at monica.allen@noaa.gov
Drought

Wildfire research

Planning for climate change


Categories: Research Headlines2016Climate | Tags: droughtflash floodsclimateClimate Change
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New NOAA study in North Carolina may improve forecasting, lead times for dangerous storms

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MessageSujet: Re: Mairie de Paris, Y'becca, 8 Novembre 2016 et Hildalgo.   Sam 8 Oct à 10:43

Processus de Paix des secouristes de la république de l'Olivier.

Je crois qu'à l'avenir, plus personne ne pourra recréer des bulles d'exclusions...
Pour cela, je ne peux me permettre de mettre à l'écart tout individu(e) et "État".

Je ne suis qu'une femme ou un homme humble qui en vous adressant ces ces vers,
espère qu'il puisse vous conduire vers l'expérience, le travail et la communauté...
La solitude augmente ou diminue le nervosité... Cela s'appelle le malheur...

Alors par décision, on recherche à se tranquilliser et remettre la balance sur le zéro;
alors par construction, on décèle la notion d'une fragile tolérance:
Celle d'insulter !

Par Yahvé, cela est une horreur et une erreur...

La République de l'Olivier dit :
"Oui à la gréve, Non à l'Esclavage..."
la constitution rajoute :
"Oui à la Bibliothèque et Non à la Faim."
et le peuple doit rajouter :
"Oui à l'écoute et Non aux viols physiques et moraux."

Alors le Novice du Secourisme prends en charge sa nouvelle fonction autre qu'un service
militaire mais basé aussi sur la protection du Bien et du Corps.

"Je suis Y'becca"

Ecrit de
TAY
La chouette effraie.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Y'becca ou murmure de l'Arbre-Olivier.
http://leclandesmouettes.bbflash.net/t41-y-becca-ou-murmure-de-l-arbre-olivier

Profils des Juges du Secourisme et
la république de l'Olivier.

Chére Minouska, Féline de Pierre et Yvette et toutes les bonnes volonté(e)s

Je regarde le temps différemment après la mort de Athéna la chatte Bleue.
De longues années à voyager; à travailler et à écrire... Tel un Spartiate, je me suis emprunt à une apogée sur la compréhension du monde qui m'entourai de ses richesses; J' y ai rencontré des lueurs, des affronts et des forces.

Je regarde celle qui a su réveiller la force de réveiller ces écrits que j'ai voulu sauvegarder par le fait que après
tout, aide toi et le ciel te répondra: Et je dois dire que ma volonté fut exaucer... Alors je regarde Minouska, une chatte qui a recueilli mon cœur en lambeau lors de la guerre ou intifada, si vous préférez:

Le Juge Suprême de la république de l'Olivier est un personnage
qui doit s'informer et accueillir la Parole de l'un et de l'Autre. Il se doit d'écrire des vers, des proverbes, des espoirs, des fables car notre peuple aime cela: Ni fouet, ni chaines ! être sérieux devant les nuages gris !
Car l'arbre peur garantir notre fraternité et la justice de l'eau propager la diversités des écritures des forets donc vers la connaissance et Yahvé... La République est le pilier de l’Âme dans le sens où il s’inclut dans le peuple et ne cherche pas à devenir idole, idolâtre ou idolâtré. Être humble doit être la qualité première du Juge Suprême de la République de l'olivier.

Dans la vallée du Nil à la plaine des cèdres; le juge suprême doit présenter ses hontes et ses espoirs... je vous fait part de mon expérience... Nuls réponses dans un premiers temps ne se fit entendre alors j'envoyai des mouettes, des chouettes et des canaris sous forme de lettre tel un oiseau qui apprends son premier envol.

Alors sous forme de mirage pour certains et pour d'autres, cela s'appelle un message. Je me fis ce constat et que la volonté en soit ainsi si il ne veulent pas entendre;

"Propage la Connaissance des serments car ce sont les hommes qui s'entretuent par leur entreprise, leur volonté et leur désir! Car certains vomissent sur la fraternité voilà un maillon de haine du trois en un délivré par le vieux coq... Rétablit l'apprentissage de l'Espérance sur l'apprentissage de marcher ! La canne de l'age n'est pas un spectre; elle est une source d'eau ! Tu apprendra à entendre ta douleur devant la faim ! Nous sommes des étapes et en cela cherche le fait d'exister ! La République est le pilier de l’Âme dans le sens où elle s’inclut dans le peuple et ne cherche pas à devenir idole, idolâtre ou idolâtré. Être humble doit être la qualité première !

Ecrit de
TAY
La chouette Effraie.

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yanis la chouette



Nombre de messages : 6446
Localisation : http://yanis.tignard.free.fr/
Date d'inscription : 09/11/2005

MessageSujet: Re: Mairie de Paris, Y'becca, 8 Novembre 2016 et Hildalgo.   Sam 8 Oct à 10:57

On décrit l'Univers comme un monde sans lumière et sans abîmes où aucun son ne serait produit dans le fonds de ses entrailles. Erreur.
TAY

Sade - Smooth Operator https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4TYv2PhG89A … Personnages Louis de Pointe du Lac, Nicolas de Lenfent, et Gabrielle de Lioncourt
TAY

Le clans des mouettes http://leclandesmouettes.bbflash.net/f1-le-clans-des-mouettes … ainsi est la force. Une Louve devant les Gladiateurs, Je crois en vous: N.K.M
TAY

Firefly Theme https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D7vS4z6ngQo …
John Forbes Nash Jr, TAY et Y'becca
Le clans des mouettes
ainsi est la force.
L’Élément et son Âme.

Norah Jones-Nightingale https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tu_EJAM8N98 …
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Minouska.KounakDenat



Nombre de messages : 175
Date d'inscription : 06/10/2016

MessageSujet: Re: Mairie de Paris, Y'becca, 8 Novembre 2016 et Hildalgo.   Jeu 20 Oct à 9:21

Au lieu d'obtenir la sédation par des méthodes agressives ou susceptibles de réaliser des déficits dans le système nerveux, un nouveau courant s'est développé en psychiatrie visant à obtenir l'effet non seulement sédatif mais régulateur par des substances chimiques appropriées.

Ce courant pharmacologique a présenté de nombreux précurseurs. C'est surtout Moreau de Tours qui au milieu du Dix neuvième siècle, après ses études sur le HASCHICH, et ensuite sur une série de substances, notamment le protoxyde d'Azote, les sédatifs divers, l'opium, l'Alcool, ect..., a développé l'idée de modifications psychologiques déterminées par les substances chimiques. Moreau de la Tours a été ainsi après la conception chimiques des PSYCHOSES et ainsi a mentionné en premier avec Mlle Pascal, les dissociations psychiques sur le soi et le paraitre. Mais il a encore utilisé diverses substances chimiques non seulement pour déterminer des "troubles psychologiques expérimentaux" mais pour encore plus pour explorer la psychologie profonde. Ainsi Moreau de Tours a été le précurseur de la narcoanalyse et le promoteur des thérapeutiques chimiques. Ainsi et mais, cette conception chimique pharmacologique a été longue à ce développer. Dans la Ligne de Moreau, Les beaux travaux de Mlle Pascal et de ses élèves sur les substances psychotropes et l'exploration pharmacologique de la psychologie des éléments précoces puis de Claude, Borel et Robin avec l'éthérisation prolongé par Claude et Baruk sur le somnifères...

Et puis dans cette clarté une part d'ombre sur le soi, la conscience de souffrance, la naissance et le développement de la catatonie expérimentale et de la psychiatrie expérimentale chez les animaux par De Jong et H.Baruk, devait apporter dés 1930 une démonstration objectives des causes toxiques des maladies mentales, et des "applications thérapeutiques" antitoxiques (psychoses colibacillaires de H.Baruk, psychoses hyper-folliculiniques, ect,) et a donc ouvert dans ses travaux du 19iéme siècle qui ressemble sur bien des aspects sur des études antiques Égyptiennes et Romaines élaborés sur l'analyse mortuaire et Momification donc moins soumise à la torture de patients vivants tels que des animaux et être humains, élaborés sur l'hygiène de vie du Vivant et qui par la suite d'une mort à définir aurait pu éviter la souffrance engendrer par ce docteur H.Baruk, Ces études primaires permettent l'entrer dans le champs de la Psychopharmacologie.

Comme en tout temps et malgré le fait que nous soyons aux vingt et unième siècles, la découvertes de nouvelles substances "psychotropes" a renouvelé la thérapeutique psychiatrique en particulier dans le domaine des substances dites "neuroleptiques"; sans une réelle surveillance accru de la part de secouristes devant l'investissement des grands laboratoires voir de personnes physiques de l'aspect morale de l’État et de la société.

Se rappeler des sujets comme la découverte de l'évidence des troubles sympathiques en pathologie, rôle souligné par Laignel-Lavastine, par Tinel et Santenoise... Le phénomène de Reilly et les antihistaminiques des synthèses.... Les travaux de Bovet dans les laboratoires de Fourneau à Paris et poursuivi en Italie à l'institut supérieur de la santé à Rome.

Ecrit de
TAY
La chouette effraie sur les études de
Henry Baruk publié par Presses Universitaires de France

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Romain Gary nous a particulièrement émus dans une lettre où il suppliait Christel de l'aimer, même un peu... Au contraire, Musset a prouvé qu'il était possible de rester fier et élégant malgré la douleur en faisant ses adieux à la célèbre George Sand. Apollinaire nous a émoustillé les sens dans une lettre à Lou alliant douleur et jouissance ; tandis que la domination exercée par Wanda sur Leopold von Sacher-Masoch nous captivait. Enfin, les mots de Jean Cocteau pour son amant Jean Marais nous ont apaisé l'âme et l'esprit...

Lettre de Romain Gary à Christel
“ Aime-moi, veux-tu ? Un tout petit peu.

Romain Gary (21 mai 1914 – 2 décembre 1980), aussi connu sous son nom de naissance Roman Kacew ou sous son nom d’emprunt Émile Ajar avec lequel il signe un grand nombre de ses oeuvres, est un auteur et diplomate français très influent du XXe siècle. En juillet 1937, il rencontre Christel Söderlund, journaliste suédoise avec qui il entretient un passion dévorante mais de courte durée. En effet, épouse et mère de famille, elle le quitte et retourne en Suède. Voici ses mots.

6 septembre 1937

Nice 6. IX. 37

Christel, ma lointaine, ton petit cheval est ravissant et il restera toujours sur mon bureau, à côté de ta photo.

Et « Gösta Berling » sera toujours mon livre de chevet. Et tes yeux sont ce qu’il y a de plus bleu sur terre et tes cheveux sont plus blonds que ceux de Gösta.

Je ne peux pas les oublier, petite Christel. Je ne peux rien oublier. Aime-moi, veux-tu ? Un tout petit peu. En tout cas, mens-moi. Dis-moi que tu m’aimes. Même si ce n’est pas vrai.

Il est une heure du matin. Je viens de me baigner. Je suis rentré dans l’eau là où… tu sais où. J’ai nagé loin, très loin. J’ai eu peur. Et je pensais à toi, tout le temps. Puis je suis allé boire une fine dans ce petit bistro… tu sais, là où tu as dit « oui ».

Maintenant je suis fatigué. J’ai le cafard. Ich will so, aber so in deinen Armen jetzt sein, weisst du ! Aber nein, du weisst nicht. Du kannst nicht wissen. Dieser Brief wird ein Liebebrief sein. Du willst das nicht, ich weiss… Du liebst mich nicht, ich weiss. Wie kannst du mich lieben ? Drei Tage… Du kennst doch mich überhaupt nicht !

En ce moment, tiens, j’ai envie de me saouler la gueule ! J’écrirai, cette nuit. Je vais continuer un roman policier que je dois livrer en décembre. J’ai déjà tué trois personnes. Avec l’argent – deux mille francs – j’irai à Stockholm. Si tu permets… Ou plutôt non, je n’irai pas à Stockholm, j’irai à Christel. Si Christel permet… J’habiterai 14 Blasieholmsborg.

Es-tu libre à Noël ? Est-ce que je peux venir le 23 décembre ? Ou plus tôt ? Ou plus tard ? Ou pas du tout ? Écris-moi. Je t’aime, petite-fille, tu sais ?

Romain Kacew

Il fait trop chaud. Je ne peux pas dormir. Je vais prendre un canot à la Grande Bleue et je vais passer la nuit en mer.

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Le Rosaire récité en commun est bien plus terrible au démon

Le Rosaire récité en commun est bien plus terrible au démon, puisqu'on fait, par ce moyen, un corps d'armée pour l'attaquer. Il triomphe quelquefois fort facilement de la prière d'un particulier, mais, si elle est unie à celle des autres, il n'en peut venir à bout que difficilement.

Il est aisé de rompre une houssine toute seule ; mais si vous l'unissez à plusieurs autres et en faites un faisceau, on ne peut plus la rompre. Vis unita fit fortior. Les soldats s'assemblent en corps d'armée pour battre leurs ennemis ; les méchants s'assemblent souvent pour faire leurs débauches et leurs danses ; les démons même s'assemblent pour nous perdre.

Pourquoi donc les chrétiens ne s'assembleraient-ils pas pour avoir la compagnie de Jésus-Christ, pour apaiser la colère de Dieu, pour attirer sa grâce et sa miséricorde, et pour vaincre et terrasser plus puissamment les démons ?
Saint Louis Marie Grignion de Montfort
Dans Le secret admirable du T. S. Rosaire, 46e Rose
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Localisation : http://yanis.tignard.free.fr/
Date d'inscription : 09/11/2005

MessageSujet: Re: Mairie de Paris, Y'becca, 8 Novembre 2016 et Hildalgo.   Jeu 12 Jan à 8:26

Le référendum est une institution et en cela, il n'est jamais dit que le principe du Referendum est une forme d'émancipation envers les autorités publiques... Le Referendum est la manière la plus noble auquel une loi peut être établi: Pourtant, un jour, Louis Napoléon utilisa cette manière du suffrage universel direct qui marqua les esprits... Le Peuple ne peut pourtant nier le rôle évident que représente le referendum dans le principe civique et morale de "l'individue et de l'individu" dans le terme de Démocratie... Ce principe pourtant, peut être juste consultatif mais il permet ainsi à l'individu de se mettre en situation auquel se retrouve exposer les élu"e"s... Certains voient dans le referendum une forme de combat de coq ou de boxe, en tout cas, à l'image d'un vote électif, il est un aspect fondamentale d'une cohésion morale auquel la démocratie doit faire face: Il surpasse l'aspect de l'état et sans le remettre en cause, il est capable de pointer certaines choses de la vie quotidienne. Dans certains pays, il y a l'aspect de pétition qui peuvent être soumise au suffrage universel indirect... Le suffrage universel direct auquel appartient le Référendum est un aspect essentiel du caractère humain auquel un peuple veut s'adresse envers ses nouvelles générations... Le fait de débattre est un outil essentiel en terme de communication et pourtant dans certains cas, la question du Référendum relève de l'intérêt de l'état régalien, c'est en cela que certains hésitent sur son aspect même mais il montre l'aspect même de l'interlocuteur qui propose le sujet de la question. Le référendum est une loi d'utopie qui pourtant montre l'aspect réel de l'individu dans la société: En cela, j'accorde une importance réelle dans la constitution de Y'becca et des Républiques d'Israël et de la Palestine ainsi que dans toutes les Nations Morales et Physiques pour une reconnaissance morale et intellectuel dans le référendum: Son vote est lié malheureusement à des disputes entre des élu"e"s du Suffrage universel indirect... Toutefois, tout comme le vote direct du parlement et tout vote indirect du parlement, le référendum ne peut être organiser pour un Conflits d’intérêts et en cela, c'est au pouvoir judiciaire et à ses membres qu'il soit public et privé tout en maintenant et mettant l'aspect du service public militaire et civil dans la lutte contre les Conflits d’intérêts qui pourrait s'ingérer dans la teneur du débat et du vote: L'aspect du Général, de la société et l'individu doit être soulever en soulevant toutes les égalités et inégalités que peuvent engendrer le référendum... Certains peuvent s'amuser à créer de lois et des référendum pour des Conflits d’intérêts, pour créer des désordres et par gloire personnel... Cela n'est pas dans l'intérêt de l'harmonie sereine auquel nous devons être en ces situations profondes de changement de climat: "De jour en jour; le petit Nuage de Magellan et La Galaxie d'Andromède évolue depuis µ Êta Careme" s'écrie Nagaliew la mouette aux yeux verts..."
L'aspect du référendum est un droit de cité et de navire dans les prochains siècles à venir; et le juge suprême de la république de l'olivier s'y engage et dans des situations d'urgence, notre professionnalisme institué par la philosophie et la prudence du référendum nous permettra d'avoir l'anticipation sur le danger qu'il soit matérielle, morale et naturelle, ils peuvent être distinct ou englobé, Le référendum et ses principes il est un aspect fondamentale d'une cohésion morale auquel la démocratie, une armée ou un navire doit faire face... Le Laïc et l'Eternel devant la démocratie et la Nature. Conflits d’intérêts... Le clans des mouettes et la cinquième république devant l'adversité des peurs et des intérêts... Nous sommes prêt à faire face à l'avenir... La République de l'Olivier...

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MessageSujet: Re: Mairie de Paris, Y'becca, 8 Novembre 2016 et Hildalgo.   

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