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 U.S.A, Y'becca, La France, Gordon Pacha and Africa

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Nombre de messages : 4600
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Date d'inscription : 09/11/2005

MessageSujet: U.S.A, Y'becca, La France, Gordon Pacha and Africa   Mer 21 Sep à 8:38

Op-Ed: Africa Could Be the Great Economic Success of This Century

Posted at 9:48 AM
OPINION EDITORIAL
Wednesday, September 21, 2016

Office of Public Affairs
202-482-4883
publicaffairs@doc.gov
Publication:
Huffington Post

By Penny Pritzker and Michael R. Bloomberg

Over the last eight years, America has written a new chapter in our relationship with Africa. Under President Obama’s leadership, we have worked to transition our support for the continent from aid to trade and empowerment. We have started to build a full, equal, advanced economic partnership — a partnership that holds as much promise for African countries as it does for America. This week’s U.S.-Africa Business Forum is a key component of that new partnership.


Africa is primed to be one of the great economic success stories of this century. Incomes are rising. Investments in infrastructure and technology are accelerating growth across a range of industries. Africa today is home to 700 companies with revenues greater than $500 million. Consumer spending is on track to climb to $1 trillion over the next four years. The workforce is projected to be the largest on the planet by 2040. The continent could make up a quarter of the global economy by the year 2050.


African markets are also poised to benefit from several long-term trends, including the fastest-growing middle class in the world, an expanding urban population, and increasing access to mobile technology and the internet. By the end of this century, some estimates predict that 40 percent of the world’s youth will be African, which would be an unprecedented concentration of young consumers.


Today, on both sides of the Atlantic, there is a clear desire to deepen our ties of trade and investment. Doing so will spur growth and support new jobs across both the U.S. and the countries of Africa. But with only 2% of total U.S. exports going to Africa, we still have a long way to go before we fully realize the promise and potential of our economic relationship.


The U.S.-Africa Business Forum was created two years ago to accelerate our progress in realizing that potential. The forum brings together heads of states and business leaders for a conversation focused on strengthening our commercial ties. So far, the results of this dialogue have exceeded our expectations.


Today, the billions in investments that were announced during the 2014 forum are on track to be completed — investments in everything from manufacturing and worker training to clean energy and IT modernization. There have also been private-sector deals in aviation, banking, construction and transportation. In addition, the Department of Commerce has doubled its presence in Africa to better serve American firms looking to access markets and create business partnerships, and last September conducted the largest trade mission to Africa in the history of our country.


At this year’s forum, the scope of that progress has widened to include billions more in new partnerships and investments in areas critical to Africa’s future, like technology and the digital economy. Investments in thermal and wind power in Senegal, urban solar farms in South Africa, TV white space and low-cost bandwidth to rural areas of Kenya, and the building of a metro-fiber network in Liberia are just some of the exciting announcements being made this week.


Other programs are helping to spur these and other new investments. The Commerce Department’s Power Africa initiative has helped fuel power-generation projects that are essential for economic growth across sub-Saharan Africa. Trade Africa has increased trade both within the continent and between Africa and the world. And the extension of the African Growth and Opportunity Act for another 10 years will help more African products reach American customers duty-free.


At this year’s U.S.-Africa Business Forum, we look forward to laying the groundwork for the next chapter — one that sees our commercial connections deepen and our trade partnerships mature. With every deal signed and every investment made, we build bridges between our businesses, we open new lines of communication between our governments, and we create new opportunities for our citizens.
Organizations and Groups

   International Trade Administration

Leadership

   Secretary of Commerce

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MessageSujet: Re: U.S.A, Y'becca, La France, Gordon Pacha and Africa   Mer 21 Sep à 8:39

Fact Sheet: U.S.-East African Heads of State and CEO Roundtable

Posted at 9:10 AM
FACT SHEET
Wednesday, September 21, 2016

Office of Public Affairs
202-482-4883
publicaffairs@doc.gov

On September 20th, U.S. Department of Commerce Secretary Penny Pritzker chaired a roundtable with East African Heads of State and CEOs focused on advancing regional economic integration and opportunities in the travel and tourism, agribusiness technology, and infrastructure sectors. The meeting resulted in agreement on significant new steps to expand collaboration in these three important areas.

Secretary Pritzker and their Excellencies Ethiopian Prime Minister Hailemariam Desalegn, Rwandan President Paul Kagame, Ugandan President Yoweri Kaguta Museveni, Kenyan Deputy President William Ruto, and Tanzanian Foreign Minister Augustine Mahiga agreed to launch a Travel and Tourism Dialogue, scale a digital platform on agriculture across East Africa, and work toward convening an Infrastructure Summit.



U.S.-East Africa Travel and Tourism Dialogue

The impact of the travel and tourism sector on the economic and social development of a country can be enormous. Given the significance of the sector to our overall economies, the East African leaders and the U.S. Departments of Commerce and State agreed to launch an annual rotating U.S.-East Africa Travel and Tourism Dialogue to promote East Africa as a top global travel and tourism destination and support the growth of new partnership opportunities for U.S. and East African companies in this sector. The Travel and Tourism Dialogue would: (1) promote and expand business opportunities; (2) deepen regional integration and cooperation in travel and tourism across East Africa; and (3) strengthen people-to-people ties. Each year the dialogue will be co-hosted by one of the East African countries.



Agribusiness Technology

Agriculture remains the backbone of many African economies, but the sector has not reached its full potential. For example, post-harvest losses of fruits and vegetables can exceed 35 percent in many supply chains because they perish before they reach the market. Solving the transportation challenge through technology, including temperature-controlled supply chain, or “cold chain,” can help reduce these losses and capitalize on existing infrastructure by providing more immediate access to markets. The Commerce Department, IBM and the Global Cold Chain Alliance are exploring the development of a scalable digital marketplace pilot that will be accessible via smart and feature phones, that instantly connects farmers and buyers to transporters with cold chain capabilities. During today’s roundtable, the East African leaders agreed to launch the pilot in Kenya and scale it across the other East African countries. At the same time, they recognized that a more holistic approach to agribusiness development is necessary. As a result, Secretary Pritzker tasked the U.S. Department of Commerce to work with partner agencies to develop a comprehensive and data driven approach to address production, productivity and value added challenges.



Infrastructure Summit

Interconnected infrastructure is essential to realizing East Africa’s economic potential, and would significantly improve regional integration and the growth of intra-regional and global trade. Today, the East African leaders and the Department of Commerce agreed to work together to address challenges in building large-scale infrastructure, with the goal of convening an Infrastructure Summit with U.S. investors and companies across the infrastructure value chain focused on specific projects in the critical areas of electricity, transport and water infrastructure. As a first step before proceeding with the Summit, East African leaders and Secretary Pritzker agreed it would be valuable to convene a meeting with ministers and technical experts to build the capacity of East African government officials to develop bankable, feasible projects.



Roundtable Participants

His Excellency Hailemariam Desalegn, Prime Minister of Ethiopia

His Excellency Paul Kagame, President of Rwanda

His Excellency Yoweri Kaguta Museveni, President of Uganda

His Excellency William Ruto, Deputy President of Kenya

His Excellency Augustine Mahiga, Foreign Minister of Tanzania

Penny Pritzker, Secretary of the U.S. Department of Commerce



Martin H. Richenhagen, Chairman, President and CEO, AGCO

Andrew Patterson, President of Africa Division, Bechtel Group, Inc.

Vimal Shah, CEO, Bidco Africa Ltd.

James Mwangi, CEO and Managing Director, Equity Bank

Tewolde GebreMariam Tesfay, CEO, Ethiopian Airlines

Sara Menker, Founder and CEO, Gro Intelligence

Takreem El-Tohamy, General Manager, Middle East & Africa, IBM

Carole Kariuki, CEO, Kenya Private Sector Alliance

Mohammed Dewji, CEO, Mohammed Enterprises Tanzania Limited (MeTL)

Stephen Douglas Cashin, CEO, Pan African Capital Group LLC

Willy Foote, Founder & CEO, Root Capital

John Mirenge, CEO, RwandAir

Tom Klein, President & CEO, Sabre Corporation

Patrick Bitature, Chairman, Simba Group of Companies

Kenneth S. Siegel, EVP, CAO and General Counsel, Starwood Hotels & Resorts Worldwide, Inc.

Sean Klimczak, Senior Managing Director, The Blackstone Group

Stephen Hayes, President and Chief Executive Officer, the Corporate Council on Africa

Corey Rosenbusch, President & CEO, the Global Cold Chain Alliance
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MessageSujet: Re: U.S.A, Y'becca, La France, Gordon Pacha and Africa   Mer 21 Sep à 8:43

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MessageSujet: Re: U.S.A, Y'becca, La France, Gordon Pacha and Africa   Mer 21 Sep à 8:44

The Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA) produces economic accounts statistics that enable government and business decision makers, researchers, and the American public to follow and understand the performance of the Nation's economy.


The Bureau of Economic Analysis produces some of the Nation’s most important economic statistics, including the gross domestic product (GDP) and the balance of payments.

These statistics influence critical decisions made by policymakers, business leaders, households, and individuals that affect interest and exchange rates, tax and budget projections, business investment plans, and the allocation of over $300 billion in federal funds to states and local communities.

BEA prepares national, regional, industry, and international economic accounts that present essential information on such issues as regional economic development, inter-industry relationships, and the
Nation’s position in the world economy.

The National Income and Product Accounts (NIPAs) are the cornerstone of BEA’s statistics, which feature the Nation’s GDP statistics and related measures.
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MessageSujet: Re: U.S.A, Y'becca, La France, Gordon Pacha and Africa   Mer 21 Sep à 8:53

What's in a Name? What Every Consumer Should Know About Foods and Flavors

Many foods or beverages are flavored—but how can you tell where those flavors come from?

For example, if you’re digging into a bowl of cereal that has the word “maple” on the package, and even images of maple leaves, you may think you’re eating a product that contains maple syrup. But not so fast—the taste may come from added flavors.

The same goes for the lemon drink you’ve made from a package picturing fresh lemons. You probably think it was made with lemons, but it may be flavored with natural or artificial lemon flavor.

Why?

Current regulations allow use of terms like “maple,” “maple-flavored,” or “artificially maple-flavored” on the food label without having any maple syrup in the product, as long as it contains maple flavoring. This flavoring could come from a number of sources, including sap or bark from the maple tree. Or it could come from the herb fenugreek, which can impart a maple-like flavor.

Likewise, a lemon-flavored food or drink doesn’t necessarily have to contain lemons or lemon juice. However, this food has to be properly labeled if the source of the flavor is not from lemons. For example, if the flavor comes from an artificial source or a source other than lemon, the product’s name must reflect artificial lemon flavor. And if a strawberry shortcake is made with artificial strawberry flavoring, it must be called artificial strawberry-flavored shortcake.

Not everyone cares if the food actually includes a certain ingredient, as long as the flavor tastes right to them. But, says Douglas Balentine, Ph.D., director of FDA’s Office of Nutrition and Food Labeling, if you don’t want a substitute source of the flavor you’re seeking—if, say, you want real maple syrup in your food—the information you need will be in the ingredient list on the food package.

What to Look for on the Ingredient List

Look for a specific mention of the original flavor source on the ingredient list. Some tips:

If you want a maple food that is made with maple syrup, look for the words “maple syrup” in the ingredient list. In addition, the firm may voluntarily declare “made with 100% maple syrup” elsewhere on the label.
In some situations, you may see the term “natural flavor” in the ingredient list. If the maple flavor comes from a natural maple flavor, you may see “natural maple flavor” or “natural flavor” in the ingredient list.
If you want a product made or flavored with the actual fruit, look for the name of the fruit (“grapefruit”) or the name of a juice made from the fruit (“grapefruit juice”) in the ingredient list.

There are some exceptions. So, a product labeled as a butter product—for instance, “butter cookies”—has to be 100 percent butter to include the term. If the food contains both butter and shortening, an appropriate name would be “butter-flavored.”

And if you want real chocolate, look for “chocolate” in the ingredient list.

According to Felicia Billingslea, director of the FDA’s Food Labeling and Standards Staff, there is also a caveat involving the use of cocoa as an ingredient. “Consumers have long recognized that products like chocolate pudding, cake, and cookies may be made with cocoa,” she says. As long as “cocoa” is listed in the ingredient list, the name of the food can include the term “chocolate in certain situations.”

Finally, if the name of the food is accompanied by terms such as “artificial flavors,” or “natural and artificial flavors,” it is a signal that the original source of the flavor may not have been used in the food.

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Where Does the FDA Come In?

The FDA monitors food products to ensure that what is written on the package is not misleading or inaccurate and it can, when necessary, take action against the food company. Domestically, warning letters can be followed by enforcement actions such as seizures. Imported foods can be detained until the importer can correct the label.

“Ultimately we want consumers to be able to make informed choices about their foods, and FDA’s job is to make sure consumers know what they’re getting,” says Balentine.

This article appears on the FDA’s Consumer Updates page, which features the latest on all FDA-regulated products.

September 21, 2016
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MessageSujet: Re: U.S.A, Y'becca, La France, Gordon Pacha and Africa   Mer 21 Sep à 8:55

Many foods or beverages are flavored—but how can you tell where those flavors come from?

For example, if you’re digging into a bowl of cereal that has the word “maple” on the package, and even images of maple leaves, you may think you’re eating a product that contains maple syrup. But not so fast—the taste may come from added flavors.

The same goes for the lemon drink you’ve made from a package picturing fresh lemons. You probably think it was made with lemons, but it may be flavored with natural or artificial lemon flavor.

Why?

Current regulations allow use of terms like “maple,” “maple-flavored,” or “artificially maple-flavored” on the food label without having any maple syrup in the product, as long as it contains maple flavoring. This flavoring could come from a number of sources, including sap or bark from the maple tree. Or it could come from the herb fenugreek, which can impart a maple-like flavor.

Likewise, a lemon-flavored food or drink doesn’t necessarily have to contain lemons or lemon juice. However, this food has to be properly labeled if the source of the flavor is not from lemons. For example, if the flavor comes from an artificial source or a source other than lemon, the product’s name must reflect artificial lemon flavor. And if a strawberry shortcake is made with artificial strawberry flavoring, it must be called artificial strawberry-flavored shortcake.

Not everyone cares if the food actually includes a certain ingredient, as long as the flavor tastes right to them. But, says Douglas Balentine, Ph.D., director of FDA’s Office of Nutrition and Food Labeling, if you don’t want a substitute source of the flavor you’re seeking—if, say, you want real maple syrup in your food—the information you need will be in the ingredient list on the food package.

What to Look for on the Ingredient List

Look for a specific mention of the original flavor source on the ingredient list. Some tips:

If you want a maple food that is made with maple syrup, look for the words “maple syrup” in the ingredient list. In addition, the firm may voluntarily declare “made with 100% maple syrup” elsewhere on the label.
In some situations, you may see the term “natural flavor” in the ingredient list. If the maple flavor comes from a natural maple flavor, you may see “natural maple flavor” or “natural flavor” in the ingredient list.
If you want a product made or flavored with the actual fruit, look for the name of the fruit (“grapefruit”) or the name of a juice made from the fruit (“grapefruit juice”) in the ingredient list.

There are some exceptions. So, a product labeled as a butter product—for instance, “butter cookies”—has to be 100 percent butter to include the term. If the food contains both butter and shortening, an appropriate name would be “butter-flavored.”

And if you want real chocolate, look for “chocolate” in the ingredient list.

According to Felicia Billingslea, director of the FDA’s Food Labeling and Standards Staff, there is also a caveat involving the use of cocoa as an ingredient. “Consumers have long recognized that products like chocolate pudding, cake, and cookies may be made with cocoa,” she says. As long as “cocoa” is listed in the ingredient list, the name of the food can include the term “chocolate in certain situations.”

Finally, if the name of the food is accompanied by terms such as “artificial flavors,” or “natural and artificial flavors,” it is a signal that the original source of the flavor may not have been used in the food.

Where Does the FDA Come In?

The FDA monitors food products to ensure that what is written on the package is not misleading or inaccurate and it can, when necessary, take action against the food company. Domestically, warning letters can be followed by enforcement actions such as seizures. Imported foods can be detained until the importer can correct the label.

“Ultimately we want consumers to be able to make informed choices about their foods, and FDA’s job is to make sure consumers know what they’re getting,” says Balentine.

This article appears on the FDA’s Consumer Updates page, which features the latest on all FDA-regulated products.

September 21, 2016
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MessageSujet: Re: U.S.A, Y'becca, La France, Gordon Pacha and Africa   Mer 21 Sep à 9:02

Webinar: Resources for High-Level Amputees

Corrected Registration Link: https://attendee.gotowebinar.com/register/2474588731428768513

Wednesday, September 21, 2016 1pm-2pm EST

Join the Amputee Coalition for a webinar to discuss various topics affecting high-level amputees including:

Typical rehabilitation for an individual with high-level amputations (timing, types of activities, what you do with a therapist vs. at home/in the hospital);
What individuals can do to maintain range of motion and activities;
How to determine what medical devices to use for mobility and other activities (wheelchair, crutch, cane, bathe safety).


This free webinar is for Individuals with high-level amputations, their families, friends and caregivers and clinicians who work with the limb loss community, and will be hosted by Dr. David Crandell and Dr. Carol Miller.

David M. Crandell, MD, is an instructor in the Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation at the Harvard Medical School and a rehabilitation specialist at Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital in Boston, MA. Dr. Crandell is the medical director of the Amputee Program and an attending physician on the Comprehensive Rehabilitation Program where he works with patients with limb loss and a variety of musculoskeletal trauma.

Carol A. Miller, PT, PhD, GCS, is professor and director of Clinical Education for Physical Therapy at the Georgia Campus of the Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine. Dr. Miller has over 32 years of experience working with adults with lower-limb amputation.

If you are not able to attend the webinar, it will be posted to the Amputee Coalition website.
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MessageSujet: Re: U.S.A, Y'becca, La France, Gordon Pacha and Africa   Mer 21 Sep à 9:12

FTC Action: International Scammers Banned from Business Directory Business
Overseas Defendants Targeted Small Businesses, Non-Profits in U.S.
For Release
September 20, 2016

Tags:

deceptive/misleading conduct Bureau of Consumer Protection Consumer Protection Advertising and Marketing Online Advertising and Marketing

In an action brought by the Federal Trade Commission in 2013, a federal court has banned a Slovakia-based company and two of its executives from the business directory business, ending a scam that for years took millions of dollars from small businesses and non-profits in the United States and other countries.

A default judgment entered against Construct Data Publishers a.s., also doing business as Fair Guide, and a stipulated final judgment and permanent injunction against Wolfgang Valvoda and Susanne Anhorn, resolve the 2013 FTC action.

In its complaint, the FTC had alleged that, using direct mail, the defendants tricked retailers, home-based businesses, local associations and others into thinking they had a preexisting business relationship with the defendants. The defendants falsely suggested that consumers had to return a form confirming or updating their contact information for a trade show they had attended or planned to attend. Many recipients did not notice a statement, buried in fine print at the bottom of the form, that by signing and returning it they were agreeing to pay $1,717 annually to the company for a listing on its website.

A default judgment entered earlier in this case against the defendants was vacated in December 2014. That month, the U.S. Attorney for the Southern District of Illinois indicted Valvoda on mail fraud charges. The FTC’s civil case continued until recently, when the agency reached a settlement with Valvoda and Anhorn, and Construct Data Publishers defaulted after filing bankruptcy proceedings in Slovakia.

Under the final orders announced today, the defendants are banned from the business directory business. They also are prohibited from misrepresenting any product or service, attempting to collect payment for their business directory listings, profiting from consumers’ personal information, or failing to dispose of consumers’ personal information properly.

The order against Construct Data Publishers imposes a $7 million default judgment, including the transfer of $344,000 to the FTC from the court’s registry. The order against Valvoda and Anhorn imposes judgments of $2.1 million and $4.5 million, respectively, which will be suspended upon payment of $200,000. The full judgments will be imposed immediately if the defendants are found to have misrepresented their financial condition.

The Commission vote approving the proposed stipulated final order against Valvoda and Anhorn was 3-0. The U.S. District Court for the Northern District of Illinois, Eastern Division, entered the order on August 25, 2016.

NOTE: Stipulated final orders have the force of law when approved and signed by the District Court judge.

The FTC appreciates the assistance of the Ministry of Justice of the Republic of Slovakia, the Slovak Police Attache, and the Ministry of Justice of Austria in bringing this case.

The Federal Trade Commission works to promote competition, and protect and educate consumers. You can learn more about consumer topics and file a consumer complaint online or by calling 1-877-FTC-HELP (382-4357). Like the FTC on Facebook (link is external), follow us on Twitter (link is external), read our blogs and subscribe to press releases for the latest FTC news and resources.
Press Release Reference:
FTC Action Leads to Ban Against Internet Directory Scammers
FTC Stops Foreign Operation That Scammed Many Small Businesses and Nonprofits Into Paying Millions of Dollars for Bogus Online Directory
Contact Information

MEDIA CONTACT:
Frank Dorman
Office of Public Affairs
202-326-2674

STAFF CONTACT:
Elizabeth Scott or Guy Ward
FTC's Midwest Region
312-960-5634
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MessageSujet: Re: U.S.A, Y'becca, La France, Gordon Pacha and Africa   Mer 21 Sep à 9:13

Synthetic Fentanyl Fueling Surge in Overdose Deaths: CDC
U.S. Surgeon General urges doctors to join the fight against opioid addiction epidemic
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Thursday, August 25, 2016

THURSDAY, Aug. 25, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Deaths from overdoses of the synthetic narcotic fentanyl have surged in recent years, U.S. health officials say in a troubling new report.

As more fentanyl was sold illegally on the streets, the number of fatal overdoses jumped 79 percent in 27 states from 2013 to 2014, the government report found, while law enforcement seizures of the drug increased 426 percent in eight of those 27 states.

"Fentanyl is a powerful opioid that is 50 to 100 times more potent than morphine, and it is available by prescription, but evidence indicates that illicitly made fentanyl is more likely a powder mixed with heroin and or sold as heroin," said report author R. Matthew Gladden. He's a behavioral scientist at the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

The fentanyl crisis is being driven by products made illegally, not by the diversion of prescription fentanyl, Gladden noted.

Recently, the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration reported that synthetic fentanyl was showing up mixed with prescription narcotic painkillers, and "this is a new and emerging threat," Gladden said.

Most of the victims of these overdoses were men and those aged 15 to 44, the researchers reported.

Eight states from the 27 studied were more dramatically affected than the others: Massachusetts, Maine, New Hampshire, Ohio, Florida, Kentucky, Maryland and North Carolina.

In those states, the synthetic opioid death rate (mostly fentanyl) jumped 174 percent during 2013-2014, the researchers said.

In addition, seven states reported an increase of more than 100 deaths in 2013-2014 tied to synthetic opioids (mostly fentanyl), the authors said.

The report was published Aug. 26 in the CDC's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

"The sharp increase in overdose deaths indicates a need for an urgent response, not just in the states that are currently impacted but in other states, because the problem seems to be spreading and taking on new dimensions," Gladden said.

For example, heroin spiked with fentanyl may be responsible for 75 overdoses in Indiana and Ohio since last Friday. More than 30 overdoses occurred in Cincinnati last weekend, with 33 more overdoses -- including one death -- in the city since Tuesday. Authorities responded to 14 overdoses -- including one death -- late Tuesday and early Wednesday in Jennings County, Ind., USA Today reported.

But one expert noted even more deadly compounds might have been added to those drugs.

"It's likely that the heroin being distributed on the streets in the recent string of overdoses in Cincinnati may have contained such illicitly manufactured compounds as carfentanil and a drug known as W-18," said Dr. Robert Glatter. He's an emergency physician at Lenox Hill Hospital in New York City.

Both compounds are most likely manufactured in China and sold online to dealers in the United States, who use them to produce the heroin and fake Oxycontin pills they sell on the street, he said.

Carfentanil, which is used as an elephant tranquilizer, and W-18 are nearly 10,000 times more potent than morphine, he noted. And W-18 is almost 100 times more potent than fentanyl, Glatter added.

"People who buy heroin from dealers on the street may not even be aware that they are taking the drug," he said. "Dealers often cut their heroin with such synthetic drugs to make their supply last longer, while also making it more potent."

In a separate MMWR report, researchers honed in on Florida and Ohio. In Florida, drug seizures rose 494 percent, and deaths rose 115 percent. In Ohio, they rose by 1,043 percent and 526 percent, respectively.

According to Gladden, a multi-pronged approach is needed to quell the fentanyl epidemic.

"We need to get information about these overdoses, so we can respond faster with more knowledge," he said.

In addition, availability of naloxone (Narcan), which can reverse the effects of a narcotic overdose, has to be increased, "so people can get treatment as quick as possible to save their lives," Gladden said.

However, fentanyl is so toxic that a single dose of naloxone might not be enough to reverse an overdose, so patients or bystanders should call 911 in the event of an overdose, he said.

Gladden believes doctors need to be cautious about prescribing narcotics for pain, because it's important to prevent abuse and addiction in the first place.

U.S. Surgeon General Dr. Vivek Murthy is also hoping to prevent addiction from occurring. For the first time ever, the Surgeon General is sending a letter to all practicing physicians in the country urging them to educate themselves on the safer prescribing of opioid painkillers to lessen the risk of addiction.

"We arrived at this place on a path paved with good intentions. Nearly two decades ago, we were encouraged to be more aggressive about treating pain, often without enough training and support to do so safely," Murthy wrote.

"Many of us were even taught -- incorrectly -- that opioids are not addictive when prescribed for legitimate pain," Murthy said. "The results have been devastating."

SOURCES: R. Matthew Gladden, Ph.D., behavioral scientist, U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; Robert Glatter, M.D., emergency physician, Lenox Hill Hospital, New York City; Harshal Kirane, M.D., director, addiction services, Staten Island University Hospital, New York City; USA Today; Vivek Murthy, M.D., U.S. Surgeon General; Aug. 26, 2016, Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
HealthDay
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News stories are provided by HealthDay and do not reflect the views of MedlinePlus, the National Library of Medicine, the National Institutes of Health, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, or federal policy.

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MessageSujet: Re: U.S.A, Y'becca, La France, Gordon Pacha and Africa   Mer 21 Sep à 9:18

Many Teens 'Vaping' for Flavor, Not Nicotine
Study found that only about a fifth of 12th graders who used an e-cigarette used a nicotine substance
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By Robert Preidt
Thursday, August 25, 2016
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THURSDAY, Aug. 25, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Why are American teens tempted to try an e-cigarette? A new study suggests most are interested in the vaping product's flavoring, not nicotine.

A team led by Richard Miech, of the University of Michigan's Institute for Social Research, tracked the responses of nearly 15,000 students who took part in a 2015 U.S. nationwide survey.

More than 3,800 of the students -- who were in grades 8, 10 and 12 -- said they had used e-cigarettes at some point.

Of those who had used e-cigarettes within the past month, more than 1,700 had done so at least once; nearly 1,100 had done so up to five times; and more than 600 had done so more than half a dozen times, the findings showed.

Among the students who had ever used e-cigarettes, two-thirds used the device where a non-nicotine, flavored ingredient was used, the survey found.

Nicotine came in at a distant second: Used by 13 percent of 8th graders, 20 percent of 10th graders, and 22 percent of 12th graders.

Relatively few of the students tried vaping marijuana -- just 6 percent to 7 percent of all students, the study found.

The findings suggest that efforts to reduce e-cigarette use among young people may fail if they focus on the dangers of nicotine because most teen users do not believe they are using nicotine, according to the researchers.

"These results indicate that while taking into account [e-cigarette] use does indeed increase tobacco/nicotine prevalence, the impact of [e-cigarettes] is likely not as large as might appear by their recent, dramatic increase in use among adolescents," Miech and colleagues wrote.

But one expert in vaping and smoking questioned the findings.

"Although I appreciate the survey results, I question whether the adolescents actually knew for certain that what they were inhaling did or did not contain nicotine," said Patricia Folan. She directs the Center for Tobacco Control at Northwell Health in Great Neck, N.Y.

"There are nearly 500 types of vaping devices and currently the ingredients in these devices are not always known nor do they appear on the product labels," she said. "Consequently, I would have thought that there would be more teens reporting that they did not know what substances they were vaping."

Folan also believes that there's no "harmless" e-cigarette.

"Even without nicotine, inhaled products that contain flavorings can be damaging to the lung tissue and would not be considered safe for adolescents or adults," she said.

The study was published online Aug. 25 in the journal Tobacco Control.

SOURCES: Patricia Folan, D.N.P., director, Center for Tobacco Control, Northwell Health, Great Neck, N.Y.; Tobacco Control, news release, Aug. 25, 2016
HealthDay
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News stories are provided by HealthDay and do not reflect the views of MedlinePlus, the National Library of Medicine, the National Institutes of Health, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, or federal policy.

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MessageSujet: Re: U.S.A, Y'becca, La France, Gordon Pacha and Africa   Mer 21 Sep à 9:23

'Pretend Mommy' Program Doesn't Deter Teen Pregnancy
Schools should think twice about sending girls home with simulator baby, study suggests
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Thursday, August 25, 2016
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THURSDAY, Aug. 25, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Teens are more, not less, likely to become pregnant if they take part in prevention programs that use lifelike robot babies to demonstrate the realities of motherhood, a new trial shows.

Australian girls given a baby simulator for a weekend were 36 percent more likely to become pregnant during their teenage years, compared to girls in a control group who only received standard health education, researchers found.

"Unfortunately, and surprising for us, the intervention definitely didn't work. It seemed to increase the pregnancy rate," said study author Sally Brinkman, an associate professor with the University of Western Australia.

Overall, the live birth rate was double for girls who participated in the infant simulator program -- 8 percent compared with 4 percent for the control group, researchers found.

The baby simulator program also appeared to convince girls to give birth rather than seek an abortion once they became pregnant, Brinkman said.

About 54 percent of the pretend mommies opted for abortion after they became pregnant, compared with 60 percent of girls in the control group.

These results run counter to the intention of the program, which has been implemented in as many as 89 countries worldwide. It should make school districts think twice about employing baby simulators in their pregnancy prevention efforts, Brinkman said.

The robot babies are designed to "put students off" the idea of pregnancy by providing a realistic simulation of motherhood, she said.

"They are extremely life-like," Brinkman said. "You have to change their [diapers]. You have to breast-feed them. They cry a lot, right through the night. They're programmed to act like a 6-week-old baby."

For this study, more than 1,260 girls aged 13 to 15 in the Perth, Australia metropolitan area took a six-day pregnancy prevention class that included taking home the baby simulator for a weekend. Another 1,567 girls participated in the control group and received standard health education.

Researchers followed the girls until age 20 to see how many would become pregnant, and whether they would give birth or choose an abortion.

About 17 percent of the baby simulator group became pregnant during their teen years. By comparison, only 11 percent of the control group became pregnant, according to findings published Aug. 25 in The Lancet.

The baby simulators tend to attract a lot of attention, which might blunt the intended message and instead make having a baby seem attractive, Brinkman said.

"It became quite a family thing to look after the baby simulators. There was quite a bit of positive attention as such," she said.

The program also might have failed because the girls didn't have the robot babies long enough to make an impact, Brinkman said.

Based on what's known about the developing teenage brain, it's very likely that girls caring for a baby simulator would come to the "counterintuitive" conclusion that motherhood might be easy and fun, said Bill Albert, chief program officer of the National Campaign to Prevent Teen and Unplanned Pregnancy in Washington, D.C.

"We know through brain research that the part of the teenage brain that is still in high development is the prefrontal cortex, which is the part of your brain that helps you understand future consequences," Albert said.

Teenagers might find it difficult to care for a simulated baby, but they won't necessarily make the connection between that and the even tougher task of raising their own live baby, he said.

"For some teenagers, they actually believe that the simulated baby has to be more challenging than a real baby would be," Albert said.

Teen pregnancy rates have declined significantly over the past two decades in the United States, falling to 24.2 births per 1,000 in 2014, according to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

Albert attributes the decline to teenagers having less sex and using good forms of contraception when they do, including low-maintenance and highly effective methods like IUDs and birth control implants.

Positive peer influence also plays a role, driven in part by MTV shows such as "16 and Pregnant" or "Teen Mom" that show the true challenges of teen motherhood, Albert added.

"Young people tell us over and over again that they see these shows as cautionary tales," he said. "They see them as more sobering than salacious."

SOURCES: Sally Brinkman, Ph.D., associate professor, University of Western Australia; Bill Albert, chief program officer, National Campaign to Prevent Teen and Unplanned Pregnancy, Washington, D.C.; Aug. 25, 2016, The Lancet
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MessageSujet: Re: U.S.A, Y'becca, La France, Gordon Pacha and Africa   Mer 21 Sep à 9:35

Autism-Linked Genes Often Differ Between Siblings
Findings suggest developmental disorder's causes may be even more complex
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Thursday, August 25, 2016
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THURSDAY, Aug. 25, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- In families that have more than one child with autism, the gene variations underlying each child's disorder often differ, new research shows.

Researchers have long known that autism is a complex disorder. Experts have suspected that the development of autism involves both genetic susceptibility and environmental exposures that aren't yet fully understood.

Now the new study suggests the genetic component is even more complicated than previously thought.

"The genetic risk for autism is extremely complex," said lead researcher Dr. Daniel Geschwind. He is a professor of human genetics at the David Geffen School of Medicine at University of California, Los Angeles.

"Even in 'multiplex' families [where more than one child has autism], it's not as obvious as thought," he said.

In general, experts believe that certain circumstances need to be in place for children to develop autism: a genetic susceptibility, coupled with some kind of environmental stressor during a critical period of brain development.

Many gene variants have been linked to autism risk, and studies have suggested some environmental culprits -- such as low birth weight, certain infections during pregnancy and prenatal exposure to heavy air pollution and pesticides, according to the nonprofit organization Autism Speaks.

The evidence that genes are critical in autism comes, in part, from studies of families. When parents have a child with autism, they have about a one-in-five chance of having a second child affected, a previous study in the journal Pediatrics found.

It's reasonable to expect that those two siblings would share the same autism-linked genes, Geschwind said. But that's not what his team found.

The study included over 1,500 families with at least one child who had autism. In the majority, more than one sibling was affected.

The researchers focused on gene alterations known as copy-number variants (CNVs), which involve gains or losses of normal DNA. CNVs can be inherited from parents, or can manifest for the first time in a child -- because of defects in the sperm or egg from which he or she was conceived.

A number of CNVs have been linked to autism risk. In this study, Geschwind's team found that in families with more than one child with autism, inherited CNVs played a bigger role in autism risk than non-inherited versions.

That's not surprising, according to Geschwind. What was surprising, he said, is that when one child had a CNV known to be linked to autism, his or her siblings usually did not have that same gene variant.

Why would that be? Geschwind said it's possible that in some families, "lightning does indeed strike twice." That is, a second child develops a non-inherited CNV that raises the risk of autism.

But a more likely explanation, Geschwind said, is this: Siblings who lack the inherited CNV of their brother or sister may have other, harder-to-pinpoint genetic factors -- such as inherited variations in a wide number of genes.

It's unlikely, according to Geschwind, that environmental factors would explain the clustering of autism in these multiplex families. "The chances of a non-genetic factor happening across several pregnancies is low," he said.

According to Dr. Andrew Adesman, chief of developmental and behavioral pediatrics at Cohen Children's Medical Center in New Hyde Park, N.Y., "It has often been said that autism is a riddle, wrapped in a mystery, inside an enigma."

Adesman, who wasn't involved in the study, said the findings offer "helpful but limited insights" into the genetics underlying autism.

Right now, it's possible to test babies and young children for certain gene variants that are linked to autism -- because they either have signs of developmental problems or have an older sibling with autism.

However, Adesman said, at this point, doctors are able to pinpoint culprit genes in only a minority of cases.

Geschwind said that his team's findings underscore the complexity of current "genetic counseling" for autism: Even if you can tell parents of a child with autism that their second child isn't carrying the same risk gene, that is no guarantee the child won't develop autism.

The long-range hope, Geschwind said, is that a deeper understanding of autism's genetics will eventually help doctors give more precise diagnoses than "autism spectrum disorder" -- which ranges broadly in severity and symptoms.

"We hope," Geschwind said, "that we can eventually say, you have this form of autism, and it has this prognosis, and this is the best therapeutic approach."

The study was published Aug. 25 in the American Journal of Human Genetics.

SOURCES: Daniel Geschwind, M.D., Ph.D., professor, human genetics, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles; Andrew Adesman, M.D., chief, developmental and behavioral pediatrics, Cohen Children's Medical Center, New Hyde Park, N.Y.; Aug. 25, 2016, American Journal of Human Genetics
HealthDay
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MessageSujet: Re: U.S.A, Y'becca, La France, Gordon Pacha and Africa   Mer 21 Sep à 9:48

Animal Research Yields Clues to Sexual Spread of Zika
Researchers think vaginal fluid may be ideal breeding ground for the virus, which can cause fetal brain damage
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By Robert Preidt
Thursday, August 25, 2016
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THURSDAY, Aug. 25, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- New research in mice may offer insight into how the Zika virus is transmitted sexually and affects a fetus.

People typically get the virus through the bite of an infected mosquito, although Zika can also be spread through sex.

Since the Zika outbreak began last year in Brazil, thousands of babies whose mothers were infected with Zika early in pregnancy have been born with a devastating birth defect known as microcephaly, in which the head and brain are abnormally small.

To learn more about sexual transmission of Zika and how that might affect fetal development, scientists used mice to study vaginal Zika infection. Their findings were published Aug. 25 in the journal Cell.

"The Zika virus appears to have a niche within the vagina," study senior author Akiko Iwasaki, an immunobiologist at Yale University, said in a journal news release. "We see from our model that it's a place where the virus can replicate for an extended period of time, and in pregnant mice vaginal infection can lead to brain infection of the fetus and growth restriction."

Mice typically don't get sick from Zika, so the researchers bred mice that were genetically vulnerable to the virus. But even in normal mice, Zika was able to survive and replicate in the vagina for several days.

"That's the most surprising finding of this study," Iwasaki said.

When normal pregnant mice were vaginally infected with Zika, their fetuses developed more slowly and had the infection in their brains. In the mice bred to be vulnerable to Zika, the virus increased uncontrollably in the fetus and caused spontaneous abortions.

"The fact that a sexually transmitted virus can end up in the brain of the fetus is worrisome. We're investigating this rigorously," Iwasaki said.

Researchers are also investigating ways to block Zika in the vagina.

"We're cautious about any conclusions regarding human transmission at this point, but the vagina may be a place, in addition to the testes, where the Zika virus can replicate for an extended period of time," Iwasaki said.

"We need to be careful about advising the public about sexual exposure with infected women. This study adds a piece to the puzzle in terms of the vagina as a site for virus replication -- vaginal secretions may be a reservoir for the Zika virus in humans, but this requires more investigation," she added.

SOURCE: Cell, news release, Aug. 25, 2016
HealthDay
Copyright (c) 2016 HealthDay. All rights reserved.
News stories are provided by HealthDay and do not reflect the views of MedlinePlus, the National Library of Medicine, the National Institutes of Health, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, or federal policy.

and

Coffee Cravings May Spring From Your DNA
Genes appear to influence how much caffeine you need, researchers find
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By Robert Preidt
Thursday, August 25, 2016
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THURSDAY, Aug. 25, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Anybody up for a steaming cup of Joe? Turns out your DNA may hold the answer.

New research suggests that your genes influence how much coffee you drink.

Researchers analyzed genetic data from more than 1,200 people in Italy, who were asked how much coffee they drank each day.

Those with a gene variant called PDSS2 drank one cup less a day on average than those without the variation, the investigators found.

Research involving more than 1,700 people in the Netherlands yielded similar findings, according to the study authors.

The findings suggest that PDSS2 reduces cells' ability to break down caffeine. That means it stays in the body longer.

The upshot: People with the gene variant don't need as much coffee to get the same caffeine hit as those without it, the researchers said.

"The results of our study add to existing research suggesting that our drive to drink coffee may be embedded in our genes," said study author Nicola Pirastu. He is a chancellor's fellow at the University of Edinburgh in Scotland.

"We need to do larger studies to confirm the discovery and also to clarify the biological link between PDSS2 and coffee consumption," Pirastu added in a university news release.

The study findings were published Aug. 25 in the journal Scientific Reports.

SOURCE: University of Edinburgh, news release, Aug. 25, 2016
HealthDay
Copyright (c) 2016 HealthDay. All rights reserved.
News stories are provided by HealthDay and do not reflect the views of MedlinePlus, the National Library of Medicine, the National Institutes of Health, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, or federal policy.
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MessageSujet: Re: U.S.A, Y'becca, La France, Gordon Pacha and Africa   Mer 21 Sep à 9:52

Serious Heart Problem a Family Matter
If a relative has had an aortic dissection, you could too, study says
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By Robert Preidt
Thursday, August 25, 2016
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THURSDAY, Aug. 25, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- A potentially deadly heart problem can run in families and occur at similar ages, a new study suggests.

An aortic dissection is a sudden tear in one of the body's main arteries. "Family history is very important and is one factor in our 'guilt by association paradigm' for identifying patients at risk," said study co-author Dr. John Elefteriades, of the Aortic Institute at Yale-New Haven Hospital in Connecticut.

Researchers reviewed the family histories of 90 people treated for an aortic dissection. Among those cases, more than half of those within the same families occurred within a 10-year age span. The risk increased within certain age groups, the researchers found.

For instance, when they looked at patients whose aortic dissection occurred between ages 30 and 49, they found that 71 percent of other family members' dissections occurred in that age range. Among patients whose aortic dissection occurred between 60 and 79, they found 80 percent of other family members' dissections occurred after age 50.

The results were published online Aug. 25 in the Annals of Thoracic Surgery.

"If a family member suffered an aortic aneurysm or aortic dissection, chances are at least 1 in 8 that you may experience something similar in the future," Elefteriades said in a journal news release.

These findings allow "us to better appreciate the playbook of aortic dissection. Knowing how dissection operates -- in this case, at what age dissections are likely to occur in a specific family -- permits us to combat it more effectively and save many lives," Elefteriades said.

In many cases, aortic dissection occurs in people with an aortic aneurysm, a balloon-like bulge in the aorta. Each year, a ruptured or dissecting thoracic aortic aneurysm is the primary or contributing cause in more than 15,000 deaths in the United States, according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

However, up to 90 percent of patients with an aortic dissection in the first part of the aorta (ascending aorta) can be saved with emergency surgery. But as many as 40 percent of patients with aortic dissections die instantly, and risk of the death increases 1 percent with every hour that diagnosis and surgical repair are delayed, according to background notes with the study.

"If patients are approaching the age at which one of their family members suffered an aortic dissection, they need to be very vigilant," Elefteriades said. "If patients have aneurysms in their family, get checked. If they have premature sudden death in their family, get checked. If they themselves have an aneurysm, comply with regular follow-up visits."

With many thoracic aortic aneurysms, a full, normal life expectancy can be restored after protective aortic surgery, Elefteriades added.

SOURCE: Annals of Thoracic Surgery, news release, Aug. 25, 2016
HealthDay
Copyright (c) 2016 HealthDay. All rights reserved.
News stories are provided by HealthDay and do not reflect the views of MedlinePlus, the National Library of Medicine, the National Institutes of Health, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, or federal policy.

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MessageSujet: Re: U.S.A, Y'becca, La France, Gordon Pacha and Africa   Mer 21 Sep à 9:53

Processus de Paix des secouristes de la république de l'Olivier.

Je crois qu'à l'avenir, plus personne ne pourra recréer des bulles d'exclusions...
Pour cela, je ne peux me permettre de mettre à l'écart tout individu(e) et "État".

Je ne suis qu'une femme ou un homme humble qui en vous adressant ces ces vers,
espère qu'il puisse vous conduire vers l'expérience, le travail et la communauté...
La solitude augmente ou diminue le nervosité... Cela s'appelle le malheur...

Alors par décision, on recherche à se tranquilliser et remettre la balance sur le zéro;
alors par construction, on décèle la notion d'une fragile tolérance:
Celle d'insulter !

Par Yahvé, cela est une horreur et une erreur...

La République de l'Olivier dit :
"Oui à la gréve, Non à l'Esclavage..."
la constitution rajoute :
"Oui à la Bibliothèque et Non à la Faim."
et le peuple doit rajouter :
"Oui à l'écoute et Non aux viols physiques et moraux."

Alors le Novice du Secourisme prends en charge sa nouvelle fonction autre qu'un service
militaire mais basé aussi sur la protection du Bien et du Corps.

"Je suis Y'becca"

Ecrit de
TAY
La chouette effraie.
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MessageSujet: Re: U.S.A, Y'becca, La France, Gordon Pacha and Africa   Mer 21 Sep à 9:57

La déchéance du père goriot - Poéme
Poéme / Poémes d'Honoré de Balzac

Vers la fin de la troisième année, le père
Goriot réduisit encore ses dépenses, en montant au troisième étage et en se mettant à quarante-cinq francs de pension par mois.
Il se passa de tabac, congédia son perruquier et ne mit plus de poudre.
Quand le père
Goriot parut pour la première fois sans être poudré, son hôtesse laissa échapper une exclamation de surprise en apercevant la couleur de ses cheveux : ils étaient d'un gris sale et ver-dâtre.
Sa physionomie, que des chagrins secrets avaient insensiblement rendue plus triste de jour en jour, semblait la plus désolée de toutes celles qui garnissaient la table.
Quand son trousseau fut usé, il acheta du calicot à quatorze sous l'aune pour remplacer son beau linge.
Ses diamants, sa tabatière d'or, sa chaîne, ses bijoux disparurent un à un.
Il avait quitté l'habit bleu barbeau, tout son costume cossu, pour porter, été comme hiver, une redingote de drap marron grossier, un gilet en poil de chèvre et un pantalon gris en cuir de laine.
Il devint progressivement maigre ; ses mollets tombèrent ; sa figure, bouffie par le contentement d'un bonheur bourgeois, se rida démesurément ; son front se plissa, sa mâchoire se dessina.



Durant la quatrième année de son établissement rue
Neuve-Sainte-Geneviève, il ne se ressemblait plus.
Le bon vermicelier de soixante-deux ans qui ne paraissait pas en avoir quarante, le bourgeois gros et gras, frais de bêtise, dont la tenue égrillarde réjouissait les passants, qui avait quelque chose de jeune dans le sourire, semblait être un septuagénaire hébété, vacillant, blafard.
Ses yeux bleus si vivaces prirent des teintes ternes et gris-de-fer ; ils avaient pâli, ne larmoyaient plus, et leur bordure rouge semblait pleurer du sang.
Aux uns il faisait horreur ; aux autres il faisait pitié.
De jeunes étudiants en médecine, ayant remarqué l'abaissement de sa lèvre inférieure et mesuré le sommet de son angle facial, le déclarèrent atteint de crétinisme, après l'avoir longtemps houspillé sans en rien tirer.
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MessageSujet: Re: U.S.A, Y'becca, La France, Gordon Pacha and Africa   Mer 21 Sep à 9:59

Arthur Rimbaud
Poet Details
1854–1891


It would be difficult to overestimate the influence of Arthur Rimbaud’s poetry on subsequent practitioners of the genre. His impact on the Surrealist movement has been widely acknowledged, and a host of poets, from André Breton to André Freynaud, have recognized their indebtedness to Rimbaud’s vision and technique. He was the enfant terrible of French poetry in the second half of the nineteenth century and a major figure in symbolism.

Jean-Nicolas-Arthur Rimbaud was born in Charleville in northeastern France on 20 October 1854, the second son of an army captain, Frédéric Rimbaud, and Marie-Cathérine-Vitalie Rimbaud, née Cuif. He had an older brother, Frédéric, born in 1853, and two younger sisters: Vitalie, born in 1858, and Isabelle, born in 1860. The father was absent during most of Rimbaud’s childhood. Rimbaud’s difficult relationship with his authoritarian mother is reflected in many of his early poems, such as “Les Poètes de sept ans” (The Seven-Year-Old Poets, 1871). Rimbaud’s mother was a devout Christian, and Rimbaud associated her with many of the values that he rejected: conventional religious belief and practice, the principles of hard work and scholarly endeavor, patriotism, and social snobbery.

In 1870-1871 Rimbaud ran away from home three times. The outbreak of the Franco-Prussian War in July 1870 led to the closing of his school, the Collège de Charleville, ending Rimbaud’s formal education. In August he went to Paris but was arrested at the train station for traveling without a ticket and was briefly imprisoned. He spent several months wandering in France and Belgium before his mother had him brought home by the police. In February 1871 he ran away again to join the insurgents in the Paris Commune; he returned home three weeks later, just before the Commune was brutally suppressed by the army. During this time he was developing his own poetic style and elaborating his theory of voyance, a visionary program in which the poetic process becomes the vehicle for exploration of other realities. This theory is expressed in his much-quoted letters of 13 May 1871 to his friend and tutor, Georges Izambard, and of 15 May 1871 to Paul Demeny. Rimbaud still felt drawn to Paris, where he might encounter the leading poets of the day—Théodore de Banville, Charles Cros, and Paul Verlaine. His letter to Verlaine in September 1871, which included samples of his poetry, elicited the reply, “Venez, chère grande âme, on vous appelle, on vous attend” (Come, great and dear soul, we are calling out to you, we are awaiting you). Rimbaud arrived in Paris in September and moved in with Verlaine and Verlaine’s wife, Mathilde Mauté. A homosexual relationship developed between Rimbaud and Verlaine, causing Verlaine’s marriage to become increasingly unstable.

Rimbaud’s early poems, the Poésies, were written between 1869 and 1872 and published by Verlaine in 1895. They are, superficially, his most orthodox works in technical terms. Closer inspection, however, reveals in them many indicators of a precocious poet setting out “trouver une langue” (to find a language), as he said in the letter of 15 May 1871, and, ultimately, to revolutionize the genre. In thematic terms, the Poésies exhibit virtually all of the subjects and preoccupations usually associated with Rimbaud. “Le Mal” (Evil) and “Le Dormeur de val” (The Sleeper in the Valley) illustrate the absurdity of war; “Le Châtiment de Tartufe” (The Punishment of Tartuffe) represents Molière’s eponymous impostor in sonnet form as the epitome of hypocrisy; “Au Cabaret-vert” (At the Green Tavern), “La Maline” (The Cunning One), and “Ma Bohème” (My Bohemian Existence) celebrate the physical joys of the bohemian lifestyle as an alternative to the moral rectitude of bourgeois existence. In “A la musique” (To Music) Rimbaud revels in his cherished role of observer as he satirizes the bourgeoisie through the technique of grotesque caricature. “Les Effarés” (The Frightened Ones) reveals both his humorous, cartoonlike presentation of figures on the margins of conventional society—in this case, five Christlike children peering into a bakery—and his social conscience as a commentator on exclusion, poverty, and hunger. “Oraison du soir” (Evening Prayer) shows his anti-Christian venom and his desire to shock and outrage accepted ideas of good taste by depicting himself as a rebellious angel who urinates skyward in a blasphemous gesture of defiance against his Creator.

The Poésies, however, also display Rimbaud’s urge to extend the poetic idiom, to transcend the strictures and constraints of orthodox verse and to take poetry on an audacious journey into previously unsuspected technical and visionary realms. In this respect the Poésies anticipate Rimbaud’s more fascinating later work and his profound impact both on the poetry of his own time and on that of the twentieth century. In the 15 May 1871 letter he says that “Viendront d’autres horribles travailleurs” (Other horrible workers will come along)—a prophetic assertion of his role as initiator of a process that would continue long after he himself had ceased writing.

The lengthy “Les Poètes de sept ans” combines many of Rimbaud’s thematic preoccupations but also intimates the technical, linguistic, and visionary release that became a concomitant of his celebrated revolt. In the opening lines he establishes an opposition between the repressive mother and the disaffected seven-year-old boy who outwardly complies with her dictates but is inwardly seething with disdain: “l’âme de son enfant livrée aux répugnances” (the soul of her child riddled with disgust). The child leads a double life that involves a superficial deference to material strictures and a secret other existence in which he gravitates to locations, confederates, and activities that would be anathema to the society embodied in the mother:

L’été
Surtout, vaincu, stupide, il était entêté
A se renfermer dans la fraîcheur des latrines:
Il pensait là, tranquille et livrant ses narines.

(In summer,
especially, stupid, he persisted
In locking himself up in the latrines
Where he reflected in peace, inhaling deeply.)

Rimbaud is quite self-conscious in his choice of “distasteful” vocabulary, such as “latrines”; integral to his poetic credo was the principle that the sacred cows of traditional verse, such as the concept of “poetic” and “nonpoetic” terminology, needed to be challenged. The child-poet seeks out the mud as both a symbol of his rejection of the bourgeois totem of cleanliness and an indicator of his preference for the basic stuff of the natural environment. He consorts with the filthy ragamuffins of the district in an instinctive rejection of his mother’s social stuffiness and a desire to find companionship among the outcasts of society; thus, the use of the plural Les Poètes in the poem’s title is vindicated. The child most dreads the Christian Sabbath and Bible-reading; this negative reaction is balanced by his positive response to the working men of the district.

The most important elements of “Les Poètes de sept ans” are in the middle and later sections, where Rimbaud explores the visionary activities of the child-poet—activities conducted far from the watchful gaze of the parent that constitute a different, other life. One is reminded of the emphasis in the two May 1871 letters on the self as other—”Je est un autre” (I is an other)—and how these letters map out the function of the poet as medium between everyday reality and a hitherto unexplored “ailleurs” (elsewhere). The seven-year-old poet uses exotic journals to assist him in conjuring up new worlds:

A sept ans, il faisait des romans, sur la vie
Du grand désert, où luit la Liberté ravie,
Forêts, soleils, rives, savanes!—

(At the age of seven, he composed fictions about life
In the vast desert, where luminous Liberty lies in her abduction,
Forests, sun, riverbanks, savanna!—)

In the finale of the poem the child has retreated to the privacy of his room, blinds drawn to create an intense and intimate atmosphere. Here the scene is set for an imaginative flight triggered by “son roman sans cesse médité” (his endlessly considered novel), and the concluding six lines evoke a surreal landscape. The life of the neighborhood goes on below, acting as a counterpoint to the novelty of the inner world being explored by the child, a world with “lourd ciels ocreux” (heavy ochre skies) and “forêts noyées” (drowned forests). In the last words of the poem, “pressentant violemment la voile” (having a violent premonition of the sail), the image of anticipated sea voyages is related to the visionary and linguistic adventure that emerges in “Le Bateau ivre” (translated as “The Drunken Boat,” 1931) and that represents the quintessential Rimbaud of the later prose poetry.

Many of the later poems of the Poésies prefigure Rimbaud’s subsequent experimentation with language. The 15 May 1871 letter to Demeny combines Rimbaud’s visionary program with a linguistic agenda and indicts a whole tradition of French verse, from Jean Racine to the Romantics, with only Charles-Pierre Baudelaire and, to a lesser extent, Victor Hugo escaping criticism. Rimbaud’s search for a universal language is a defining feature of his work and is particularly manifest in “Voyelles” (1884; translated as “Vowel Sonnet,” 1931), “Ce qu’on dit au poète à propos de fleurs” (What the poet is told about flowers), and “Le Bateau ivre” (1871-1872). The very idea of coloring the vowels, of composing a poem from their subjective associations, speaks volumes for Rimbaud’s involvement with the minutiae of language and for his desire to challenge and reconstruct accepted idioms. The title “Ce qu’on dit au poète à propos de fleurs” is an audacious challenge to established poets; the piece mocks the inanities of Romantic commonplaces, deriding current practitioners as faroeur (jokesters) and outlining a new agenda for them as jongleurs (tricksters) conjuring up unsuspected visions. And “Le Bateau ivre,” which is well known for its concatenation of dazzling imagery, is just as memorable for its linguistic inventiveness.

In March 1872 Rimbaud returned to Charleville to allow the Verlaines a chance to reconcile. During this period he wrote the Derniers Vers (Last Verses), which were published in La Vogue in 1886, highly experimental verse poems that are heavily influenced by Verlaine’s style. Verlaine’s poetry is characterized by a wistful tenderness, the muted evocation of landscape and character, the half-light of in-between states, a refusal of all that is aggressively stated or depicted, and above all by musicality. In the Derniers Vers Rimbaud adopts many of these technical features but allies them to unusual images and a dense conceptual content. The outcome is a strange blend of ostensible levity and musical airiness with weighty thematic elements, elements that are all the more intriguing for being conveyed in such apparently incongruous forms. All of this represents a major stride away from the poetry of the Poésies, where one finds many conventional features, and a retrospective view from the vantage point of the later prose poetry enables one to identify the Derniers Vers as a key phase in Rimbaud’s rejection of orthodox verse, his abandonment of rhyme, and his evolution toward a more supple, less constricted form. That such is the case is confirmed in “Délires II” (Delirium II), a section of Une Saison en enfer (1873; translated as “A Season in Hell,” 1931) where Rimbaud looks back on the Derniers Vers, ironically and affectionately repeats some of the poems, and ambivalently sees them as “L’histoire d’une de mes folies” (the account of one of my follies) and as a stage in the process of the “alchimie du verbe” (alchemy of the word), the creation of a new poetic language.

One is immediately struck by the almost surreal quality of “Larme” (Tear), the opening piece in Derniers Vers. The first words, “Loin des . . . “ (Far from . . . ), suggest a pressing need for the poet to separate himself from the trite and the commonplace. This escape is facilitated by an obscure potion, a golden liqueur that opens up a fantastic landscape presided over by an “orage” (storm), where the elements are liberated to generate a chaos that will slake the poet’s metaphysical thirst. The poem “Comédie de la soif “ (Comedy of Thirst) suggests in its five-part structure the influence of the five acts of classical tragedy, as well as having a distinctly operatic flavor. In parts one through three the “Moi “ (Me) curtly rejects the overtures and solicitous attentions of family, friends, and “L’Esprit” (The Spirit), preferring to indulge in a death wish and the kind of landscape seen in “Larme” rather than accept their offer of a conventional life in familiar surroundings with banal occupations. Parts four and five afford the Moi some moments of recuperative calm in which to plot an alternative future course and anticipate dissolution in nature. “Comédie de la soif “ is particularly musical; the slenderness of its lines in parts one through four gives an impression of levity that is belied by its thematic content, and there is a marked sense of understatedness throughout. But the superficial lightness and musical simplicity of the poem are wedded to a linguistic concentration and intensity that repays endless revisiting.

Just as this poem advertises itself as a “comédie,” so ”Chanson de la plus haute tour” (Song of the Highest Tower) draws attention to itself as musically inspired. The narrowness of the lines on the page calls to mind the architecture of the tower where the poet has imaginatively secluded himself. The six lines of the opening stanza are repeated verbatim in the closing stanza, creating the effect of a chorus with the poem closing on itself. The poet presents himself as having gone to seed, laments the loss of his youth, and tries to transcend his own anguish in a call for a universal love:

Oisive jeunesse,
A tout asservie,
Par délicatesse
J’ai perdu ma vie.
Ah! Que le temps vienne
Où les coeurs s’éprennent!

(Idle youth,
Subservient to everything,
I have frittered away my life
Through gentleness.
Ah! may the time come
When hearts will meet!)

The immediately following poems, “L’Eternité” (Eternity) and “Age d’or” (Golden Age), have a structure and line length similar to those of “Chanson de la plus haute tour.” “L’Eternité” encapsulates the essence of the Derniers Vers in its engaging musicality, its deceptively slim appearance, and its dense and obscure intellectual foundation. One is especially struck by the original manner in which Rimbaud has brought a musical form usually associated with a simple celebration or a joyous expression of love together with an abstract content replete with terms such as “suffrages” (approbation), “élans” (urges), “Devoir” (Duty), “espérance” (hope), and “supplice” (torture). The effect of this combination is to disorient the reader, for the musicality leads one to expect a text that will be readily intelligible; one is, however, left with a work that compels one to return again and again in search of an elucidation of its central meaning. The simplicity of the opening and closing quatrain—

Elle est retrouvée.
Quoi? -L’Eternité.
C’est la mer allée
Avec le soleil.

(It has been rediscovered.
What? -Eternity.
It’s the sea fused
With the sun.)

—is at odds with the imprecise and abstract nature of the ensuing vocabulary.

While other poems, such as “Fêtes de la faim” (Feasts of Hunger) and “O Saisons, ô châteaux” (Oh Seasons, Oh Castles), share these features, the collection also includes the substantial poem “Qu’est-ce pour nous, mon coeur . . .” (What is it to us, my heart . . . ?) which deals with both sociopolitical upheaval and a private apocalypse; the celebrated complexity of “Mémoire” (Memory), with its rich allusiveness and intricate tapestry of evocations of the past, the self, and the family; and the charming and humorous idiosyncrasies of “Bruxelles” (Brussels), where Rimbaud admires an unusual cityscape and uses it as a bridge to something beyond itself.

In May 1872 Verlaine called Rimbaud back to Paris; in July he deserted his wife and child and went to London with Rimbaud. In April 1873 Rimbaud returned to his family’s farm at Roche, near Charleville, where he began writing Une Saison en enfer. In May 1873 he again accompanied Verlaine to London. After many quarrels and another separation the two men met in July 1873 in Brussels, where Rimbaud tried to break off their relationship. Distraught, Verlaine shot the younger poet in the wrist; at the hospital where Rimbaud was treated, the two claimed that the wound had been inflicted accidentally. The next day the two men were walking down the street when Verlaine reached into his pocket; Rimbaud thought he was about to be shot again and ran to a nearby policeman. The truth about the shooting came out, and Verlaine was sentenced to two years at hard labor in a Belgian prison. While there, he wrote “Crimen amoris” (Crime of Love, 1884), in which Rimbaud is depicted as a radiant but evil angel outlining a new spiritual credo. Meanwhile, Rimbaud returned to the farm in Roche, where he completed Une Saison en enfer.

Even more dramatically than the Derniers Vers, Une Saison en enfer illustrates Rimbaud’s proclivity for reinventing himself and redefining the direction and form of his poetry. No poet is more apt than Rimbaud to slough off one skin and put on another, more easily disillusioned with his most recent artistic endeavors, or readier to experiment with untried forms. The year 1873 thus marks his engagement with prose poetry, although there is still some disagreement concerning the dates of composition of many of the individual prose poems in Les Illuminations (1886; translated as “Illuminations,” 1953). Much of this controversy was generated by the fact that the last of the nine sections of Une Saison en enfer seems to be a definitive farewell to literature, and this, allied to the fact that Rimbaud did abandon his poetic career at an early age, led many commentators to seek a simple and convenient solution by postulating that Une Saison en enfer is his swan song. There is now a consensus, however, that at least some of the poems in Les Illuminations postdate those of Une Saison en enfer and were written in 1874 and possibly 1875. The critical endeavor that has been wasted in the pursuit of a final adjudication on this chronological dispute would have been more constructively spent in examining the texts themselves. Since the mid 1970s, however, this situation has been rectified with excellent studies by critics such as Steve Murphy, Paule Lapeyre, André Guyaux, Nathaniel Wing, Nick Osmond, James Lawler, and Roger Little.

Rimbaud persuaded his mother to pay to have Une Saison en enfer published in Brussels in 1873. It is a diary of the damned that affords insights into his preoccupations and casts light on the artistic inspiration for the Derniers Vers. At the same time, the nine parts of the diary display an utterly new technical direction, and “Délires II” is all the more remarkable for the way it interweaves this new prose style with extracts from the Derniers Vers so that both modes are thrown into dramatically stark relief. Une Saison en enfer is an intensely personal account of private torture and the search for a spiritual and an artistic resolution; a prose style studded with laconic formulae that are also seen in the one-liners of Les Illuminations; a sustained investigation of self, Christianity, and alternative spiritual and poetic options that is frequently lit up by the flare of Rimbaud’s memorable imagery; and a conscious pushing of language to the point of disintegration, so that verbal crisis and personal trauma are perfectly matched.

From the outset Rimbaud engages with abstractions, often personified in a Baudelairean manner: “Un soir, j’ai assis la Beauté sur mes genoux” (One evening, I sat Beauty on my lap), he begins the opening section, showing the irreverence that is a hallmark of his entire output. The death wish already seen in the Derniers Vers and to be repeated in many of the finales of Les Illuminations is also present here. The terse statements “Le malheur a été mon dieu. Je me suis allongé dans la boue” (Misfortune was my god. I stretched out in the mud) anticipates the enigmatic, clipped comments and sibylline quality of many of the prose poems in Les Illuminations. One of the most important sections of Une Saison en enfer follows this brief introductory sequence: “Maivais sang” (Bad Blood) is a sustained investigation into the narrator’s genealogical origins, arriving at the conclusion “J’ai toujours été de race inférieure” (I have always been of substandard stock). One is reminded of the importance of revolt in the early Poésies as the narrative voice seems bent on contravening all received ideas about morality and decency; this unorthodoxy escalates into a full-scale assault on Christian values. “Mauvais sang” registers the wrestling of a tormented soul that initially rebels against Christian teaching and then apparently finds grace and redemption, only to withdraw into a pursuit of fulfillment in the religions of the East or a personal spiritual agenda that is part of the poetic experience. Known above all for his delight in revolting against norms and conventions, Rimbaud impresses on the reader from the start of “Mauvais sang” that he is conscious of his “otherness,” his inability to follow the accepted orthodoxies of Western Christian civilization. He extols “vices” such as idolatry, sloth, and anger; he refuses to comply with the received wisdom that one must work to live (“J’ai horreur de tous les métiers” [I abominate all trades]); and he mocks traditional family and civic values. He traces these characteristics to his earliest ancestry, associating his “bad blood” or “bad stock” with previous lives as a leper or pariah, and he insists on his essential loneliness. He derides the scientific “progress” of the late nineteenth century, rejecting rationalism in favor of an internal spiritual debate. Claiming that “c’est oracle, ce que je dis” (what I say is an oracle), he establishes his own form of mysticism and faith as an alternative to the Christian orthodoxies he had rejected in the Poésies .

The remainder of “Mauvais sang” and the subsequent section, “Nuit de l’enfer” (Night in Hell), pursue the diarist’s spiritual crisis in all its intensity and complexity. Oscillating between salvation and damnation, the poet struggles with his dilemma in an increasingly fractured and tormented style that dramatically reflects his inner trauma. Guyaux has written of Rimbaud’s La Poetique du fragment (fragmentary poetics), a formula that is admirably suited to the tortured style of these pages of unanswered questions, emotionally charged outpourings, lucidly trenchant affirmations of intent that seem unshakable but are almost immediately undermined by another change in direction, and a prose that seems informed by delirium. Seeing himself as a martyr in the line of Joan of Arc, Rimbaud writes “Je n’ai jamais été chrétien” (I have never been a Christian) but soon afterward enters a sequence of contemplative calm in which salvation is enjoyed in dreamlike serenity. At the end of “Mauvais sang” the poet evokes his own extinction as language disintegrates in a proliferation of punctuation marks and linguistic fragments.

The next two sections of Une Saison en enfer share a title—”Délires I” and “Délires II,” the latter of which carries the secondary heading “Alchimie du verbe.” It is generally agreed that “Délires I” is a commentary on Rimbaud’s relationship with Verlaine; it takes the form of a religious confession in which the speaker is the “Vierge folle” (Foolish Virgin), a thinly disguised image of Verlaine, who reflects on “her” stormy affair with the “Epoux infernal” (Infernal Bridegroom), Rimbaud. As well as being another irreverent parody of a religious source, this confession is a highly original form of self-presentation on Rimbaud’s part as he sees himself through the refracted and selective memory of a confederate. The Vierge folle registers her failure to understand the complexities of her Infernal Companion, a blend of compassion and cruelty, innocence and malice, and ideological power and near insanity. This is a love affair in which the older partner is in thrall to the paradoxes and enigmas of the younger one; the relationship is characterized as a messiah leading a disciple, offering new ideas and experiences and then abandoning the weaker partner just when the Vierge is least emotionally prepared for the separation. All of these elements can be linked to the stages in the unfolding relationship between Rimbaud and Verlaine in 1872-1873, but the text is more significant for what it reveals about Rimbaud’s defiance of the norm (“Jamais je ne travaillerai” [I will never work]); his compassion for underdogs such as drunks, children, and outcasts; his ideological fervor (“Je n’aime pas les femmes. L’amour est à réinventer” [I don’t like women. Love must be redefined]); and his need to escape from reality.

“Délires II” has a quite different complexion. It reflects on the genesis of the Derniers Vers, affectionately and ironically recalling the poet’s ambitions and artistic preferences during the earlier period. No fewer than fifteen sources of inspiration are listed at the outset, including obsolete literature, church Latin, fairy tales, and old operas, all of which assist in a quest—now seen as “one of my follies”—to create a new poetic idiom. Linking his predilection for hallucinatory experiences to “l’hallucination des mots” (the hallucination of words), Rimbaud weaves reprises from the Derniers Vers into his new prose style. The reader soon notices his preference for lapidary formulae, which stud not only Une Saison en enfer but Les Illuminations, as well: “Je devins un opéra fabuleux” (I became a fabulous opera); “Je tiens le système” (I hold the system); “La morale est la faiblesse de la cervelle” (Morality is the weakness of the brain).

While sections six and seven of Une Saison en enfer, “L’Impossible” (The Impossible) and “L’Eclair” (Flash), continue the spiritual and philosophical probing of earlier parts of the work, it is the penultimate and final chapters, “Matin” (Morning) and “Adieu” (Farewell), that have attracted the most detailed comment. At the end of “Matin” comes a sense of uplift as the poet anticipates a glorious day of renewal and transformation, a time when an outmoded religious belief will be superseded by a fresh spiritual awakening and the first authentic Noel:

Quand irons-nous, par-delà
les grèves et les monts, saluer la naissance du
travail nouveau, la sagesse nouvelle, la fuite des
tyrans et des démons, la fin de la superstition, adorer
—les premiers!—Noël sur la terre!

(When, beyond the strands
and the mountains, will we hail the advent of the
new toil, the new wisdom, the flight of tyrants and
demons, the end to superstition, adore
—for the first time!—”Christmas” on earth!)

“Adieu” comes at the end of Une Saison en enfer, leading many to see this section as the conclusion not only of the collection but also of Rimbaud’s poetic career. An initial reading of the text lends support to this interpretation, as the poet describes himself as a fallen angel and a writer who must give up the pen and embrace a more prosaic existence, “Une belle gloire d’artiste et de conteur emportée” (A fine glory of an artist and storyteller stripped away). But there is more to “Adieu” than this apparent resignation from the life of an author, as is indicated by another laconic statement: “Il faut être absolument moderne” (We must be utterly modern). It is also noticeable that the concluding paragraphs of “Adieu” are couched in the future tense, which appears to prefigure yet another redefinition of the poet and his mission.

For many critics, Les Illuminations is Rimbaud’s most important and technically sophisticated work. While the collection maintains a clear thematic continuity in many ways with the earlier verse—the idea of revolt, the preeminence accorded to the world of the child, the fascination exerted by the elements, the motif of travel in pursuit of the ideal, and so on—here one is manifestly in the presence of a poet intent on experimentation with new poetic structures, the deployment of unusual and often bizarre terminology, and even an exploration of the creative power of punctuation dynamically reinvented and released from its conventionally subservient role as a prop for language. These and many other ingredients have created a sense of bewilderment in some readers of the poems; the critic Atle Kittang has even referred to the “illisibilité” (unreadability) of the collection. One often associates the poetry of Stéphane Mallarmé with such hermeticism, but it is a significant feature of the critical reception of Les Illuminations that readers have produced such widely divergent interpretations of the poems and that some have declared themselves incapable of arriving at any sustainable reading of given texts. “Parade,” “Matinée d’ivress” (Morning of Drunkenness), “Barbare” (Barbaric), “Fairy,” “H,” and “Dévotion” (Devotion) are some of the poems that have provoked perplexity and a polarization of critical opinion.

Critics such as Osmond and Albert Py have attempted to classify the poems in Les Illuminations; while no definitive labeling is possible—or, perhaps, even desirable—some distinctive groupings can be observed among the forty-two texts. A prominent source of inspiration in all of Rimbaud’s poetry is the fairy tale, which is clearly linked with his preoccupation with the child and the child’s imagination. In Les Illuminations “Conte” (Tale), “Aube” (Dawn), and “Royauté” (Royalty) are obviously based on the structure of the fairy tale. Each poem has a distinctly narrative development, and “Conte” and “Royauté” include regal characters (prince, king, and queen) involved in the pursuit of happiness on a personal or public level. Rimbaud, however, tends to subvert the traditional fairy-tale happy ending by setting up an apparently happy outcome and then destabilizing it. Other poems that might be loosely grouped under a common heading are those that seem to constitute riddles, puzzles, and enigmas. In these poems Rimbaud poses problems for his readers and often uses the finale of the text to tantalize, disconcert, or confuse them. A master of beginnings and endings, he frequently deploys an isolated final line to set a problem or issue a challenge; these final lines are a most original feature of Les Illuminations: “La musique savante manque à notre désir” (We cannot achieve the music and knowledge we crave) in “Conte”; “J’ai seul la clef de cette parade sauvage” (I alone hold the key to this wild procession) in “Parade”; “Voici le temps des Assassins” (This is the era of the Assassins) in “Matinée d’ivresse” ; “C’est aussi simple qu’une phrase musicale” (It is just as simple as a piece of music) in “Guerre” (War); “trouvez Hortense” (find Hortense) in “H.” Other sequences in the collection enhance a sense of mystery and the unknown. For example, in “Enfance III” (Childhood III), “Enfance IV,” “Veillées I” (Vigils I), “Solde” (Sale), and “Fairy” a concatenation of linguistic units bound together by the same linguistic formula perplexes the reader as to just what is being described.

Equally prominent as a motif in Les Illuminations is Rimbaud’s quest for the ideal cityscape in poems such as “Ville” (City), “Villes” (Cities), “Villes II,” and “Métropolitain” (Metropolitan). Whereas “Ville” is a mournful evocation of the soulless existence endured by many in contemporary urban conglomerations, the other texts are characterized by a vitality and exuberance that reflect the poet’s desire to transcend the everyday banality of late-nineteenth-century life and reveal an alternative world of daring new architecture populated by unexpected characters. Thus, the grayness, repetitiveness, and tastelessness of “Ville” is superseded by the enormous proportions of “Villes,” in which a “Nabuchodonsor norwégien” (Norwegian Nebuchadnezzar) is one of the architects of a complex metropolis that goes far beyond anything that London or Paris might offer. Even more dazzling is the vertiginous drama acted out in “Villes II,” where a miscellany of extraordinary figures is set before the mind’s eye to the accompaniment of a stereophonic operatic “score.” This poem gravitates toward the apprehension of some hitherto unattained understanding designated by the expressions “les idées des peuples” (the ideas of the peoples) and “la musique inconnue” (the unknown music). Finally, the opening paragraph of “Métropolitain” evokes a richly colored realm where another complex architectural system—crisscrossing “boulevards de cristal” (crystal boulevards)—is the venue for the emergence of “jeunes familles pauvres” (young poor families), a mysterious constituency of inhabitants whose lifestyle is enthusiastically endorsed by the poet in the words “la ville!”

The pursuit of a new religion is a constant in Rimbaud’s work, but Les Illuminations takes this quest to a new plane. The collection is heavily populated by gods and goddesses of the poet’s invention, including the mysterious Reine (Queen) or Sorcière (Witch) in “Après le déluge” (After the Flood), an enigmatic figure who withholds privileged knowledge from mere mortals; the object of worship in “Being Beauteous,” a poem with many Baudelairean connections; the Génie in the poem of that title, who also appears in “Conte” as a key player in the Prince’s creative rampage; the “idole” (idol) in “ Enfance I”; the goddess pursued by the poet in “Aube” ; the spirit referred to in “A une raison” (To a Reason); and Elle (She), who appears in both “Angoisse” (Anguish) and “Métropolitain.” “Après le déluge,” the first poem in the collection, harks back to the deluge in the Old Testament to evoke new floods that might cleanse the earth again; in “Enfance IV,” in a litany of self-definitions, the poet writes “Je suis le saint, en prière sur la terrasse” (I am the saint, praying on the terrace) and links this identity to the sea of Palestine; in the first part of “Vies” (Lives) he refers to a “brahmane” (Brahman) who explained the Book of Proverbs to him; and “Matinée d’ivresse” is predicated on the imperative to supersede the tired Christian opposition of good and evil and to develop a new religious faith.

The persona of traveler is one of Rimbaud’s preferred identities, and the motif of the journey is a central element in such works as “Le Bateau ivre.” In Les Illuminations this motif is reconstituted and reinvented in a variety of ways. The “piéton de la grand’route par les bois nains” (traveler on the highway amid dwarfish forests) in “Enfance IV” anticipates the nomadic tendency that leads the prince on his pilgrimage in “Conte,” stimulates the boy to pursue the goddess in “Aube,” and prompts the brief text “Départ” (Departure) as a celebration of the dynamic and the shifting over the static and the familiar. Other examples include the wandering poet and his bizarre confederate Henrika drifting on the fringes of an industrial city but desirous of an “autre monde” (other world) in “Ouvriers” (Workers); the circus troupe on the move in “Ornières” (Ruts); and the wretched couple in “Vagabonds,” wandering in search of “le lieu et la formule” (the place and the formula). In poems such as “Nocturne vulgaire” (Ordinary Nocturne) and “Barbare” Rimbaud depicts imaginative voyages or drug-induced “trips” that take him and the reader to the further limits of the psyche. In “Nocturne vulgaire” the reader is taken on a highly unusual journey that involves a destabilizing of the contours of the known world as a prelude to a departure in a “carrosse” (carriage) that transports the poet to an “ailleurs” that proves to be trite and unsatisfactory. Then a flood of green and blue abruptly curtails the journey in the carriage and permits a much more satisfying adventure in the elemental ferment of the storm, one of Rimbaud’s most favored contexts, in which a mixture of creation and destruction occurs:

—Ici, va-t-on siffler pour l’orage, et les Sodomes,—
et les Solymes, —et les bêtes féroces et les armées,

—(Postillon et bêtes de songe reprendront-ils sous
les plus suffocantes futaies, pour m’enfoncer jusqu’aux
yeux dans la source de soie).

—Et nous envoyer, fouettés à travers les eaux clapotantes
et les boissons répandues, rouler sur l’aboi des dogues.

(—Here, will one whistle up the storm, and the Sodoms,
and the Solymes, —and the wild beasts and the armies,

—[Will the postilion and the dream beasts resume under
the stifling forests, to thrust me up to the eyes in the source
of silk].

—And send us, whipped through the lapping waters
and the spilled beverages, to pitch through the barking
of the mastiffs.)

This pattern of creative immersion in the elements—including earth, air, and fire, as well as water—is seen in many finales in Les Illuminations, such as those of “Angoisse,” “Soir historique” (Historic Evening), and “Métropolitain.” “Barbare” includes a particularly engrossing example of the function of elemental imagery in Rimbaud’s prose poetry. As its title suggests, “Barbare” sets out to challenge and transcend all that is conventional and familiar. It achieves this objective in two ways: in its mysterious and absorbing imagery, which evokes another bizarre journey of the imagination; and in its unprecedented linguistic experimentation, which takes one to the verge of verbal disintegration. From the opening line, “Bien après les jours et les saisons, et les être et les pays” (Long after the days and the seasons, and the creatures and the countries), it is apparent that Rimbaud is determined to sever links with normal time and space as a prelude to his departure into an uncharted realm of the imagination. Much ink has been spilled in attempts to “decode” the “pavillon en viande saignante” (ensign of bleeding meat) that binds the poem together in a cyclical pattern by virtue of its triple deployment in the text; yet, just as striking is the concatenation of elemental imagery that runs through the piece—arctic seas, infernos, frosty squalls, flames, foams, blocks of ice, volcanoes. One passage is remarkable for its dense compression of ingredients derived from each of the four elements:

—les feux â la pluie du vent de diamants jetée par
le coeur terrestre éternellement carbonisé pour nous.—

(—the fires in the torrent of diamonds thrown up by
the earth’s core perpetually carbonized for us.—)

Here water (pluie), fire (feux, carbonisé), air (vent), and earth (le coeur terrestre) are fused to register an experience of the eternal. “L’Eternité” in the Derniers Vers and “Matinée d’ivresse” in Les Illuminations similarly relate a sense of the eternal to a fusion of elemental opposites; yet, in “Barbare” this amalgamation is effected by virtue of Rimbaud’s audacious approach to language, punctuation, and poetic form.

Rimbaud’s pursuit of a new poetic language is the defining and enduring aspect of his artistic career. His essential thematic preoccupations—the journey of discovery, the world of the child, the phenomenon of revolt—are developed in conjunction with his ambition to redefine the poetic word, to liberate it from the shackles of debilitating forms and rules, and to arrive at a much more supple and flexible medium of expression, untrammeled by inhibitions and fusty convention and characterized by a vitality and an exciting “otherness” that permit endless innovation and surprise. The injunction to the poet in “Ce qu’on dit au poèt à propos de fleurs” to become a “Jongleur” dispensing shocks and revelations to the reader is an apposite characterization of Rimbaud’s entire enterprise. Les Illuminations represents the culmination of this process: the collection is studded with all sorts of verbal discoveries—from the foreign terms such as the German wasserfall (waterfall) in “Aube” and the English title “Being Beauteous” to the highly unusual Baou in “Dévotion.” The collection is also remarkable for its proliferation of dashes, intriguing capitalizations, and baffling italicizations. The odd punctuation fragments texts in fascinating ways, creating unsuspected rhythms and internal arrangements and highlighting individual words and clauses, and, in conjunction with the foreign and unusual terms, it turns Les Illuminations into a venue for all sorts of linguistic surprises. Among these surprises are the vast number of puzzling proper nouns in the collection—Reine, Sorcière, Barbe-Bleue, Prince, Génie, Elle, Hottentots, Molochs, Proverbes, Mabs, Solymes, Damas, Hélène, and so on. The poem-puzzle “H” invites the reader to consider the properties of the capital letter H, some of which are tantalizingly offered within the poem itself with the proper name Hortense and the word hydrogène, which reminds the reader that H is the atomic symbol for hydrogen. This text sets author and reader in opposition, Rimbaud withholding his secrets and the reader being teased to attempt to discover them. This situation is seen frequently in Les Illuminations in poems such as “Parade,” “Solde,” and “Dévotion.” In “Vies” the poet sets himself up as an oracular figure with revelations to make:

Je vous indiquerais les richesses inouïes.
J’observe l’histoire des trésors que vous trouvâtes.
Je vois la suite! Ma sagesse est aussi dédaignée que
le chaos. Qu’est mon néant, auprès de la stupeur qui
vous attend?


(I would show you the untold riches.
I watch the story of the treasures unearthed by you.
I can see the sequel! My wisdom is held in as much contempt as
chaos. What is my void, when compared to the stupefaction that
awaits you?)

The key term here is chaos, a traditionally pejorative word characteristically given a positive meaning by Rimbaud. Les Illuminations is a realization of that positive state of “chaos” so ardently desired by its creator: a flux in which language disintegrates and reconstitutes itself into an entity that transcends what has preceded it.

Rimbaud abandoned poetry at the age of twenty-one, having written it for only five years. In 1875-1876 he traveled to England, Germany, Italy, and Holland; he enlisted in the Dutch army but deserted from it in Sumatra. In 1876 he settled briefly in Vienna, then traveled to Egypt, Java, and Cyprus, where he worked as a foreman in a quarry. In 1880 he went to Ethiopia as the representative of a French coffee trader, Alfred Bardey, based in Aden (today part of Yemen); Rimbaud was one of the first Europeans to visit the country. He remained there as a trader and explorer. Scholars have long been intrigued by the fact that Rimbaud’s extensive correspondence from Africa to France includes no references to poetry but is taken up with utilitarian and commercial considerations relating to his trading activities; the phrase “le silence de Rimbaud” is used to designate his abrupt abandonment of poetry. Nevertheless, his fame as a poet occurred during this period when Verlaine included some of his poems in Les Poètes maudits: Tristan Corbière; Arthur Rimbaud; Stéphane Mallarmé (The Accursed Poets: Tristan Corbière; Arthur Rimbaud; Stéphane Mallarmé) in 1884 and published Les Illuminations two years later. In February 1891 Rimbaud developed a tumor on his right knee; he returned to France for treatment, and his leg was amputated in a Marseille hospital. He went back to the farm in Roche to recuperate, but his health continued to deteriorate. He went back to Marseille, where he was diagnosed with cancer. He died in the hospital there on 10 November 1891; his sister Isabelle, who was with him at the time, claimed that he accepted the Catholic faith before his death. He was buried in Charleville.
Bibliography
BOOKS

Une Saison en enfer(Brussels: Alliance typographique [M.-J. Poot & compagnie], 1873).
Les Illuminations, edited by Paul Verlaine (Paris: Publications de "la Vogue," 1886); translated by Wallace Fowlie as "Illuminations," in Rimbaud's Illuminations: A Study in Angelism. With a New Translation and the French Text of the Poems, edited by Fowlie (London: Harvill Press, 1953; New York: Grove, 1953).
Poésies complètes, edited by Verlaine (Paris: Léon Vanier, 1895).
Oeuvres de Jean-Arthur Rimbaud, edited by Paterne Berrichon and Ernest Delahaye (Paris: Société du Mercure de France, 1898); revised and enlarged as Oeuvres de Jean-Arthur Rimbaud: Vers et proses, revues sur les manuscrits originaux et les premières éditions, mises en ordre et annotées(Paris: Société du Mercure de France, 1916).
Les mains de Jeanne-Marie, edited by Berrichon (Paris: Au sans pareil, 1919).
Oeuvres, edited by Robert Goffin (New York: Brentano, 1943).

Collections

Oeuvres complètes, edited by Antoine Adam (Paris: Editions Gallimard, 1972).
Oeuvres, edited by Suzanne Bernard and André Guyaux (Paris: Garnier, 1987).

Editions in English

"A Season in Hell," translated by J. S. Watson Jr.; "The Drunken Boat," translated by Lionel Abel; "Vowel Sonnet," translated by Joseph T. Shipley; and "The Seekers of Lice," translated by T. Sturge Moore, in A Season in Hell: The Life of Arthur Rimbaud, by Jean Marie Carré, translated by Hannah and Matthew Josephson (New York: Macaulay, 1931), pp. 273-312.
A Season in Hell, translated by George Frederic Lees (London: Fortune Press, 1932; Paris: Palais-Royal Book Shop, 1932).
Prose Poems from Les Illuminations of Arthur Rimbaud, translated by Helen Rootham (London: Faber & Faber, 1932; Norfolk, Conn.: New Directions, 1943).
"Drunken Ship," translated by Leonard Bacon, in his Dream and Action(New York & London: Harper, 1934), pp. 65-71.
A Season in Hell, translated by Delmore Schwartz (Norfolk, Conn.: New Directions, 1939).
Some Poems of Rimbaud, translated by Lionel Abel (New York: Exiles' Press, 1939).
A Drunken Boat, translated by Clark Mills (Ithaca, N.Y.: Voyages, 1941).
Selected Verse Poems of Arthur Rimbaud, translated by Norman Cameron (London: Hogarth Press, 1942).
Prose Poems from The Illuminations, translated by Louise Varèse (New York: New Directions, 1946).
Four Poems, translated by Ben Belitt (Denver: Swallow Press, 1947; London: Sylvan Press, 1948)—comprises "Poets at Seven," "First Communion," "The Drunken Boat," and "Memory".
A Season in Hell, translated by Cameron (London: Lehmann, 1949).
The Drunken Boat: Thirty-six Poems, translated by Brian Hill (London: Hart-Davis, 1952).
A Season in Hell: Revised English Translation, translated by Varèse (Norfolk, Conn.: New Directions, 1952).
Collected Poems, translated by Oliver Bernard (Baltimore: Penguin, 1962; Harmondsworth, U.K. & New York: Viking Penguin, 1986).
Rimbaud: Complete Works, Selected Letters, translated by Fowlie (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1966).
Drunken Boat: A Translation of Arthur Rimbaud's Poem Le Bateau ivre, translated by Samuel Beckett, edited by James Knowlson and Felix Leakey (Reading, U.K.: Whiteknights Press, 1976).
A Season In Hell: A New American Translation, translated by Bertrand Mathieu (Cambridge, Mass.: Pomegranate Press, 1976).
Illuminations: A New American Translation, translated by Mathieu (Brockport, N.Y.: BOA Editions, 1979).

OTHER

"Voyelles," "Oraison du soir," "Les Assis," "Les Effarés," "Les Chercheusers de poux," and "le Bateau ivre," edited by Paul Verlaine, in his Les Poètes maudits: Tristan Corbière; Arthur Rimbaud; Stéphane Mallarmé (Paris: Léon Vanier, 1884).

LETTERS

Lettres de Jean-Arthur Rimbaud—Egypte, Arabie, Ethiopie, edited by Paterne Berrichon (Paris: Société du Mercure de France, 1899).
Arthur Rimbaud: A Douai et à Charleville. Lettres et écrits inédits, edited by Georges Izambard (Paris: Kra, 1927).
Correspondance inédite (1870-1875) d'Arthur Rimbaud, edited by Roger Gilbert-Lecomte (Paris: Aux éditions des cahiers libres, 1929).
Lettres de la vie littéraire d'Arthur Rimbaud (1870-1875), edited by Jean-Marie Carré (Paris: Gallimard, Editions de la Nouvelle revue française, 1931).

Further Readings
Biographies:

Jean Marie Carré, La Vie aventureuse de Jean-Arthur Rimbaud (Paris: Plon-Nourrit, 1926); translated by Hannah and Matthew Josephson as A Season in Hell: The Life of Arthur Rimbaud(New York: Macaulay, 1931).
Enid Starkie, Arthur Rimbaud(London: Faber & Faber, 1961).
Alain Borer, Rimbaud en Abyssinie (Paris: Seuil, 1984); translated by Rosemarie Waldrop as Rimbaud in Abyssinia(New York: Morrow, 1991).
Charles Nicholl, Somebody Else: Arthur Rimbaud in Africa, 1880-1891 (London: Cape, 1997).

References:

Edward J. Ahearn, Rimbaud: Visions and Habitations(Berkeley: University of California Press, 1983).
Yves Bonnefoy, Rimbaud(Paris: Editions du Seuil, Ecrivains de toujours, 1961).
André Guyaux, Poétique du fragment: Essai sur les Illuminations de Rimbaud(Neuchâtel: Editions de la Baconnière, 1985).
Atle Kittang, Discours et Jeu: Essai d'analyse des textes d'Arthur Rimbaud(Bergen & Grenoble: Presses Universitaires de Grenoble, 1975).
Paule Lapeyre, Le Vertige de Rimbaud: Clé d'une perception poétique(Neuchâtel: Editions de la Baconnière, 1981).
James Lawler, Rimbaud's Theatre of the Self(Cambridge, Mass. & London: Harvard University Press, 1992).
Roger Little, Rimbaud: Illuminations, Critical Guides to French Texts, no. 29 (London: Grant & Cutler, 1983).
Claude-Edmonde Magny, Arthur Rimbaud, Poètes d'aujourd'hui, no. 12 (Paris: Pierre Seghers, 1956).
Henry Miller, The Time of the Assassins: A Study of Rimbaud(Norfolk, Conn.: J. Laughlin, 1956).
Steve Murphy, Le Premier Rimbaud ou l'apprentissage de la subversion(Paris & Lyon: Editions du CNRS & Presses Universitaires de Lyon, 1990).
Nick Osmond, Arthur Rimbaud: Illuminations(London: Athlone Press, 1976).
Pierre Petitfils, Rimbaud (Paris: Julliard, 1982); translated by Alan Sheridan as Rimbaud(Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1987).
Jacques Plessen, Promenade et Poésie: L'Expérience de la marche et du mouvement dans l'oeuvre de Rimbaud(The Hague & Paris: Mouton, 1967).
Albert Py, Rimbaud: Illuminations(Geneva: Droz, 1967).
Jeremy Reed, Delirium: An Interpretation of Arthur Rimbaud(London: Owen, 1991; San Francisco: City Lights Books, 1994).
Jean-Pierre Richard, "Rimbaud ou la poésie du devenir," in his Poésie et profondeur(Paris: Seuil, 1955), pp. 189-250.
Kristin Ross, The Emergence of Social Space: Rimbaud and the Paris Commune, Theory and History of Literature, volume 60 (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1988).
Tzvetan Todorov, "Une complication de texte: Les Illuminations," Poetique, 34 (April 1978): 241-253.
Nathaniel Wing, Present Appearances: Aspects of poetic structure in Rimbaud's Illuminations (University, Miss.: Romance Monographs, 1974).

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MessageSujet: Re: U.S.A, Y'becca, La France, Gordon Pacha and Africa   Mer 21 Sep à 10:01

Rages de Césars
Arthur RIMBAUD (1854-1891)

L'homme pâle, le long des pelouses fleuries,
Chemine, en habit noir, et le cigare aux dents :
L'Homme pâle repense aux fleurs des Tuileries
- Et parfois son oeil terne a des regards ardents...

Car l'Empereur est soûl de ses vingt ans d'orgie !
Il s'était dit : " Je vais souffler la liberté
Bien délicatement, ainsi qu'une bougie ! "
La liberté revit ! Il se sent éreinté !

Il est pris. - Oh ! quel nom sur ses lèvres muettes
Tressaille ? Quel regret implacable le mord ?
On ne le saura pas. L'Empereur a l'oeil mort.

Il repense peut-être au Compère en lunettes...
- Et regarde filer de son cigare en feu,
Comme aux soirs de Saint-Cloud, un fin nuage bleu.
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MessageSujet: Re: U.S.A, Y'becca, La France, Gordon Pacha and Africa   Jeu 22 Sep à 3:26

Rainer Maria RILKE (1875-1926)

Fragment d'ivoire

Doux pâtre qui survit
tendrement à son rôle
avec sur son épaule
un débris de brebis.
Doux pâtre qui survit
en ivoire jaunâtre
à son jeu de pâtre.
Ton troupeau aboli
autant que toi dure
dans la lente mélancolie
de ton assistante figure
qui résume dans l'infini
-------------------------------------------
Je te vois, rose, livre entrebâillé

Je te vois, rose, livre entrebâillé,
qui contient tant de pages
de bonheur détaillé
qu'on ne lira jamais. Livre-mage,

qui s'ouvre au vent et qui peut être lu
les yeux fermés ...,
dont les papillons sortent confus
d'avoir eu les mêmes idées.
la trêve d'actives pâtures.
-------------------------------------------

Ô nostalgie des lieux...

Ô nostalgie des lieux qui n'étaient point
assez aimés à l'heure passagère,
que je voudrais leur rendre de loin
le geste oublié, l'action supplémentaire !

Revenir sur mes pas, refaire doucement
- et cette fois, seul - tel voyage,
rester à la fontaine davantage,
toucher cet arbre, caresser ce banc...

Monter à la chapelle solitaire
que tout le monde dit sans intérêt ;
pousser la grille de ce cimetière,
se taire avec lui qui tant se tait.

Car n'est-ce pas le temps où il importe
de prendre un contact subtil et pieux ?
Tel était fort, c'est que la terre est forte ;
et tel se plaint : c'est qu'on la connaît peu.

-------------------------------------------------

Voici encor de l'heure qui s'argente

Voici encor de l'heure qui s'argente,
mêlé au doux soir, le pur métal
et qui ajoute à la beauté lente
les lents retours d'un calme musical.

L'ancienne terre se reprend et change :
un astre pur survit à nos travaux.
Les bruits épars, quittant le jour, se rangent

----------------------------------------------------

Rose, eût-il fallu te laisser dehors

Rose, eût-il fallu te laisser dehors,
chère exquise ?
Que fait une rose là où le sort
sur nous s'épuise ?

Point de retour. Te voici
qui partages
avec nous, éperdue, cette vie, cette vie
qui n'est pas de ton âge.

-------------------------------------------

Portrait intérieur

Ce ne sont pas des souvenirs
qui, en moi, t'entretiennent ;
tu n'es pas non plus mienne
par la force d'un beau désir.

Ce qui te rend présente,
c'est le détour ardent
qu'une tendresse lente
décrit dans mon propre sang.

Je suis sans besoin
de te voir apparaître ;
il m'a suffi de naître
pour te perdre un peu moins.
et rentrent tous dans la voix des eaux.
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MessageSujet: Re: U.S.A, Y'becca, La France, Gordon Pacha and Africa   Jeu 22 Sep à 3:29


Rainer Maria Rilke
Poet Details
1875–1926

Widely recognized as one of the most lyrically intense German-language poets, Rainer Maria Rilke was unique in his efforts to expand the realm of poetry through new uses of syntax and imagery and in the philosophy that his poems explored. With regard to the former, W. H. Auden declared in New Republic, "Rilke's most immediate and obvious influence has been upon diction and imagery." Rilke expressed ideas with "physical rather than intellectual symbols. While Shakespeare, for example, thought of the non-human world in terms of the human, Rilke thinks of the human in terms of the non-human, of what he calls Things (Dinge)." Besides this technique, the other important aspect of Rilke's writings was the evolution of his philosophy, which reached a climax in Duineser Elegien ( Duino Elegies ) and Die Sonette an Orpheus ( Sonnets to Orpheus). Rejecting the Catholic beliefs of his parents as well as Christianity in general, the poet strove throughout his life to reconcile beauty and suffering, life and death, into one philosophy. As C. M. Bowra observed in Rainer Maria Rilke: Aspects of His Mind and Poetry, "Where others have found a unifying principle for themselves in religion or morality or the search for truth, Rilke found his in the search for impressions and the hope these could be turned into poetry...For him Art was what mattered most in life."

Rilke was the only child of a German-speaking family in Prague, then part of the Austro-Hungarian empire. His father was a retired officer in the Austrian army who worked as a railroad official; his mother, a socially ambitious and possessive woman. At age eleven Rilke began his formal schooling at a military boarding academy, and in 1891, less than a year after transferring to a secondary military school, he was discharged due to health problems, from which he would suffer throughout his life. He immediately returned to Prague, to find that his parents had divorced in his absence. Shortly thereafter he began receiving private instruction toward passing the entrance exams for Prague's Charles-Ferdinand University. In 1894 his first book of verse, Leben und Lieder: Bilder und Tagebuchblatter, was published.

By 1895 Rilke had enrolled in the philosophy program at Charles-Ferdinand University, but soon became disenchanted with his studies and left Prague for Munich, ostensibly to study art. In Munich Rilke mingled in the city's literary circles, had several of his plays produced, published his poetry collections, Larenopfer and Traumgelkront, and was introduced to the work of Danish writer Jens Peter Jacobsen, who was a decisive influence during Rilke's formative years. Visiting Venice in 1897, Rilke met Lou Andreas-Salome, a married woman fifteen years his senior, who was also a strong influence on Rilke. After spending the summer of 1897 with her in the Bavarian Alps, Rilke accompanied Salome and her husband to Berlin in late 1897 and to Italy the following year.

Rilke's early verse, short stories, and plays are characterized by their romanticism. His poems of this period show the influence of the German folk song tradition and have been compared to the lyrical work of Heinrich Heine. The most popular poetry collections of Rilke's during this period were Vom lieben Gott und Anderes ( Stories of God ) and the romantic cycle Die Weise von Liebe und Tod des Cornets Christoph Rilke (The Story of the Love and Death of Cornet Christoph Rilke), which remained the poet's most widely recognized book during his lifetime. Dictionary of Literary Biography contributor George C. Schoolfield called Rilke's first poetry collection, Leben und Lieder ("Life and Songs"), "unbearably sentimental," but thought later works such as Larenopfer ("Offering to the Lares") and Traumgekroent ("Crowned with Dreams") demonstrated "considerably better proof of his lyric talent." Although none of Rilke's plays are considered major works, and his short stories, according to Schoolfield, demonstrate the author's immaturity, the latter do show "his awareness of language and a certain psychological refinement," as well as "flashes of brilliant satiric gift" and "evidence of a keen insight into human relations." Schoolfield also observed that "some of Rilke's best tales are autobiographical," such as "Pierre Dumont," which features a young boy saying goodbye to his mother at the gates to a military school, and "Ewald Tragy," a two-part story about a boy who leaves his family and hometown of Prague for Munich, where he fights loneliness but enjoys a new sense of freedom.

In 1899 Rilke made the first of two pivotal trips to Russia with Salome, discovering what he termed his "spiritual fatherland" in both the people and the landscape. There Rilke met Leo Tolstoy, L. O. Pasternak (father of Boris Pasternak), and the peasant poet Spiridon Droschin, whose works Rilke translated into German. These trips provided Rilke with the poetic material and inspiration essential to his developing philosophy of existential materialism and art as religion. Inspired by the lives of the Russian people, whom the poet considered more devoutly spiritual than other Europeans, Rilke's work during this period often featured traditional Christian imagery and concepts, but presented art as the sole redeemer of humanity. Soon after his return from Russia in 1900, he began writing Das Stundenbuch enthaltend die drei Bücher: Vom moenchischen Leben; Von der Pilgerschaft; Von der Armuth und vom Tode, a collection that "marked for him the end of an epoch," according to Bowra and others. This book, translated as The Book of Hours; Comprising the Three Books: Of the Monastic Life, Of Pilgrimage, Of Poverty and Death, consists of a series of prayers about the search for God. Because of this concern, Hound and Horn critic Hester Pickman noted that the book "might have fallen out of the writings of Christian contemplatives," except that "the essential pattern is an inversion of theirs. God is not light but darkness—not a father, but a son, not the creator but the created. He and not man is our neighbor for men are infinitely far from each other. They must seek God, not where one or two are gathered in His name, but alone."

Whenever Rilke writes about God, however, he is not referring to the deity in the traditional sense, but rather uses the term to refer to the life force, or nature, or an all-embodying, pantheistic consciousness that is only slowly coming to realize its existence. "Extending the idea of evolution," Eudo C. Mason explained in an introduction to The Book of Hours, "and inspired probably also in some measure by Nietzsche's idea of the Superman, Rilke arrives at the paradoxical conception of God as the final result instead of the first cause of the cosmic process." Holding in contempt "all other more traditional forms of devoutness, which . . . merely 'accept God as a given fact,'" Rilke did not deny God's existence, but insisted that all possibilities about the nature of life be given equal consideration.

The real theme of The Book of Hours, concluded Mason, is the poet's "own inner life," his struggles toward comprehension, and, "above all . . . his perils as a poet." The second major concept in The Book of Hours is Rilke's apotheosis of art. "'Religion is the art of those who are uncreative,'" Mason quoted Rilke as having said; the poet's work is often concerned with the artist's role in society and with his inner doubts about his belief in poetry's superiority. Because of the firm establishment of these two themes in The Book of Hours, the collection "is essential to the understanding of what comes afterwards" in Rilke's writing, attested Pickman. The Book of Hours was also another of the poet's most popular works, second only to The Story of the Love and Death of Cornet Christoph Rilke during his lifetime. But despite being a "very beautiful" book, it also "remains too constantly abstract. It lacks the solid reality of great poetry," according to Pickman.

Rilke fixed his verse more firmly in reality in his next major poetry collection, Neue Gedichte ( New Poems ). The major influence behind this work was Rilke's association with the famous French sculptor, Auguste Rodin. Working as Rodin's secretary from 1905 to 1906, Rilke gained a greater appreciation of the work ethic. More importantly, however, the poet's verses became objective, evolving from an impressionistic, personal vision to the representation of this vision with impersonal symbolism. He referred to this type of poetry as Dinggedichte (thing poems). These verses employed a simple vocabulary to describe concrete subjects experienced in everyday life. Having learned the skill of perceptive observation from Rodin and, later, from the French painter Paul Cezanne, Rilke "sustained for a little while the ability to write without inspiration, to transform his observations—indeed his whole life—into art," according to Nancy Willard, author of Testimony of the Invisible Man. The "'thingness' of these poems," explained Erich Heller in The Artist's Journey into the Interior and Other Essays, "reflects not the harmony in which an inner self lives with its 'objects'; it reflects a troubled inner self immersing itself in 'the things.'" But although this objective approach innovatively addressed subjects never before recognized by other poets and created "dazzling poems," Rilke realized, according to Willard, that it "did not really open the secret of living things."

By this point in his career, Rilke was reaching a crisis in his art that revealed itself both in New Poems and his only major prose work, the novel Die Aufzeichnungen des Malte Laurids Brigge ( The Notebooks of Malte Laurids Brigge). These works express the poet's growing doubts about whether anything existed that was superior to mankind and his world. This, in turn, brought into question Rilke's very reason for writing poetry: the search for deeper meaning in life through art. In her book, Rainer Maria Rilke, E. M. Butler averred that " The Notebooks of Malte Laurids Brigge" marks a crisis in Rilke's attitude to God, a crisis which might be hailed as the loss of a delusion, or deplored as the loss of an ideal. . . . [His concept of the] future artist-god had never been more than a sublime hypothesis, deriving from Rilke's belief in the creative and transforming powers of art." Having failed, in his mind, to accurately represent God in his poetry, Rilke attempted to "transform life into art" in his New Poems. "What he learnt," Butler continued, "is what every artist has to face sooner or later, the realisation that life is much more creative than art. So that his mythological dream, the apotheosis of art, appeared to be founded on delusion. Either art was not as creative as he had thought, or he was not such a great artist. Both these doubts were paralyzing, and quite sufficient to account for the terrible apprehension present in every line of Malte Laurids Brigge. For this skepticism struck at the roots of his reason and justification for existence. Either he was the prophet of a new religion, or he was nobody."

The Notebooks of Malte Laurids Brigge is a loosely autobiographical novel about a student who is the last descendant of a noble Danish family (Rilke believed, erroneously according to his biographers, that he was distantly related to Carinthian nobility), and follows his life from his birth to a grim, poverty-stricken life as a student in Paris. Images of death and decay (especially in the Paris scenes) and Malte's fear of death are a continuous presence throughout the narrative. Because Rilke never finished The Notebooks of Malte Laurids Brigge (in one of his letters, the author told a friend he ended the book "'out of exhaustion,'" reported Schoolfield) Malte's ultimate fate is left ambiguous. In one of Rilke's letters translated in Letters of Rainer Maria Rilke: 1910-1926, the author remarked that the most significant question in The Notebooks of Malte Laurids Brigge is: "[How] is it possible to live when after all the elements of this life are utterly incomprehensible to us?" As William Rose determined in Rainer Maria Rilke: Aspects of His Mind and Poetry, The Notebooks of Malte Laurids Brigge actually was kind of a catharsis for the author in which "Rilke gave full vent . . . to the fears which haunted him." "Without the Notebooks behind him," Wood concluded, "the poet would hardly have ventured" to write the Duino Elegies in 1912.

Duino Elegies "might well be called the greatest set of poems of modern times," claimed Colin Wilson, author of Religion and the Rebel. Wilson averred, "They have had as much influence in German-speaking countries as [T. S. Eliot's] The Waste Land has in England and America." Having discovered a dead end in the objective poetry with which he experimented in New Poems, Rilke once again turned to his own personal vision to find solutions to questions about the purpose of human life and the poet's role in society. Duino Elegies finally resolved these puzzles to Rilke's own satisfaction. Called Duino Elegies because Rilke began writing them in 1912 while staying at Duino Castle on the Italian Adriatic coast, the collection took ten years to complete, due to an inspiration-stifling depression the poet suffered during and after World War I. When his inspiration returned, however, the poet wrote a total of eleven lengthy poems for the book; later this was edited down to ten poems. The unifying poetic image that Rilke employs throughout Duino Elegies is that of angels, which carry many meanings, albeit not the usual Christian connotations. The angels represent a higher force in life, both beautiful and terrible, completely indifferent to mankind; they represent the power of poetic vision, as well as Rilke's personal struggle to reconcile art and life.The Duino angels thus allowed Rilke to objectify abstract ideas as he had done in New Poems, while not limiting him to the mundane materialism that was incapable of thoroughly illustrating philosophical issues.

The revolutionary poetic philosophy that Rilke proposed in Duino Elegies is considered significant to many literary scholars. "No poet before him had been brave enough to accept the whole of [the dark side of the] world, as if it were unquestionably valid and potentially universal," asserted Conrad Aiken in his Collected Criticism. Like the German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche, who lived about the same time as Rilke, the poet determined his objective to be "[praise] and celebration in the face of and in full consciousness of the facts that had caused other minds to assume an attitude of negativity," wrote Emergence from Chaos author Stuart Holroyd. But even though the final purpose of Duino Elegies is to praise existence, the "predominant note . . . is one of lament." By overcoming his quandaries in this collection, Rilke was completely free to devote his poetry to praise in Sonnets to Orpheus.

"The Sonnets are the songs of his victory," affirmed Bowra in The Heritage of Symbolism. "In the Sonnets," Bowra wrote, "Rilke shows what poetry meant to him, what he got from it and what he hoped for it. The dominating mood is joy. It is a complement to the distress and anxiety of the Elegies, and in Rilke's whole performance the two books must be taken together." Aiken similarly commented that the " Sonnets to Orpheus . . . is, with the Elegies, Rilke's finest work—the two books really belong together, shine the better for each other's presence."

In the last few years of his life, Rilke was inspired by such French poets as Paul Valery and Jean Cocteau, and wrote most of his last verses in French. Always a sickly man, the poet succumbed to leukemia in 1926 while staying at the Valmont sanatorium near Lake Geneva. On his deathbed, he remained true to his anti-Christian beliefs and refused the company of a priest. Hermann Hesse summed up Rilke's evolution as a poet in his book, My Belief: Essays on Life and Art: "Remarkable, this journey from the youthful music of Bohemian folk poetry . . . to Orpheus, remarkable how . . . his mastery of form increases, penetrates deeper and deeper into his problems! And at each stage now and again the miracle occurs, his delicate, hesitant, anxiety-prone person withdraws, and through him resounds the music of the universe; like the basin of a fountain he becomes at once instrument and ear." Without his parents' religious ideals to comfort him, Rilke found peace in his art. As Holroyd concluded, the "poetry which Rilke wrote to express and extend his experience . . . is one of the most successful attempts a modern man has made to orientate himself within his chaotic world."


Bibliography

WRITINGS:

Leben und Lieder: Bilder und Tagebuchblaetter (poems; main title means "Life and Songs"), Kattentidt, 1894.
Larenopfer (poems; title means "Offering to the Lares"), Dominicus (Prague), 1896.
Todtentaenze: Zwielicht-Skizzen aus unseren Tagen, Loewit & Lamberg (Prague), 1896.
Traumgekroent: Neue Gedichte (title means "Crowned with Dreams: New Poems"), Friesenhahn (Leipzig), 1896.
Wegwarten (poems), Selbstverlag (Prague), 1896.
In Fruehfrost: Ein Stueck Daemmerung, Drei Vorgaenge (play), Theaterverlag O. R. Eirich (Vienna), 1897.
Advent (poems), Friesenhahn, 1898.
Ohne Gegenwart: Drama in zwei Akten, Entsch (Berlin), 1898.
Am Leben hin: Novellen und Skizzen, Bonz (Stuttgart), 1898.
Zwei Prager Geschichten, Bonz, 1899, translation by Angela Esterhammer published as Two Stories of Prague, University Press of New England, 1994.
Mir zur Feier: Gedichte (poems), Meyer (Berlin), 1899, reprinted as Die fruehen Gedichte, Insel (Germany), 1909, Ungar, 1943.
Vom lieben Gott und Anderes: An Grosse für Kinder erzaehlt (short stories), Schuster & Loeffler, 1900, published as Geschichten vom lieben Gott, Insel, 1904, Ungar, 1942, translation by Nora Purtscher-Wydenbruck and M. D. Herter Norton published as Stories of God, Norton, 1932, revised edition, 1963.
Das taegliche Leben: Drama in zwei Akten (play; first produced in Berlin at the Residenz Theater, December, 1901), Langen (Munich), 1902.
Zur Einweihung der Kunsthalle am 15. Februar 1902: Festspielszene, [Bremen], 1902.
Buch der Bilder (poems), Juncker (Berlin), 1902, enlarged edition, 1906, Ungar, 1943.
Die Letzten, Juncker, 1902.
Worpswede: Fritz Mackenses, Otto Modersohn, Fritz Overbeck, Hans am Ende, Heinrich Vogeler, Velhagen & Klasing, 1903.
Auguste Rodin (biography), Bard (Berlin), 1903, translation by Jesse Lemont and Hans Trausil published as Auguste Rodin, Sunwise Turn (New York City), 1919, published as Rodin, Haskell Booksellers, 1974.
Das Stundenbuch enthaltend die drei Bücher: Vom mönchischen Leben; Von der Pilgerschaft; Von der Armuth und vom Tode (poems), Insel, 1905, translation by Babette Deutsch published as Poems from the Book of Hours, New Directions, 1941, reprinted, 1975, translation by A. L. Peck published as The Book of Hours; Comprising the Three Books: Of the Monastic Life, Of Pilgrimage, Of Poverty and Death, Hogarth, 1961, published as Rilke's Book of Hours: Love Poems to God, Riverhead Books, 1996.
Die Weise von Liebe und Tod des Cornets Christoph Rilke (prose poem), Juncker, 1906, translation by B. J. Morse published as The Story of the Love and Death of Cornet Christopher Rilke, Osnabrueck, 1927, translation by Herter Norton published as The Tale of the Love and Death of Cornet Christopher Rilke, Norton, 1932, translation by Stephen Mitchell published as The Lay of the Love and Death of Cornet Christopher Rilke, Arion, 1983, new edition, Graywolf Press, 1985.
1907-08 Neue Gedichte (poems), two volumes, Insel, translation by J. B. Leishman published as New Poems, New Directions, 1964 , translation by Edward Snow, North Point Press, Volume 1: New Poems (1907), 1984, Volume 2: New Poems: The Other Part (1908), 1987.
Requiem (poems), Insel, 1909.
Die Aufzeichnungen des Malte Laurids Brigge (novel), Insel, 1910, translation by John Linton published as The Journal of My Other Self, Norton, 1930, translation by Norton published as The Notebooks of Malte Laurids Brigge, Norton, 1964, translation by Mitchell published as The Notebooks of Malte Laurids Brigge, Random House, 1983.
Erste Gedichten, Insel, 1913, Ungar, 1947.
Das Marien-Leben, Insel, 1913, translation by R. G. L. Barrett published as The Life of the Virgin Mary, Triltsch (Würzburg), 1921, translation by Stephen Spender published as The Life of the Virgin Mary, Philosophical Library, 1951.
Poems, translation by Lemont, Wright, 1918.
Aus der Fruehzeit Rainer Maria Rilke: Vers, Prosa, Drama (1894-1899), edited by Fritz Adolf Huenich, Bibliophilenabend (Leipzig), 1921.
Mitsou: Quarante images par Baltusz, Rotapfel, 1921.
Puppen, Hyperion (Munich), 1921.
Duineser Elegien (poems; also see below), Insel, 1923, Ungar, 1944, translation by V. Sackville-West and Edward Sackville-West published as Duineser Elegien: Elegies from the Castle of Duino, Hogarth, 1931, translation by Leishman and Spender published as Duino Elegies, Norton, 1939, translation by Robert Hunter and Gary Miranda published as Duino Elegies, Breitenbush, 1981, translated by Stephen Cohn, preface by Peter Porter, Northwestern University Press (Evanston, IL), 1998, translated by John Waterfield, E. Mellen Press (Lewiston, NY), 1999.
Die Sonette an Orpheus: Geschrieben als ein Grab-Mal fuer Wera Ouckama Knoop (poems; also see below), Insel, 1923, Ungar, 1945, translation by Leishman published as Sonnets to Orpheus, Written as a Monument for Wera Ouckama Knoop, Hogarth, 1936, translation by Norton published as Sonnets to Orpheus, Norton, 1942, translation by Mitchell published as The Sonnets to Orpheus, Simon & Schuster, 1986, published as Os Sonetos a Orfeu, Quetzal Editores, 1994.
Vergers suivi des Quatrains Valaisans, Editions de la Nouvelle Revue Francaise (Paris), 1926, translation by Alfred Poulin, Jr., published as Orchards, Graywolf Press (Port Townsend, Wash.), 1982.
Gesammelte Werke, six volumes, Insel, 1927.
Les Fenetres: Dix Poemes, Officina Sanctandreana (Paris), 1927, translation by Poulin published as The Windows in The Roses and the Windows, Graywolf Press, 1979.
Les Roses, Stols (Bussum, Netherlands), 1927, translation by Poulin published as The Roses in The Roses and the Windows, Graywolf Press, 1979.
Erzaehlungen und Skizzen aus der Fruehzeit, Insel, 1928.
Ewald Tragy: Erzaehlung, Heller (Munich), 1929, Johannespresse (New York City), 1944, translation by Lola Gruenthal published as Ewald Tragy, Twayne, 1958.
Verse und Prosa aus dem Nachlass, Gesellschaft der Freunde der Deutschen Buecherei (Leipzig), 1929.
1930-33 Gesammelte Gedichte, four volumes, Insel.
Ueber den jungen Dichter, [Hamburg], 1931.
Gedichte, edited by Katharina Kippenberg, Insel, 1931, Ungar, 1947.
Rainer Maria Rilke auf Capri: Gespraeche, edited by Leopold von Schloezer, Jess (Dresden), 1931.
Spaete Gedichte, Insel, 1934.
Bücher, Theater, Kunst, edited by Richard von Mises, Jahoda & Siegel (Vienna), 1934.
Der ausgewaehlten Gedichten anderer Teil, edited by Kippenberg, Insel, 1935.
Ausgewaehlte Werke, two volumes, edited by Ruth Sieber-Rilke, Carl Sieber, and Ernst Zinn, Insel, 1938.
Translations from the Poetry of Rainer Maria Rilke, translation by Norton, Norton, 1938, reprinted, 1962.
Fifty Selected Poems with English Translations, translation by C. F. MacIntyre, University of California Press, 1940.
Selected Poems, translation by Leishman, Hogarth, 1941.
Tagebücher aus der Fruehzeit, edited by Sieber-Rilke, Insel, 1942, translation by Snow and Michael Winkler published as Diaries of a Young Poet, Norton, 1997.
Briefe, Verse und Prosa aus dem Jahre 1896, two volumes, Johannespresse, 1946.
Thirty-one Poems, translation by Ludwig Lewisohn, Ackerman, 1946.
Freundschaft mit Rainer Maria Rilke: Begegnungen, Gespraeche, Briefe und Aufzeichnungen mitgeteilt durch Elga Maria Nevar, Zuest (Buempliz), 1946.
Five Prose Pieces, translation by Carl Niemeyer, Cummington Press (Cummington, MA), 1947.
Gedichte, edited by Hermann Kunisch, Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht (Goettingen), 1947.
Gedichte in franzoesicher Sprache, edited by Thankmar von Muenchhausen, Insel, 1949.
Aus Rainer Maria Rilkes Nachlass, four volumes, Insel, 1950, Volume 1: Aus dem Nachlass des Grafen C. W., translation by Leishman as From the Remains of Count C. W., Hogarth, 1952.
Werke: Auswahl in zwei Baenden, two volumes, Insel, 1953.
Gedichte, 1909-26: Sammlung der verstreuten und nachgelassenen Gedichte aus den mittleren und spaeteren Jahren, translation, with additions, by Leishman published as Poems 1906 to 1926, Laughlin (Norfolk, CT), 1953, reprinted, Knopf, 1996.
Selected Works, two volumes, translation by G. Craig Houston and Leishman, Hogarth, 1954, New Directions, 1960.
1955-66 Saemtliche Werke, six volumes, edited by Zinn, Insel.
Angel Songs/ Engellieder (bilingual), translation by Rhoda Coghill, Dolmen Press (Dublin), 1958.
Die Turnstunde und andere Novellen (novella collection), edited by Fritz Froehling, Hyperion, 1959.
Selected Works: Prose and Poetry, two volumes, 1960.
Poems, edited by G. W. McKay, Oxford University Press, 1965.
Werke in drei Baenden, three volumes, Insel, 1966.
Gedichte: Eine Auswahl, Reclam (Stuttgart), 1966.
Visions of Christ: A Posthumous Cycle of Poems, translation by Aaron Kramer, edited by Siegfried Mandel, University of Colorado Press, 1967.
Das Testament, edited by Zinn, Insel, 1975.
Holding Out: Poems, translation by Rika Lesser, Abbatoir Editions (Omaha, NE), 1975.
Possibility of Being: A Selection of Poems, translation by Leishman, New Directions, 1977.
The Voices, translation by Robert Bly, Ally Press, 1977.
Duino Elegies [and] The Sonnets to Orpheus, translation by Poulin, Houghton Mifflin, 1977.
Werke: In 3 Baenden, three volumes, edited by Horst Nalewski, Insel, 1978.
Where Silence Reigns: Selected Prose, New Directions, 1978.
Nine Plays, translation by Klaus Phillips and John Locke, Ungar, 1979.
I Am Too Alone in the World: Ten Poems, translation by Bly, Silver Hands Press, 1980.
Selected Poems of Rainer Maria Rilke, translation by Bly, Harper, 1980.
Requiem for a Woman, and Selected Lyric Poems, translation by Andy Gaus, Threshold Books (Putney, Vt.), 1981.
An Unofficial Rilke: Poems 1912-1926, edited and with translation by Michael Hamburger, Anvil Press, 1981.
Selected Poetry of Rainer Maria Rilke, edited and with translation by Mitchell, Random House, 1982.
The Astonishment of Origins: French Sequences, translation from the French by Poulin, Graywolf Press, 1982.
Selected Poems, translation by A. E. Flemming, Golden Smith (St. Petersburg, Fla.), 1983.
The Unknown Rilke: Selected Poems, translation by Franz Wright, Oberlin College, 1983.
The Migration of Powers: French Poems, translation by Poulin, Graywolf Press, 1984.
Between Roots: Selected Poems, translation by Lesser, Princeton University Press, 1986.
The Complete French Poems of Rainer Maria Rilke, translation by Poulin, Graywolf Press, 1986.
Die Briefe en Karl und Elisabeth von der Heydt (letters), Insel, 1986.
Rodin and Other Prose Pieces, translation by G. Craig Houston, Salem House, 1987.
Shadows on the Sundial (selected poems), edited by Stanley H. Barkan, translation by Norbert Krapf, Cross-Cultural Communications, 1989.
The Best of Rilke, translation by Walter Arndt, University Press of New England, 1989.
The Book of Images (selected poems), translation by Snow, North Point, 1991.
Rilke: Poisia-Coisa, edited by Augusto de Campos, Imago, 1994.
Selected Poems of Rainer Maria Rilke: The Book of Fresh Beginnings, translated by David Young, Oberlin College, 1994.
Two Stories of Prague: "King Bohush" and "The Siblings," translation by Angela Estherhammer, University Press of New England, 1994.
Uncollected Poems, translated by Snow, North Point Press, 1995.
Ahead of All Parting: The Selected Poetry and Prose of Rainer Maria Rilke, edited by Mitchell, Modern Library, 1995.
The Duino Elegies: A Critical Presentation, introduction, translation, and commentary by Jeno Platthy, Federation of International Poetry Associatons (Evansville, IN), 1999.
The Essential Rilke, selected and translated by Galway Kinnell and Hannah Liebmann, Ecco Press (Hopewell, NJ), 1999.
The Duino Elegies: Bilingual Edition, translated by Snow, North Point Press, 2000.

TRANSLATOR

Elizabeth Barrett Browning, Sonette nach dem Portugiesischen, Insel, 1908.
Maurice de Guerin, Der Kentaur, Insel, 1911.
Die Liebe der Magdalena: Ein franzoesischer Sermon, gezogen durch den Abbe Joseph Bonnet aus dem Ms. Q I 14 der Kaiserlichen Bibliothek zu St. Petersburg, Insel, 1912.
Marianna Alcoforado, Portugiesische Briefe, Insel, 1913.
Andre Gide, Die Rueckkehr des verlorenen Sohnes, Insel, 1914.
Die vierundzwanzig Sonette der Louise Labe, Lyoneserin, 1555, Insel, 1918.
Paul Valery, Gedichte, Insel, 1925.
Valery, Eupalinos oder Ueber die Architektur, Insel, 1927.
Uebertragungen, Insel, 1927.
Dichtungen des Michelangelo, Insel, 1936.
Gedichte aus fremden Sprachen, Ungar, 1947.
Maurice Maeterlinck, Die sieben Jungfrauen von Orlamuende, Dynamo (Liege), 1967.

LETTERS

Briefe an Auguste Rodin, Insel, 1928.
Briefe aus den Jahren 1902 bis 1906, edited by Sieber-Rilke and Sieber, Insel, 1929.
Briefe an einen jungen Dichter, Insel, 1929, translation by Norton published as Letters to a Young Poet, Norton, 1934, translation by K. W. Maurer published as Letters to a Young Poet, Langley (London), 1943, revised edition, Norton, 1963, translation by Mitchell, Random House, 1984, translation by Joan J. Burnham, foreword by Kent Nerburn, New World Library (Novato, CA), 2000.
Briefe an eine junge Frau, Insel, 1930, translation by Maurer published as Letters to a Young Woman, Langley, 1945.
Briefe aus den Jahren 1906 bis 1907, edited by Sieber-Rilke and Sieber, Insel, 1930.
Briefe und Tagebuecher aus der Fruehzeit, edited by Sieber-Rilke and Sieber, Insel, 1931.
Briefe aus den Jahren 1907 bis 1914, edited by Sieber-Rilke and Sieber, Insel, 1933.
Ueber Gott: Zwei Briefe, Insel, 1933.
Briefe an seinen Verleger 1906 bis 1926, edited by Sieber-Rilke and Sieber, Insel, 1934.
Briefe aus Muzot 1921 bis 1926, edited by Sieber-Rilke and Sieber, Insel, 1935.
1936-39 Gesammelte Briefe, six volumes, edited by Sieber-Rilke and Sieber, Insel.
Lettres a une Amie Venitienne, Asmus, 1941.
Briefe an eine Freundin, edited by Herbert Steiner, Wells College Press, 1944.
Briefe, Oltener Buecherfreunde (Olten), 1945.
Briefe an Baronesse von Oe, edited by von Mises, Johannespresse, 1945.
Letters of Rainer Maria Rilke, translation by Jane Bannard Greene and Norton, Norton, Volume 1: 1892-1910, 1945, reprinted, 1969, Volume 2: 1910-1926, 1948, reprinted, 1969.
Briefe an eine Reisegefaehrtin: Eine Begegnung mit Rainer Maria Rilke, Ibach (Vienna), 1947.
Briefe an das Ehepaar S. Fischer, edited by Hedwig Fischer, Classen (Zurich), 1947.
La derniere amitie de Rainer Maria Rilke: Lettres inedites de Rilke a Madame Eloui Bey, edited by Edmond Jaloux, Laffont (Paris), 1949, translation by William H. Kennedy published as Rainer Maria Rilke: His Last Friendship; Unpublished Letters to Mrs. Eloui Bey, Philosophical Library, 1952.
"So lass ich mich zu traeumen gehen," Mader, 1949, translation by Heinz Norden published as Letters to Benvenuta, Philosophical Library, 1951.
Briefe an seinen Verleger, two volumes, edited by Sieber-Rilke and Sieber, Insel, 1949.
Briefe, two volumes, edited by Sieber-Rilke and Karl Altheim, Insel, 1950.
Die Briefe an Graefin Sizzo, 1921 bis 1926, Insel, 1950, enlarged edition, edited by Ingeborg Schnack, Insel, 1977.
Briefwechsel in Gedichten mit Erika Mitterer 1924 bis 1926, Insel, 1950, translation by N. K. Cruickshank published as Correspondence in Verse with Erika Mitterer, Hogarth, 1953.
Lettres francaise a Merline 1919-1922, du Seuil (Paris), 1950, translation by Violet M. Macdonald published as Letters to Merline, 1919-1922, Methuen, 1951.
Rainer Maria Rilke/Marie von Thurn und Taxis: Briefwechsel, two volumes, edited by Zinn, Niehans & Rokitansky (Zurich), 1951 , translation by Nora Wydenbruck published as The Letters of Rainer Maria Rilke and Princess Marie von Thurn and Taxis, New Directions, 1958.
Rainer Maria Rilke/Lou Andreas-Salome, Briefwechsel, edited by Ernst Pfeiffer, Insel, 1952, revised and enlarged edition, 1975.
Rainer Maria Rilke/Andre Gide: Correspondance 1909-1926, edited by Renee Lang, Correa (Paris), 1952.
Briefe über Cezanne, edited by Clara Rilke, Insel, 1952, translation by Joel Agee published as Letters on Cezanne, Fromm, 1985.
Die Briefe an Frau Gudi Noelke aus Rilkes Schweizer Jahren, edited by Paul Obermueller, Insel, 1953, translation by Macdonald published as Letters to Frau Gudi Noelke during His Life in Switzerland, Hogarth, 1955.
Rainer Maria Rilke/ Katharina Kippenberg: Briefwechsel, edited by Bettina von Bomhard, Insel, 1954.
Briefwechsel mit Benvenuta, edited by Kurt Leonhard, Bechtle (Esslingen), 1954, translation by Agee published as Rilke and Benvenuta: An Intimate Correspondence, Fromm, 1987.
Rainer Maria Rilke et Merline: Correspondance 1920-1926, edited by Dieter Basserman, Niehans (Zurich), 1954, reprinted, Paragon House, 1988.
Lettres milanaises 1921-1926, edited by Lang, Plon (Paris), 1956.
Rainer Maria Rilke/Inge Junghanns: Briefwechsel, edited by Wolfgang Herwig, Insel, 1959.
Selected Letters, edited by Harry T. Moore, Doubleday, 1960.
Wartime Letters of Rainer Maria Rilke, 1914-1921, translation by Norton, Norton, 1964.
Briefe an Sidonie Nadherny von Borutin, edited by Bernhard Blume, Insel, 1973.
Über Dichtung und Kunst, edited by Hartmut Engelhardt, Suhrkamp (Frankfurt), 1974.
Rainer Maria Rilke on Love and Other Difficulties: Translations and Considerations, edited by John J. L. Mood, Norton, 1975.
Rainer Maria Rilke/Helene von Nostitz: Briefwechsel, edited by Oswalt von Nostitz, Insel, 1976.
Briefe an Nanny Wunderly-Volkart, two volumes, edited by Niklaus Bigler and Raetus Luck, Insel, 1977.
Lettres autour d'un jardin, La Delirante (Paris), 1977.
Hugo von Hofmannsthal/ Rainer Maria Rilke: Briefwechsel, edited by Rudolph Hirsch and Schnack, Suhrkamp, 1978.
Briefe an Axel Juncker, edited by Renate Scharffenberg, Insel, 1979.
Briefwechsel mit Rolf Freiherrn von Ungern-Sternberg, edited by Knorad Kratzsch, Insel Verlag Anton Kippenberg (Leipzig), 1980.
Rainer Maria Rilke/Anita Forrer: Briefwechsel, edited by Magda Kerenyi, Leipzig (Frankfurt am Main), 1982.
Rainer Maria Rilke/Marina Zwetajewa/Boris Pasternak: Briefwechsel, edited by Jewgenij Pasternak, Jelena Pasternak, and Konstantin M. Asadowski, Insel, 1983, translation by Margaret Wettlin and Walter Arndt published as Letters Summer 1926, Harcourt, 1985.
Rainer Maria Rilke: Briefe an Ernst Norlind, edited by Paul Astroem, Paul Astroems Forlag (Partille), 1986.
Rilke und Russland: Briefe, Erinnerungen, Gedichte, edited by Asadowski, Russian text translation by Ulrike Hirschberg, Insel, 1986.
Rainer Maria Rilke: Briefwechsel mit Regina Ullman und Ellen Delp, edited by Walter Simon, Insel, 1987.
Rainer Maria Rilke/Stefan Zweig: Briefe und Dokumente, edited by Donald Prater, Insel, 1987.
Briefe an Schweizer Freunde, Insel, 1994.
Briefwechsel mit Anton Kippenberg 1906 bis 1926, edited by Ingeorg Schnack and Renate Scharffenberg, Insel, 1995.

Further Readings

FURTHER READINGS ABOUT THE AUTHOR:

BOOKS

Aiken, Conrad, Collected Criticism, Oxford University Press, 1968.
Baron, Frank, Ernst S. Dick, and Warren R. Maurer, editors, Rainer Maria Rilke: The Alchemy of Alienation, Regents Press of Kansas, 1980.
Borkowska, Ewa, From Donne to Celan: Logo(theo)logical Patterns in Poetry. Uniwersytet Slnaskiego, 1994.
Bowra, C. M., The Heritage of Symbolism, Macmillan, 1943.
Burnshaw, Stanley, editor, The Poem Itself, Holt, 1960.
Butler, E. M., Rainer Maria Rilke, Macmillan, 1941.
Casey, Timothy J., Rainer Maria Rilke: A Centenary Essay, Macmillan, 1976.
Dictionary of Literary Biography, Volume 81: Austrian Fiction Writers, 1874-1913, Gale, 1989.
Feste-McCormack, Diana, The City as Catalyst: A Study of Ten Novels, Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 1979.
Freedman, Ralph, Life of a Poet: A Biography of Rainer Maria Rilke, Farrar, Straus, 1995.
Fuerst, Norbert, Phases of Rilke, Indiana University Press, 1958.
Gass, William, Reading Rilke: Reflections on the Problems of Translation, Knopf, 2000.
Graff, W. L., Rainer Maria Rilke: Creative Anguish of a Modern Poet, Princeton University Press, 1956.
Gray, Ronald, The German Tradition in Literature: 1971-1945, Cambridge at the University Press, 1965.
Guardini, Romano, Rilke's "Duino Elegies": An Interpretation, translated by K. G. Knight, Henry Regnery, 1961.
Heep, Hartmut, A Different Poem: Rainer Maria Rilke's American Translators Randall Jarrell, Robert Lowell, and Robert Bly, P. Lang, 1996.
Heller, Erich, The Artist's Journey into the Interior and Other Essays, Random House, 1965.
Hesse, Hermann, My Belief: Essays on Life and Art, Farrar, Straus, 1974.
Holyroyd, Stuart, Emergence from Chaos, Houghton Mifflin, 1957.
Komar, Kathleen L., Transcending Angels: Rainer Maria Rilke's "Duino Elegies," University of Nebraska Press, 1987.
Lewisohn, Ludwig, Cities and Men, Harper & Brothers, 1927.
Mandel, Siegfried, Rainer Maria Rilke: The Poetic Instinct, edited by Harry T. Moore, Southern Illinois University Press, 1965.
Olivero, Federico, Rainer Maria Rilke: A Study in Poetry and Mysticism, W. Heffer & Sons, 1931.
Peters, H. F., Rainer Maria Rilke: Masks and the Man, University of Washington Press, 1960.
Poetry Criticism: Volume 2, Gale, 1991.
Pollard, Percival, Masks and Minstrels of New Germany, Johw W. Luce and Company, 1911.
Prater, Donald, A Ringing Glass: The Life of Rainer Maria Rilke, Clarendon Press, 1986.
Rilke, Rainer Maria, Letters of Rainer Maria Rilke: 1910-1926, Volume 2, Norton, 1948.
Rilke, Rainer Maria, The Book of Hours: Comprising the Three Books, Of the Monastic Life, Of Pilgrimage, Of Poverty and Death, Hogarth Press, 1961.
Rilke, Rainer Maria, Nine Plays, Ungar, 1979.
Rilke, Rainer Maria, The Notebooks of Malte Laurids Brigge, Vintage Books, 1985.
Rose, William, and G. Craig Houston, editors, Rainer Maria Rilke: Aspects of His Mind and His Poetry, Gordian, 1970.
Sword, Helen, Engendering Inspiration: Visionary Strategies in Rilke, Lawrence, and H. D., University of Michigan Press, 1995.
Tavis, Anna A., Rilke's Russia: A Cultural Encounter, Northwestern University Press, 1994.
Twentieth-Century Literary Criticism, Gale, Volume 1, 1978, Volume 6, 1982, Volume 19, 1986.
Van Heerikhuizen, F. W., Rainer Maria Rilke: His Life and Work, translated by Fernand G. Renier and Anne Cliff, Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1951.
Willard, Nancy, Testimony of the Invisible Man, University of Missouri Press, 1970.
Wilson, Colin, Religion and the Rebel, Houghton Mifflin, 1957.
Wood, Frank,Rainer Maria Rilke: The Ring of Forms, University of Minnesota Press, 1958.
Ziolkowski, Theodore, Dimensions of the Modern Novel: German Texts and European Contexts, Princeton University Press, 1969.

PERIODICALS

Booklist, April 15, 1994, p. 1516.
Boston Review, summer 2000, pp. 58-59.
Choice, November, 1989, p. 490.
Commonweal, March 9, 1990, pp. 153-154.
Comparative Literature, summer, 1983, pp. 215-246.
Hound and Horn, April-June, 1931.
Library Journal, June 15, 1991, p. 81; April 1, 1994, p. 136.
Listener, December 18, 1975.
Modern Austrian Literature, Volume 15, nos. 3 and 4, 1982, pp. 71-90; Volume 15, nos. 3 and 4, 1982, pp. 291-316.
Modern Language Notes, January, 1991, p. 255.
Modern Language Review, April, 1979.
Nation, December 17, 1930; September 26, 1987, pp. 316-318; April 1, 1996, p. 27.
New Criterion, January 2000, p. 17.
New Republic, September 6, 1939; January 3, 1994, p. 31; July 1, 1996, p. 32; May 8, 2000, p. 38.
New Yorker, September 9, 1991, pp. 96-97.
New York Herald Tribune Books, December 14, 1930.
New York Times Book Review, January 17, 1988, p. 15; April 28, 1996, p. 16.
PMLA, October, 1974.
Publishers Weekly, February 28, 1994, p. 73; January 10, 2000, p. 60.
Small Press, February, 1990, p. 51.
Times Literary Supplement, December 12, 1975; July 27-28, 1988, p. 795; May 29, 1992, p. 23.
University of Dayton Review, spring, 1981.
Washington Post Book World, March 31, 1996, p. 5.
World Literature Today, winter, 1988, p. 122.*

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Poems by Rainer Maria Rilke
The Beggars
Charles the Twelfth of Sweden Rides in the Ukraine
Day in Autumn
Growing Blind
People at Night (Tr. by Margarete Munsterberg)
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Date d'inscription : 09/11/2005

MessageSujet: Re: U.S.A, Y'becca, La France, Gordon Pacha and Africa   Jeu 22 Sep à 3:51

La Rose
Jean-Antoine de BAÏF (1532-1589)

Durant cette saison belle
Du renouveau gracieux,
Lorsque tout se renouvelle
Plein d'amour delicieux,
Ny par la peinte prérie,
Ny sus la haye fleurie,
Ny dans le plus beau jardin,
Je ne voy fleur si exquise
Que plus qu'elle je ne prise
La rose au parfum divin.

Mais la blanche ne m'agrée,
Blême de morte paleur,
Ny la rouge colorée
D'une sanglante couleur :
L'une de blémeur malade
Et l'autre de senteur fade,
Ne plet au nés ny à l'oeil.
Toutes les autres surpasse
Celle qui vive compasse
De ces deux un teint vermeil.

La rose incarnate est celle
Où je pren plus de plaisir :
Mais combien qu'elle soit telle
Si la veu-je bien choisir.
Car l'une prise en une heure,
Et l'autre en l'autre est meilleure
Au chois de nostre raison.
Toute chose naist, define,
Tantôt croist et puis decline
Selon sa propre saison.

Je ne forceray la rose
Qui cache, dans le giron
D'un bouton etroit enclose,
La beauté de son fleuron.
Quelque impatient la cueille
Devant que la fleur vermeille
Montre son tresor ouvert ;
Mon desir ne me transporte
Si fort que celle j'emporte
Qui ne sent rien que le verd.
Revenir en haut Aller en bas
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Date d'inscription : 09/11/2005

MessageSujet: Re: U.S.A, Y'becca, La France, Gordon Pacha and Africa   Ven 23 Sep à 9:38

23 Σεπτεμβρίου 2016

Όπως κάθε χρόνο έτσι και φέτος σας περιμένουμε όλους στη Βραδιά του Ερευνητή, στις 30 Σεπτεμβρίου, για να ανακαλύψετε τι μπορεί να κάνει η επιστήμη και η έρευνα για ένα καλύτερο μέλλον.

H Βραδιά του Ερευνητή, η μεγαλύτερη γιορτή για την επιστήμη και την έρευνα που διοργανώνεται κάθε χρόνο σε περισσότερες από 300 πόλεις σε όλη την Ευρώπη, κλείνει φέτος τα 11 της χρόνια. Στην Ελλάδα διοργανώνονται εκδηλώσεις σε δέκα πόλεις από δύο επιστημονικές κοινοπραξίες:

Η κοινοπραξία RENA οργανώνει βραδιές στις πόλεις: Αθήνα (ΕΚΕΦΕ Δημόκριτος) – Κόρινθος – Πύλος – Ξάνθη – Ηράκλειο (Θαλασσόκοσμος)
Η κοινοπραξία IRENE οργανώνει βραδιές στις πόλεις: Αθήνα (ΕΜΠ) – Θεσσαλονίκη – Λάρισα – Πάτρα – Ηράκλειο (ΙΤΕ) – Ρέθυμνο (ΙΤΕ)

Μέσα από παρουσιάσεις, πειράματα, δρώμενα ειδικά σχεδιασμένα για μαθητές, εργαστήρια για εκπαιδευτικούς, διαγωνισμούς και ποικίλες πρωτότυπες εκδηλώσεις, η έρευνα ανοίγει τις πόρτες της στον χώρο της εκπαίδευσης αλλά και στο ευρύτερο κοινό, δίνοντας του την ευκαιρία μιας άμεσης προσέγγισης με τους ανθρώπους της επιστήμης.

Πριν την κεντρική εκδήλωση, έξι μικρότερες εκδηλώσεις θα προηγηθούν για την καλύτερη γνωριμία του κοινού με τους στόχους και τους επιστημονικούς φορείς της διοργάνωσης: το ΕΚΕΦΕ «Δημόκριτος», το Εθνικό Αστεροσκοπείο Αθηνών, το Ερευνητικό Κέντρο «Αθηνά», το Εθνικό Ίδρυμα Ερευνών, το Ινστιτούτο Παστέρ και το ΕΛΚΕΘΕ στην Ανάβυσσο!

Συγκεκριμένα στην Αθήνα στο ΕΚΕΦΕ Δημόκριτος (Αγία Παρασκευή), στην Αίθουσα Θέμις Παραδέλλης (Κτήριο 6) 1ος όροφος, από τις έξι το απόγευμα μέχρι τα μεσάνυχτα, το κοινό θα έχει την ευκαιρία να γνωρίσει από κοντά τους ερευνητές, να ενημερωθεί για το ερευνητικό έργο τους, να πάρει μία γεύση από την καθημερινότητά τους και να χαρεί τη μαγεία των επιστημών. Το παρών θα δώσει και φέτος ο Ευρωπαϊκός Οργανισμός Διαστήματος, ESA, με μια ποικιλία δράσεων και παρουσιάσεων. Πληροφορίες ΕΔΩ.

Στον καταπράσινο εξωτερικό χώρο του Δημόκριτου, ανάμεσα στα δέντρα, αλλά και σε κατάλληλα διαμορφωμένες αίθουσες, θα έχουν στηθεί πειραματικές επιδείξεις και διαδραστικά παιχνίδια από τα μεγαλύτερα ερευνητικά κέντρα και φορείς της χώρας για μικρούς και μεγάλους

Μέσα από παρουσιάσεις, πειράματα, συζητήσεις, προβολές, παιχνίδια, ειδικά σχεδιασμένα για το ευρύ κοινό, παιδιά και γονείς έρχονται σε επαφή με τον άγνωστο κόσμο του ερευνητή, τον τρόπο δουλειάς του και τους χώρους που κινείται.

Ποιος είναι ο Ευρωπαϊκός Οργανισμός Διαστήματος;

Η Δρ. Γεωργία Δοξάνη, ειδική σε θέματα τηλεπισκόπησης και ερευνήτρια στο Επίγειο Τμήμα Λειτουργίας των Αποστολών στον τομέα προγραμμάτων Παρατήρησης της Γης στο ESRIN, ESA, θα παρουσιάσει στο κοινό τον Οργανισμό και τις δραστηριότητες του.

Η ομιλία θα πραγματοποιηθεί στο κεντρικό αμφιθέατρο με τίτλο: «Ο Ευρωπαϊκός Οργανισμός Διαστήματος: Επιτεύγματα και Προοπτικές».
Μαθαίνοντας για την παρατήρηση της Γης

Ο δικός μας πλανήτης

Ο πλανήτης μας, η Γη, είναι μοναδικός στο ηλιακό μας σύστημα, καθώς σφύζει από ζωή και είναι γεμάτος θαυμάσια τοπία. Είναι άλλωστε και το δικό μας σπίτι. Παρατηρώντας τον με μια διαφορετική ματιά, μέσα από μια πληθώρα δορυφόρων μπορούμε να τον προστατεύσουμε, να βοηθήσουμε στη τη διατήρηση της μοναδικότητας του αλλά και να διευκολύνουμε πολλές καθημερινές μας δραστηριότητες. Μέσα από το παιχνίδι με τις εικόνες της Γης από το διάστημα, θα ανακαλύψετε παρέα με τους ερευνητές μας, τη σημασία παρατήρησης της Γης από τους διάφορους δορυφόρους.

Ταξίδι στον Κόκκινο Πλανήτη

Επίσης,στο φετινό μας ταξίδι θα πατήσουμε στον Άρη, ακολουθώντας την φιλόδοξη αποστολή ExoMars, η οποία θα εξερευνήσει την ύπαρξη ζωής στον κόκκινο πλανήτη.

Το κοινό μέσα στην Αίθουσα παρακολουθεί τις παρουσιάσεις της ESA

Μαγειρεύοντας έναν ... κομήτη

Έπειτα οι μικροί μας φίλοι θα γίνουν για λίγο διαστημικοί μάγειρες, μαγειρεύοντας με απλά υλικά έναν κομήτη, ενώ παράλληλα θα ακούσουν την συναρπαστική ιστορία της Rosetta και των κατορθωμάτων αυτής και του μικρού ρομπότ που προσεδαφίστηκε στον κομήτη 67P, Philae.

Μία βόλτα στον Διαστημικό Σταθμό

Θα πάμε, επίσης, μια βόλτα από το διαστημικό σταθμό, για να παρατηρήσουμε την έρευνα και την ζωή των αστροναυτών εκεί και θα γνωρίσουμε πώς δουλεύουν οι αστροναύτες σε συνθήκες έλλειψης βαρύτητας τόσο μακριά από το σπίτι μας, τη Γη.

Το πρόγραμμα της εκδήλωσης έχει ως ακολούθως:

17:30-18:00 "Ο Διεθνής Διαστημικός Σταθμός και η ζωή των αστροναυτών στο διάστημα" βίντεο (διάρκεια 30min)
(ΑΠΑΙΤΕΙΤΑΙ ΠΡΟΚΡΑΤΗΣΗ)

18:15-18:45 "Η Γη από το διάστημα" Διαδραστικό παιχνίδι (διάρκεια 30min)
(ΑΠΑΙΤΕΙΤΑΙ ΠΡΟΚΡΑΤΗΣΗ)

19:00-19:20 "ExoMars - Προς Αναζήτηση Ζωής στον Κόκκινο Πλανήτη" παρουσίαση (διάρκεια 20min)

19:30-19:50 "Μαγειρεύοντας έναν κομήτη" παρουσίαση/εργαστήριο (διάρκεια 20min)
(ΑΠΑΙΤΕΙΤΑΙ ΠΡΟΚΡΑΤΗΣΗ)

20:00-20:20 "Μαγειρεύοντας έναν κομήτη" παρουσίαση/εργαστήριο (διάρκεια 20min)
(ΑΠΑΙΤΕΙΤΑΙ ΠΡΟΚΡΑΤΗΣΗ)

20:30-20:50 "ExoMars - Προς Αναζήτηση Ζωής στον Κόκκινο Πλανήτη" παρουσίαση (διάρκεια 20min)

21:00-21:30 "Η Γη από το διάστημα" Διαδραστικό παιχνίδι (διάρκεια 30min)
(ΑΠΑΙΤΕΙΤΑΙ ΠΡΟΚΡΑΤΗΣΗ)

21:45-22:15 "Ο Διεθνής Διαστημικός Σταθμός και η ζωή των αστροναυτών στο διάστημα" βίντεο (διάρκεια 30min)
(ΑΠΑΙΤΕΙΤΑΙ ΠΡΟΚΡΑΤΗΣΗ)

22:30-23:00 "Ο Διεθνής Διαστημικός Σταθμός και η ζωή των αστροναυτών στο διάστημα" βίντεο (διάρκεια 30min)
(ΑΠΑΙΤΕΙΤΑΙ ΠΡΟΚΡΑΤΗΣΗ)

*μπορεί να γίνουν μικρές αλλαγές στο πρόγραμμα. Μπορείτε να ενημερώνεστε απευθείας από την ιστοσελίδα των διοργανωτών.

** Για τις προκρατήσεις και οποιαδήποτε άλλες πληροφορίες, μπορείτε να απευθυνθείτε στο τμήμα Οργάνωσης και Παραγωγικότητας του ΕΚΕΦΕ «ΔΗΜΟΚΡΙΤΟΣ» , e-mail : communications@central.demokritos.gr, τηλ. 210-650 3079, 210-650 3015, 210-650 3002.

Σας περιμένουμε όλους για μια υπέροχη Βραδιά του Ερευνητή, γεμάτη εκπληκτικές εικόνες, συναρπαστικές περιγραφές και πολλή διαστημική επιστήμη!

Ακολουθήστε μας στο Twitter @ESA_Hellas για όλες τις τελευταίες ενημερώσεις στο πρόγραμμα αλλά και εξελίξεις ζωντανά κατά τη διάρκεια της Βραδιάς. Μπορείτε κι εσείς να συμμετέχετε κάνοντας tweet στο hashtag #rengreece.

Σημείωση: Οι πολίτες με τις οικογένειες και τα παιδιά τους θα μπορούν να επισκέπονται μεμονωμένα το ΕΚΕΦΕ «ΔΗΜΟΚΡΙΤΟΣ» στις 30 Σεπτεμβρίου από τις 18.00 έως τα μεσάνυχτα. Απαραίτητη προϋπόθεση είναι να κάνουν εγγραφή μέσω της φόρμας ΕΔΩ, αν επιθυμούν ξενάγηση στα εργαστήρια.
Για τις υπόλοιπες δραστηριότητες που θα λάβουν χώρα, δεν χρειάζεται εγγραφή.

Σημαντικές πληροφορίες

Χώρος Διεξαγωγής: ΕΚΕΦΕ Δημόκριτος (Αγία Παρασκευή), Αίθουσα Θέμις Παραδέλλης (Κτήριο 6) 1ος όροφος

Ώρα: 18:00 - 00:00

Είσοδος: Ελεύθερη για όλους

Ενημέρωση μέσω της ιστοσελίδας Βραδιά του Ερευνητή και στο www.facebook.com/rengreece
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yanis la chouette



Nombre de messages : 4600
Localisation : http://yanis.tignard.free.fr/
Date d'inscription : 09/11/2005

MessageSujet: Re: U.S.A, Y'becca, La France, Gordon Pacha and Africa   Sam 19 Nov à 3:41

Quelle est la mission de l'état, de l'individu et de l'utopie ,

Elles et Ils sont les institutions du secourisme et doivent répondre aux demandes de la Citoyenneté. Ce qui peut sembler navrant; c'est la parution de l'affrontement... C'est l'effort des sens face aux déterminismes des courants entourant, intérieur et extérieur... La Femme et l'Homme se plongent dans le tourbillon sans réaliser qu'il peut ou pourrai le contourner... Il peut ainsi réparer plus vite et plus rapidement tout en respectant le savoir faire et la main d’œuvre issu de l'apprentissage et l’autodidacte. Telle, avec ou sans raison, cette femme ou cet Homme pourraient devenir très intéressant: C'est à l'état de dire ces choses là mais l'état est une forme utopie. Même une machine peut dire qu'elle issue d'inventeur plutôt que d'être la propriété d'un brevet. Ce mécanisme s'appliquent aussi aux robots. Car oui, Le caractère humain, l'animal, la machine et le robot ont plus de valeur qu'une valeur d'état établi par un comité restreint. L'aspect de défense commune est un aspect universelle car il implique l'aspect militaire tout comme l'aspect civil. En effet le donjon demeure dans le château fort: L'aspect humaniste doit être conserver dans la République car celle ci sépare et répare les cris et les gifles, Tout age et toutes volontés accentue son message de fraternité, d’égalité et de liberté.

La République s'est une bibliothèque où l'amour figure comme l'autocritique et l'évolution. Chacun ne peut tout accumuler par principe de transition car ce fut le souhait du peuple antique et du mariage. Par ainsi, la portée est de transmettre réellement les travaux pour permettre un réel constat de l'aménagement secouristes, médicales, militaires, d'habitations, d'emploi public en incluant l'aspect du secteur privé dans la légalité des droits de la Femme et de l'Homme, de protection juridique dans les divorces, accidents du travail, de contrainte morale, d'abus physiques, sur les moyens de transports permettant à tous le moyens de se déplacer dans un aspect physique en respectant le prix de vie, que la haute technologie sois abordable envers tous et chacun à un prix modéré pour ainsi permettre une meilleur surveillance sur l'égalité des chances pour l'aspect physiques et morales des individus, associations, organismes, entreprises et structure étatiques. Ces mesures montreront de l'élasticité d'aujourd'hui démontre que la plénitude ne fus pas "ou jamais atteint" d'une manière déterminée ni même indéterminée. Le Luxe fut utilisé comme une arme et fausse sur la modernité
de l’intérêt au détriment sur le concept de caractère propre du projet défini par un architecte, un penseur et d'un ouvrier; Le luxe favorise l'architecte sur l'ouvrier par le concept d'une vision chimérique établi par le concept du droit féodal. Il suffit...

La République et ses Organismes Public tout comme Privé ont des rôles de rigueur, d'alternance et de travail sur le bien commun. Car, La République s'est une bibliothèque où l'amour figure comme l'autocritique et l'évolution. Chacun ne peut tout accumuler par principe de transition car ce fut le souhait du peuple antique et du mariage. Par ainsi, la portée est de transmettre réellement les travaux pour permettre un réel constat de l'aménagement secouristes, médicales, militaires, d'habitations, d'emploi public en incluant l'aspect du secteur privé dans la légalité des droits de la Femme et de l'Homme, de protection juridique dans les divorces, accidents du travail, de contrainte morale, d'abus physiques, sur les moyens de transports permettant à tous le moyens de se déplacer dans un aspect physique en respectant le prix de vie, que la haute technologie sois abordable envers tous et chacun à un prix modéré pour ainsi permettre une meilleur surveillance sur l'égalité des chances pour l'aspect physiques et morales des individus, associations, organismes, entreprises et structure étatiques.

Ainsi, L'individu figurera à sa place au Panthéon à coté d'un vrai principe de la République:
La Paix et les Peuples tout en conservant son propre individu.

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Nombre de messages : 4600
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Date d'inscription : 09/11/2005

MessageSujet: Re: U.S.A, Y'becca, La France, Gordon Pacha and Africa   Jeu 12 Jan à 9:09

Le référendum est une institution et en cela, il n'est jamais dit que le principe du Referendum est une forme d'émancipation envers les autorités publiques... Le Referendum est la manière la plus noble auquel une loi peut être établi: Pourtant, un jour, Louis Napoléon utilisa cette manière du suffrage universel direct qui marqua les esprits... Le Peuple ne peut pourtant nier le rôle évident que représente le referendum dans le principe civique et morale de "l'individue et de l'individu" dans le terme de Démocratie... Ce principe pourtant, peut être juste consultatif mais il permet ainsi à l'individu de se mettre en situation auquel se retrouve exposer les élu"e"s... Certains voient dans le referendum une forme de combat de coq ou de boxe, en tout cas, à l'image d'un vote électif, il est un aspect fondamentale d'une cohésion morale auquel la démocratie doit faire face: Il surpasse l'aspect de l'état et sans le remettre en cause, il est capable de pointer certaines choses de la vie quotidienne. Dans certains pays, il y a l'aspect de pétition qui peuvent être soumise au suffrage universel indirect... Le suffrage universel direct auquel appartient le Référendum est un aspect essentiel du caractère humain auquel un peuple veut s'adresse envers ses nouvelles générations... Le fait de débattre est un outil essentiel en terme de communication et pourtant dans certains cas, la question du Référendum relève de l'intérêt de l'état régalien, c'est en cela que certains hésitent sur son aspect même mais il montre l'aspect même de l'interlocuteur qui propose le sujet de la question. Le référendum est une loi d'utopie qui pourtant montre l'aspect réel de l'individu dans la société: En cela, j'accorde une importance réelle dans la constitution de Y'becca et des Républiques d'Israël et de la Palestine ainsi que dans toutes les Nations Morales et Physiques pour une reconnaissance morale et intellectuel dans le référendum: Son vote est lié malheureusement à des disputes entre des élu"e"s du Suffrage universel indirect... Toutefois, tout comme le vote direct du parlement et tout vote indirect du parlement, le référendum ne peut être organiser pour un Conflits d’intérêts et en cela, c'est au pouvoir judiciaire et à ses membres qu'il soit public et privé tout en maintenant et mettant l'aspect du service public militaire et civil dans la lutte contre les Conflits d’intérêts qui pourrait s'ingérer dans la teneur du débat et du vote: L'aspect du Général, de la société et l'individu doit être soulever en soulevant toutes les égalités et inégalités que peuvent engendrer le référendum... Certains peuvent s'amuser à créer de lois et des référendum pour des Conflits d’intérêts, pour créer des désordres et par gloire personnel... Cela n'est pas dans l'intérêt de l'harmonie sereine auquel nous devons être en ces situations profondes de changement de climat: "De jour en jour; le petit Nuage de Magellan et La Galaxie d'Andromède évolue depuis µ Êta Careme" s'écrie Nagaliew la mouette aux yeux verts..."
L'aspect du référendum est un droit de cité et de navire dans les prochains siècles à venir; et le juge suprême de la république de l'olivier s'y engage et dans des situations d'urgence, notre professionnalisme institué par la philosophie et la prudence du référendum nous permettra d'avoir l'anticipation sur le danger qu'il soit matérielle, morale et naturelle, ils peuvent être distinct ou englobé, Le référendum et ses principes il est un aspect fondamentale d'une cohésion morale auquel la démocratie, une armée ou un navire doit faire face... Le Laïc et l'Eternel devant la démocratie et la Nature. Conflits d’intérêts... Le clans des mouettes et la cinquième république devant l'adversité des peurs et des intérêts... Nous sommes prêt à faire face à l'avenir... La République de l'Olivier...

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MessageSujet: Re: U.S.A, Y'becca, La France, Gordon Pacha and Africa   Aujourd'hui à 19:30

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